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Instructions for authors

1. Article manuscript submission

Renaissance Quarterly does not publish contributions that have been published elsewhere in whole or in part: submission of a manuscript to RQ signifies that the author has no outstanding agreements or proposals to publish the material elsewhere. Please note that the evaluation process typically takes between three and six months.

Please submit articles using our online peer review system Editorial ManagerRQ welcomes papers with a body text between 10,000 and 13,000 words, and with a total maximum word count of 18,000 including notes, bibliography and any appendixes. Please format manuscripts in double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman with one-inch margins. The electronic submission process accepts submissions in MS Word only (which Editorial Manager converts to PDF). You are required to submit a 150-word abstract with your submission. Do not embed digital images within the manuscript: submit the files separately in Editorial Manager as “figures.” Digital images must be low-resolution for ease in uploading. Follow this format for naming digital image files (using a short title of the article): ShortTitle_Image001, ShortTitle_Image002, and so on. Please make sure that image numbers correspond to the figure and caption numbers in the manuscript.

Aside from the abstract and figures, all remaining components of the manuscript must be submitted as a single document: body text, followed by any captions and appendixes (where appropriate), then the bibliography and endnotes. The entire manuscript—body text, quotations, captions, appendixes, bibliography, and notes—must be double-spaced. Do not include a cover letter within the manuscript, as the author’s name must not appear on the title page or elsewhere in the manuscript in order to ensure blind readings from referees; please also remove any acknowledgments from the article. An independent cover letter, which will not be seen by referees, may be uploaded separately.

All authors must include a competing interest declaration in their manuscript. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article. Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations. If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors.

Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”.

2. Accepted article manuscripts

The articles editor will contact authors about revisions: these may include revisions for content, format, and style. An RQ copyeditor will also contact authors if specific style revisions are needed. When the revised final manuscript has been accepted by the editor, the RSA editorial office must receive an electronic copy of the final version to serve as the basis for copyediting. The RSA office uses MS Word and cannot accept papers in other word-processing formats. The manuscript must be submitted as a single document that contains all components: abstract, text, captions, appendixes, bibliography, and endnotes. All of these components must be double-spaced. Do not insert extra blank lines between paragraphs or between bibliography entries. Manuscripts that do not conform to the RQ style sheet will be returned for further revisions before copyediting can begin.

RQ will not accept bibliographies that have been created using bibliographic management programs, such as RefWorks and Endnote. Field codes and all other formatting from such programs must be removed from the manuscript before it is submitted.

In the revised final manuscript, type the author’s name and affiliation on a separate line under the title. The author’s name and affiliation is directly followed by the abstract on the next line. The abstract may not be longer than 100 words. You may include acknowledgements, which will appear before the first note. To include acknowledgments with your manuscript, please type them below the abstract and above the start of the article. Acknowledgments may not be longer than 75 words. The body text must be divided into titled sections, formatted in all caps, the first of which is the introduction, e.g., INTRODUCTION. The text must be followed first by a list of captions if the article includes illustrations, then by any appendixes, and then by a bibliography. Captions must include all relevant copyright and permissions information as specified in permissions agreements, e.g., “Courtesy of the British Library.” See below under 5.G: Captions for caption formats. Appendixes should be titled as follows: “Appendix: Title of Appendix”; or “Appendix 1: Title of First Appendix” and “Appendix 2: Title of Second Appendix.” Endnotes appear at the end of the manuscript, following the bibliography.

Copyediting will begin after the revised version of an accepted article—including text, captions, appendixes, bibliography, endnotes, and high-resolution images—is received by the RSA editorial staff with any required style revisions approved by a copyeditor. Major revisions by the author must be made beforethe article is submitted for copyediting: constraints of time and cost prohibit substantive editing by the author during the copyediting phase. The length of time between the submission of the accepted article to the RSA office and the return of the copyedited article to the author varies according to our production schedule. Before copyediting can begin, the author must agree to the copyright assignment, rights, and requirements for publication as stipulated in the RQ Publication Agreement. In addition, all RQ authors must be RSA members for the year their article is published.

3. Images for accepted article manuscripts

It is the author’s responsibility to obtain print- and online-quality images as well as all necessary publishing permissions. If you have questions about what permissions are required, please consult the RQ Author's Quick Guide to Image Permissions or the Cambridge University Press Permission Guidelines. We strongly recommend initiating the process of obtaining permissions as soon as an article is accepted so that publication of the article is not delayed.

Illustrations must be submitted either as digital files in TIFF format or as unmounted glossy prints. Please submit color images whenever possible: images will appear in black and white in the print version of RQ and in color in the online version. The minimum resolution for digital images is 300 dpi. Because of the large file sizes of high-resolution images, we cannot accept digital images for accepted articles via email. 

Please send images via Dropbox: share files with Please wait until you have obtained all images and the submit them all together at once. Follow this format for naming digital image files (using the author's last name): Author_Image001, Author_Image002, and so on.

RQ reserves the right to reject photographs that do not meet requirements of quality and legibility: in such a case, replacement photographs are the responsibility of the author.

4. Copyediting

During the copyediting phase authors have the opportunity to review the edits that have been made to the article, to answer editorial queries, and to correct any mistakes in the text. Please note that the RQ editorial staff does not track changes: edits that make the article conform to RQ usage and style are made silently. The RQ editorial staff does copyediting (punctuation, spelling, grammar), line editing (style, usage, clarity), and sometimes more substantive content editing. Substantive editing will not be made silently: authors will receive a series of query letters in which general and specific questions are addressed. The role of the editorial staff is to help produce the best possible version of each article, and it is expected that authors will answer all queries.

RQ and its editors are willing to discuss editorial policy; in the case of an author disagreeing with a particular edit, it is the author’s responsibility to demonstrate why the original text should be retained, rather than merely requesting that an edit be reverted. In cases of disagreement, often a compromise can be reached. Author disagreement does not constitute an obligation on the journal’s part to restore original text if the edit is deemed to reflect best practice, RQ style or precedent, American usage, etc. 

5. Style

RQ uses the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), with some modifications. When CMS and the RQ style sheet conflict, the RQ style sheet takes precedence. RQ editors are free to disagree with CMS when it best fits the house style.

RQ uses American English punctuation, spelling, idioms, syntax, and vocabulary. This includes the use of double quotation marks (“ ”) to enclose quotations; single quotation marks (‘ ’) are used only for quotations within quotations. Periods and commas precede closing double and single quotation marks. In accordance with CMS, Merriam-Webster’s is RQ’s preferred dictionary for matters of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, etc., with a few exceptions.

When using the first person, please use the pronoun that reflects the number of authors: i.e., I for single-authored articles and we for multi-authored articles. RQ avoids the inclusive, or generic, first-person plural, which implies a consensus where one may not exist.

As an aid to reader comprehension, RQ requires life dates for historical figures and publication dates for early modern works discussed. These appear in parentheses immediately after the first mention of the figure or work, e.g., the Essais (1580) of Michel de Montaigne (1533–92). In the cases of sovereigns or popes, regnal dates may be substituted for life dates, indicated as follows: Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603).

A. Numbers and dates

The numbers one through ninety-nine are spelled out in the text, except in dates, page numbers, and parts of books: “one chapter deals with” and “chapter 1 deals with.” (Please note that the words chapter and part are not capitalized.) Use arabic numerals instead of roman, except for introductory materials, legal citations, personal titles, or original page numbers. Inclusive page numbers are written as follows: 66–67; 100–09; 115–508. RQ follows the European style for dates: 1 January 1400. Numbers that identify centuries are spelled out: fifteenth century. A century name is hyphenated when used as an adjective: sixteenth-century art. Italian century names are capitalized: Quattrocento. Inclusive dates are written as follows: 1404–03; 1560–74; 1598–1625. Use BCE and CE instead of BC and AD.

B. Italics

Use italics for foreign words and phrases that are not directly quoted. A word or short phrase must be immediately followed by a translation in parentheses the first time it appears: for example, coram papa (in the presence of the pope). Do not italicize or place quotation marks around the translation. Well-known foreign-language phrases do not need to be translated, e.g., querelle des femmes. Italics are not used for foreign place-names (Mont St. Michel), foreign proper names (François), foreign proper nouns (Santa Maria Novella), or direct quotations from foreign languages. Italics are not required for foreign words that are found in Merriam-Webster’s and will be familiar to most readers, e.g., a priori, editio princeps, etc.

Use italics for English words when they are discussed as words or terms. For example, “the term postmodern is notoriously difficult to define.”

Do not use italics for emphasis and do not add italics to quotations unless they are present in the original, which should be noted in the citation (e.g., italics in original). If quoting extensively from early printed editions of works that make frequent use of italics, a line should be added at the end of the acknowledgments that indicates that all italics in quotations are found in the original sources.

C. Quotations in general

Long quotations of more than ten typed lines of prose or three lines of verse are set off in a block and double-spaced. All other quotations are placed between quotation marks in the text. Quotations in notes should never be set off in a block.

Lines of poetry (when not in a block quotation) should be separated by a virgule (/) between lines, and stanzas should be separated by two virgules (//).

Ellipsis points should be used within the body of a quotation to indicate omission (. . . or . . . . if the omission includes a period). Avoid beginning and closing ellipses. Ellipses will take the place of all intervening punctuation (such as commas and colons) save in cases of epigraphy or manuscript studies, where an exact transcription of a text, including accidentals, would be necessary or useful.

RQ does not allow the use of quotation marks for emphasis, irony, or distance, known as scare quotes (e.g., Historians have emphasized the growing distinction of “public” and “private” spheres.). In most cases scare quotes can be removed without loss of meaning, or a different word can be substituted. Quotation marks are reserved for actual quotations.

The use of the word sic must be restricted to usage or spelling errors in quotations from modern works. The word always appears in italics and between brackets: e.g., [sic]. It is not used for variant spellings and errors in manuscripts or early printed works, in which orthographic variety is expected. If the author decides an explanation of a particular misspelled or incorrectly used word is necessary for the comprehension of the quoted passage, this should be done in a note. RQ trusts that its readers will recognize nonstandard spelling and punctuation in older texts as orthographic variety and not as errors on the part of either the article’s author or the journal’s editors.

D. Foreign-language quotations

All foreign-language quotations must be translated to English in the body of the paper. The original quotations may be given in the notes if relevant to the argument. Original quotations should always be given for archival, unpublished, or rare sources. When quoting from a standard translation of a well-known or familiar work, there is no need to also give the original in the notes.

For reasons of space, quotations that appear only in the notes (and not in the body text) must be translated to English and appear only in English (i.e., without the corresponding foreign-language quotation). Except in cases where no acceptable translation exists, please use standard, published translations. Authors providing their own translations should note “All translations are the author’s except where otherwise noted” in the first relevant note.

If the passage is paraphrased rather than quoted in the text, only a citation is required; however, a translation — and not the original—may appear in the notes.

In the notes, quotations in non-Roman alphabets should not be transliterated; the original alphabet should be reproduced. Please submit Hebrew and Greek material in Times New Roman to avoid issues with font incompatibility. Latin abbreviations and contractions should be spelled out. Use modern punctuation and capitalize proper names.

E. Citations to printed sources

RQ uses endnotes for citations, never parenthetical citations, including for classic works (for which see below), biblical references, etc. In the print edition of the journal, endnotes are converted to footnotes; overlong notes must be avoided: ten lines of 12-point Times New Roman is the maximum length for notes. The editorial staff reserves the right to excise material from overlong notes. When appropriate, long notes can be converted to appendixes.

Numbered endnotes begin in the text proper, after the abstract. If your manuscript includes appendixes with any notes, note numbers should start over with note 1 in each appendix.

Do not use footnotes and parenthetical citations in the text. Do not use cross-references to other notes within the notes (i.e., do not use “see n51 below” or “see n2 above”).

Examples of endnotes:

1. King, 98–144. (Author last name followed by page numbers; please note that page numbers are not preceded by pp. If the complete page-range for an article or essay is given in the bibliography, do not replicate the page-range in the notes if the whole work is being cited.)

2. Ibid., 79. (Same publication cited immediately above, different page. Do not use ibid. if the preceding note cites multiple works. NB: Ibid. is not italicized.)

3. R. L. Stevenson, 81. (More than one Stevenson in the bibliography, differentiated by first initials, not date or work title.)

4. Kristeller, 2:73. (A multivolume work, indicated with a colon—volume 2, page 73. Note that no space follows the colon.)

5. Davis, 51n3. (Citing a note: here, the third numbered footnote on page 51.)

6. Kristeller, 1952, 37. (More than one work by Kristeller cited in the bibliography, so the publication date [1952], not the title, is used to distinguish the work.)

7. Monfasani, 1980a, 51. (More than one work published by the same author/editor in the same year: use a, b, c, and so on; in such cases the bibliography must include the letter designations, listed alphabetically by the work’s title.)

8. McCoy, 89; Greenblatt, 1988, 122; de Grazia, 55–59. (Multiple citations are separated by semicolons, not commas.)

Both verso and recto are used when printed works and manuscripts are so numbered; for example: 18v; 18r–v; 18r–19v. Please note that r and v are superscripted.

Note that RQ requires citations to page numbers for all paginated works:

Do not use: See Frederick, chap. 6. Use: See Frederick, 36–62.

Do not use: Adams, vol. 2, appendix 2. Use: Adams, 2:455–59.

RQ requires citations to page numbers in modern editions of classical, medieval, and early modern works. The specific work and, where appropriate, its internal divisions appear in parentheses following the citation to the modern edition. For example:

Virgil, 1960, 1:150–51 (Georgics 2.490).

This indicates pages 150–51 in the first volume of a multivolume 1960 edition. The name of the work (Georgics) and its conventional, internal divisions separated by periods (book 2, line 490) appear in parentheses.

For works divided into sections, separate the elements by periods: for example, use 3.3.12–24 for act 3, scene 3, lines 12–24; or for book 3, canto 3, lines 12–24. The divisions must be explained the first time the work is cited, but only if the divisions are not obvious.

Other examples of citations of classic works:

Dante, 1:221 (Inferno 14.43–45).

Rabelais, 1955, 244 (Pantagruel 22).

Shakespeare, 1997, 1703 (Hamlet 2.2.536–37).

Abbreviate as follows: vol., vols. for volume(s); n or nn for note(s); fol., fols., for folio(s); col., cols., for column(s); MS, MSS, for manuscript(s); o.s., for old series; n.s., for new series. For line numbers, do not use l. or ll., as these are too easily confused with the numbers 1 and 11; use line or lines (though the need for this is uncommon, as line numbers will usually be preceded by book number or act and scene numbers, all of which are presented, as above, by separating elements with periods: 3.3.12–20, etc.).

Do not use: idem, op. cit., loc. cit., f. and ff., or passim; instead, supply pages or other information as needed.

Dictionaries and encyclopedias: well-known reference works are cited in the notes and not listed in the bibliography; facts of publication are not included. For alphabetically arranged works, use the abbreviation s.v. (sub verbo) followed by the item. For example, Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “ingeny”; see also Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “wit,” n. 1, II.7, 8a–c. However, reference works that contain pieces by individual authors (such as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography) or works that are rare and less familiar to readers (such as sixteenth-century dictionaries) should be included in the bibliography, and cited by author name if applicable.

RQ does not allow citations to forthcoming works. Exceptions can be made if the forthcoming work will be available in paginated proofs by the time the RQ article in question goes to press. If this is not the case, and the information from the forthcoming work came through personal correspondence with the author or was delivered as a conference paper, etc., this can be mentioned in a note, in lieu of a citation and bibliographical listing.

Authors must make every attempt to follow RQ’s note style in order to avoid extensive editorial intervention, which increases the likelihood of errors. Simple citations are strongly preferred wherever possible. Lengthy, digressive, and overlong notes will be edited for size and relevance.

FCitations to archival and manuscript sources and their bibliographical listing

If an article contains extensive use of archival or manuscript sources, those sources should be included in a separate section of the bibliography labeled “Archival Sources.” This section should come first in the bibliography, followed by “Printed Sources.” If only one or two archival sources are cited and without great frequency, they can be integrated into a single, general bibliography.

Archival or manuscript sources should be cited with the full name of the archive — which should correspond with the bibliographical listing—at the first citation; subsequent citations may use a standard abbreviation, such as ASV or BNF, which is indicated parenthetically after the first citation. For example:

British Library (hereafter BL), Cotton MS Vitellius (hereafter Cotton MS Vit.) C. VII, fol. 8r.

The next citation to this manuscript appears as: BL, Cotton MS Vit. C. VII, fol. 8v.

Bibliography entries for archival sources should include the repository where the item is located, including city name (e.g., British Library, London); the collection and collection number (if available); any available filing information; and information on the document, including pages, author, title, date, etc., as available. Please follow the order provided here as closely as possible.

The bibliography entry for the manuscript from the above citation would appear as:

British Library, London, Cotton MS Vitellius C. VII, fols. 1r–14r. Dee, John. “John Dee’s account of his life; addressed to two commissioners, sent to him by the queen; written by himself.” 1592. Cited as BL, Cotton MS Vit. C. VII.

Please note the “cited as” at the end of the bibliographical entry, which supplements the “hereafter” abbreviation provided in the first citation of a given manuscript.

If the bibliography contains numerous manuscripts from a single archive, the archive abbreviation can be adopted throughout the bibliography after the first listing. For example:

Archivio di Stato di Venezia (ASV), Avogaria di Comun, registri 3644–3647. Cited as ASV, AC, with the number of the register.

ASV, Collegio, Notatorio, registri 10, 11. Cited as ASV, CN with the number of the register.

Other examples of manuscript bibliographical entries:

Newberry Library, Chicago, Ayer MS 432 I/4. 2–5–4/12, fol. 1r. Account of Pedro Menendez. 12 September 1580. Cited as NL, Ayer MS 432.

Archivio di Stato di Venezia (ASV), Cancelleria inferiore. Notai.(CIN), busta 74–75, Francesco Elmis, register XXIII, carta 20r. Cited as ASV, CIN, b. 74–75, Francesco Elmis, reg. XXIII, c. 20r.

G. Captions

Examples of caption format:

Figure 1. Facade of convent church of Santa Maria delle Vergini in Venice. Venice, Biblioteca del Museo Correr, cod. Correr 317, fol. 10r.

Figure 2. Pietro Pomponazzi, Tractatus de immortalitate animae, title page of first edition,Bologna, 1516. Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania.

Figure 3. Girolami Tower, Florence, twelfth century. Alinari/Art Resource, New York.

Figure 4. Sandro Botticelli. Mystic Nativity, 1501. London, The National Gallery.

Figure 5. Letter from Isabella d’Este to Francesco Gonzaga, 22 September 1514. Archivio di Stato, Mantua, Archivio Gonzaga, 2120, fol. 284r.

Figure 6. Campo di San Pietro di Castello, Venice. Author’s photo.

Figure 7. Giovanni Stradano, Magellan in the Americae Retectio series, late 1580s. Engraving. Private collection.

Figure 8. Giovanni Stradano, America, late 1580s. Pen and brown ink. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

Figure 9. George Wither, A collection of emblemes, ancient and moderne, page 65, London, 1635. © The British Library Board. STC (2nd ed.) 25900b.

Note: a credit line usually appears at the end of a caption. Some permission grantors request specific language in the credit line: authors must check permissions agreements to make sure any specific language is included in the caption credit line. The RQ editorial staff may in some cases rephrase credit-line language for consistency across captions. Captions should not contain expository writing, but only information necessary to identify the illustration and its location.

H. Illustration call-outs

Illustrations must be called out in the text as reasonably close as possible to discussion of the illustration. Call-outs are placed between parentheses and numbered sequentially beginning with the number 1: (fig. 1). Note the abbreviated form of figure as "fig." with a lowercase f

Do not subdivide illustration call-outs into a, b, etc.:

Do not use: The recto (fig. 10a) and the verso (fig. 10b). Use: The recto (fig. 10) and the verso (fig. 11).

In other words, the number of call-outs, captions, and illustrations must always be equal to each other. Do not place any other information, such as a date, inside the parentheses with the call-out. Dates and other information must be included in the caption and incorporated into the text when appropriate:

Do not use: (fig. 4, ca. 1554). Use: Titian’s Danae (fig. 4) was commissioned by Philip II of Spain in 1554. (Or include the date in the caption only.)

Do not use: (fig. 2, Paris, Louvre). Use: The Louvre Nativity (fig. 2) is normally identified as one of the painter’s last works. (Or include the collection information in the caption only.)

I. Bibliography

The bibliography is a single alphabetical list that includes all primary and secondary sources that are cited in the notes, including printed works, electronic sources, and manuscripts. Only those works that are cited in the notes should be listed in the bibliography. Authors making substantial use of manuscripts or archives may list them separately, as discussed above under 5.F, Citations to archival and manuscript sources. Please also see section 5.F for examples of bibliography format for archival and manuscript sources.

In addition to the examples below, authors should consult CMS16, chapter 14.

List multiple works by an author in ascending chronological order, from earliest to most recent; if the author has multiple works cited for a given year, alphabetize these by title, and add lowercase a, b, c, etc. to the dates as necessary (see example below). The second and subsequent works begin with an underscore five spaces long followed by a period.

Clarify identical American place names by using US postal style for states: Durham, NC or NH. Clarify identical European or American place names only where ambiguity is likely: list Cambridge, England as Cambridge, but use Cambridge, MA, for the US city. Give foreign place-names in modern English: Venice, not Venezia. List only the primary place of publication: New Haven, not New Haven and London.

The publisher name may be omitted for works published before 1900; if omitting the publisher, please include the publication city and year, e.g., London, 1840.

For electronic sources: the full facts of publication should be included along with either a URL or a DOI (digital object identifier) for all electronic sources. Please use DOIs in place of URLs wherever possible. Most journal articles and online encyclopedias will have DOIs available. For example:

Horden, John. “Peacham, Henry (b. 1578, d. in or after 1644).” In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, 2004. doi: 10.1093/ref:odnb/21667.

RQ no longer publishes access dates for online sources. For additional guidance, please see CMS 16, 14.4–7.

Examples of bibliographic entries:

Basic author entry; note that the second author’s name is not inverted:

McMillin, Scott, and Sally-Beth Maclean. The Queen’s Men and Their Plays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Basic editor entry; note the inclusion of total volumes:

J. R. Dasent, ed. Acts of the Privy Council. 32 vols. London: Stationery Office, 1890–1907.

Ruderman, David B., ed. Preachers of the Italian Ghetto. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

An edition or translation (note that Ed. or Trans. follows a period and begins with a capital; when Ed. precedes the names of multiple editors it never appears as Eds., since Ed. signifies “edited by”):

Marguerite de Navarre. Chrétiens et mondains, poèmes épars. Ed. Richard Cooper. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2007.

A single selection from an edited book; note the inclusive page numbers:

Owens, Jessie Ann. “Was There a Renaissance in Music?” In Language and Images of Renaissance Italy, ed. Alison Brown, 111–26. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Two or more selections from an edited book: the edited book gets its own entry and is listed by its title; each selection’s author, title, and pagination is given in full, but the monographic information is brief. The entries are presented alphabetically:

Davis, Robert C. “The Geography of Gender in the Renaissance.” In Gender and Society (1998), 19–38.

Gender and Society in Renaissance Italy. Ed. Judith C. Brown and Robert C. Davis. London: Longman, 1998.

Kuehn, Thomas. “Person and Gender in the Laws.” In Gender and Society (1998), 87–106.

Edition and series. Include series information only when it is essential for identifying the work:

Shakespeare, William. The Merry Wives of Windsor. Ed. Giorgio Melchiori. The Arden Shakespeare, 3rd ser. Walton-on-Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 2000.


Tomasini, Jacopo Filippo. Gymnasium Patavinum. 1654. Reprint, Sala Bolognese: Arnaldo Forni Editore, 1986.

Multivolume work. NB: Provide the total number of volumes, even if not all volumes were consulted. (In the notes, indicate volume number as follows: Brecht, 2:102):

Sandya, John Edwin. A History of Classical Scholarship. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Only a single volume may need to be listed for an enormous collection, such as the Patrologia Latina:

Folieto, Hugone de. De medicina animae. Vol. 176 of Patrologia Latina. Ed. J. P. Migne. Paris: Garnier, 1854.

Journal article (include volume as well as issue numbers wherever possible):

Steinberg, Leo. “Leonardo’s Last Supper.” Art Quarterly 36.4 (1973): 297–410.

Garin, Eugenio. “Dante nel Rinascimento.” Rinascimento,n.s., 7 (1967): 3–28.

Book review:

Hayton, Darin. Rev. of Alchemy and Authority in the Holy Roman Empire by Tara Nummedal. Renaissance Quarterly 61.4 (2008): 1343–44.

Multiple works by an author in the same year, alphabetized by title, with a, b, etc., added to date:

Grady, Hugh. “Moral Agency and Its Problems in Julius Caesar: Political Power, Choice, and History.” In Shakespeare and Moral Agency, ed. Michael Bristol, 5–28. New York: Continuum, 2009a.

_____. “Theory ‘After Theory’: Christopher Pye’s Reading of Othello.” Shakespeare Quarterly 60.4 (2009b): 453–59.

Introductions and forewords:

Do not list editors’ or translators’ introductions or forewords separately in the bibliography. If a work is already cited by author and listed in the bibliography—for example: Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. Harold Jenkins. The Arden Shakespeare, 2nd ser. New York, 1982—then a citation to the editor’s introduction would appear as: see Jenkins’s introduction in Shakespeare, 1982, xiii.

Only if the work is not otherwise cited, list it in the bibliography by editor:

Jenkins, Harold, ed. Hamlet. William Shakespeare. The Arden Shakespeare, 2nd ser. London: Arden Shakespeare, 1982.

The citation would then read: see Jenkins, xiii.

6. Review Essays

Review essays are commissioned by the journal editors, and are not accepted as unsolicited submissions.

Review essays should be between 4,000 and 4,500 words and must not exceed 5,000 words including the bibliography and any notes. Review essays do not have subsections; introductory and concluding comments should likewise be integrated into the main text. Please submit your manuscript double-spaced in 12-point Times New Roman with one-inch margins.

A. Guidelines:

1. Use short titles of works in the body text to refer to publications discussed in the review.
2. Do not use parenthetical citations.
3. Do not put publication dates of works in parentheses.
4. Use endnotes sparingly, and only for citing quotations.
5. Include a bibliography of all publication discussed in the review, but do not include in the bibliography works that are not mentioned in the body text.

B. Citing publications in the body text:

Following are some examples of citing works in a review essay. Note that the full titles and publication dates appear only in the bibliography, not in the body text of the review.

A single book:

This complements Carey’s monograph, Surviving the Tudors, which vividly evokes life on the borders of the Pale for the restored Fitzgerald family in a time of great crisis.

Multiple works discussed together:

Equally, however, such urban rituals and the unity they enshrined have been understood to reveal the frictions and fractures between communities and groups within the city as, for example, Charles Zika’s “Hosts, Processions and Pilgrimages,” Miri Rubin’s Corpus Christi, and Franz-Josef Arlinghaus’s “The Myth of Urban Unity” have shown for religious rituals in Germany.

An acceptable alternative to short-title references is to use the author’s name without the title of the publication. In this case, please make sure there is only one work by that author in the bibliography in order to avoid ambiguity:

The application of animal metaphors and the interplay of texts and heraldic-allegorical animal imagery to anti-Venetian political polemics were demonstrated in studies by Lewis Jillings and Robert W. Scheller.

C. Bibliography

The bibliography is an alphabetical list of all publications mentioned in the review. The bibliography should not include publications that are not discussed or cited in the review.

The publications from the examples above would appear in the bibliography as follows:

Arlinghaus, Franz-Josef. “The Myth of Urban Unity: Religion and Social Performance in Late Medieval Braunschweig.” In Cities, Texts and Social Networks, 400–1500: Experiences and Perceptions of Medieval Urban Space, ed. Caroline Goodson, Anne Elisabeth Lester, and Carol Symes, 215–32. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.

Carey, Vincent. Surviving the Tudors: The “Wizard” Earl of Kildare and English Rule in Ireland, 1537–1586. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2002.

Jillings, Lewis. “The Eagle and the Frog: Huttens’ Polemic against Venice.” Renaissance Studies 2.1 (1988): 14–26.

Rubin, Miri. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture. Cambridge, 1991.

Scheller, Robert W. “L’unions des princes: Louis XII, His Allies and the Venetian Campaign 1509.” Simiolus 27.4 (1999): 195–242.

Zika, Charles. “Hosts, Processions and Pilgrimages: Controlling the Sacred in Fifteenth Century Germany.” Past and Present 118 (1988): 25–64.

See section 5.E in the RQ style guide for other bibliographical examples as needed.

D. Notes

Endnotes should only be used for citing quotations. For example:

Some years ago now, Richard Trexler commented that “social spaces are central to the formation, expression and modification of individual and group identities.”1

1. Trexler, 1985, 4.

The basic format for citing quotations is author, editor, last name plus page number(s): Anderson, 90.

Include the publication year in the citation only if there are multiple works by the author in the bibliography: Anderson, 2007, 90.

See section 5.E in the RQ style guide for other citation examples as needed.

7. Book Reviews

Book reviews are commissioned by the reviews editor, and are not accepted as unsolicited submissions. Reviewers are to consult the guidelines for review provided by the RSA office (guidelines will be included with the book when it is mailed to the reviewer). In general, reviewers must follow the style guide for articles, with the following modifications:

RQ does not print footnotes to reviews. Quotations within the text from the book under review are followed by a page number in parentheses: “the history of the text” (132). Please avoid excess quotation. For quotations in languages other than English, please either paraphrase in English or provide English translations of quotations and omit the foreign-language quotation. Use double quotation marks for the primary quotation, and single quotation marks for quotations within the quoted material. For example:

In his introduction Jones notes that “this style is described by Vasari as ‘the imitation of the Greek manner,’ a claim whose full impact historians have only begun to consider.”

Please limit references to other works; these are cited parenthetically as follows:

“The history of the text” (Thomas Writer, The Book Cited [2009], 132).

“The history of the text” (Thomas Writer, “The Article Cited,” The Journal 62.1 [2009]: 132).

“The history of the text” (Thomas Writer, “The Article Cited,” in Collection of Essays, ed. Tricia Writer [2009]: 132).

Note that parenthetical citations to books in reviews do not include the name of the publisher or the place of publication.

Use italics for short phrases in foreign languages, e.g., ut pictura poesis. If well known to an anglophone audience, there is no need to translate them. Otherwise, an English translation must be provided in parentheses immediately following the phrase. Do not italicize or place quotation marks around the translation.

Please do not use italics or quotation marks for emphasis (see sections 5.B and 5.C above). Quotation marks are reserved for actual quotations.

Use arabic numerals for chapter and section numbers (if roman numerals are given in the book, please convert them to arabic, e.g., convert “part III” to “part 3”).

Do not capitalize the words chapter and part. The titles of chapters and parts should be given in quotation marks. For example:

Smith’s primary argument is developed in part 2, “Memory.” Of particular importance is chapter 5, “Repetition and Remembrance,” in which Smith introduces his ideas about repetition.

Series names are neither italicized nor placed between quotation marks. For example:

This book, part of the University of Chicago series The Other Voice, is beautifully designed

At the top of the review, type the name of the author(s), editor(s), and/or translator(s), the title of the book, and the publciation date. The RSA editorial staff will add other bibliographical details to this header information.

At the end of the review, give your name and institution as follows:

Joan Y. Doe, CUNY, Hunter College

To submit your review:

Please submit your review online at You will need to login with the username and password emailed to you when you accepted to write the review. Please follow these steps to submit your review:

1. You must log in as an Author (not as a Reviewer). Once logged in, go to My Accepted Invitations. Hover over Action Links, and select Submit Invited Manuscript.

2. You will be asked to submit a title. Please title your review using a short title of the book and your own last name, e.g., Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, review by Fitzpatrick.

3. On the next page, your name will appear as the author of the review: click “next” to go directly to the following page where you will enter the word count of your review in the comments field.

4. On the next page, upload your review as a Word file, and click next. On the next page, click Build PDF. Then click the link for Submissions Waiting for Author’s Approval page.

5. Hover over Action Links, where you must first view and then approve your submission.

Reviews may be edited for clarity and length. Reviewers will receive via email a formatted, copyedited version of the review for approval. The RSA editorial staff asks that reviewers read the review carefully and check the bibliographical header information for accuracy.


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Last updated 2nd January 2020