Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-n6p7q Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-25T17:09:55.944Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Painting the Aztec Past in Early Colonial Mexico: Translation and Knowledge Production in the Codex Mendoza

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2020

Daniela Bleichmar*
Affiliation:
University of Southern California

Abstract

The “Codex Mendoza” is one of the earliest, most detailed, and most important postconquest accounts of pre-Hispanic Aztec life. Nahuas and Spaniards manufactured the codex through a complex process that involved translations across media, languages, and cultural framings. Translations made Aztec culture legible and acceptable to nonnative viewers and readers by recasting indigenous practices, knowledge, ontology, and epistemology. Following a stratigraphic approach that examines the process through which natives and Spaniards created a transcultural manuscript, the article examines the multiple interpretations and negotiations involved in producing images, books, and information about the indigenous world in early colonial Mexico.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Renaissance Society of America 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

My thanks to Frances Berdan, Davide Domenici, Jorge Gómez Tejada, Florence Hsia, Dana Leibsohn, Camilla Townsend, and Corinna Zeltsman for their helpful feedback and suggestions. This research was assisted by a Frederick Burkhardt Residential Fellowship for Recently Tenured Scholars from the American Council of Learned Societies.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adorno, Rolena. “The Warrior and the War Community: Constructions of the Civil Order in Mexican Conquest History.” Dispositio 14.36/38 (1989): 225–46.Google Scholar
Afanador Pujol, Angélica. The “Relación de Michoacán” (1539–1541) and the Politics of Representation in Colonial Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2015.Google Scholar
Bakewell, Elizabeth, and Hamann, Byron Ellsworth. “Painting History, Reading Painted Histories: Ethnoliteracy in Prehispanic Oaxaca and Colonial Central Mexico.” In A Companion to Mexican History and Culture, ed. Beezley, William H., 163–92. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2011.10.1002/9781444340600.ch8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker-Benfield, Bruce. “The Bindings of Codex Mendoza.” Bodleian Library Record 17.2 (2000): 96105.Google Scholar
Barker-Benfield, Bruce. “Report on Repairs of 1985–6, Watermarks, and Collation of Codex Mendoza (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Arch. Selden A. 1).” In The Codex Mendoza (forthcoming), chapter 3.Google Scholar
Batalla Rosado, Juan José.The Scribes Who Painted the Matrícula de Tributos and the Codex Mendoza.” Ancient Mesoamerica 18.1 (2007): 3151.10.1017/S0956536107000077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berdan, Frances F.A Comparative Analysis of Aztec Tribute Documents.” In Actas del XLI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, 2:131–41. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 1976.Google Scholar
Berdan, Frances F.The Imperial Tribute Roll of the Codex Mendoza.” In The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:5579.Google Scholar
Berdan, Frances F.Aztec Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berdan, Frances F.Aztec Glyphic Writing in the Codex Mendoza and Other Pictorials: Some New Thoughts.” In The Codex Mendoza (forthcoming), chapter 8.Google Scholar
Berdan, Frances F., and Durand-Forest, Jacqueline de, eds. Matrícula de Tributos (Códice de Moctezuma). Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1980.Google Scholar
Berdan, Frances F., and Anawalt, Patricia Rieff. Preface to The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:xiiixv.Google Scholar
Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, MS Med. Laur. Palat. 118–120. Bernardino de Sahagún, Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España, known as Florentine Codex. Mexico, ca. 1577. Cited as Laurenziana, Florentine Codex.Google Scholar
Bierhorst, John, trans. Cantares Mexicanos: Songs of the Aztecs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985.Google Scholar
Bleichmar, Daniela. “History in Pictures: Translating the Codex Mendoza.” Art History 38.4 (2015): 682701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bleichmar, Daniela. “Translation, Mobility, and Mediation: The Case of the Codex Mendoza.” In Sites of Mediation (2016), 240–69.Google Scholar
Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, MS Arch. Selden A. 1. Codex Mendoza. Ca. 1540s. Cited as Bodleian, Codex Mendoza.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. “The Aztec Pictorial History of the Codex Mendoza.” In The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:3554.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. “Pictorial Documents and Visual Thinking in Postconquest Mexico.” In Native Traditions in the Postconquest World, ed. Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Cummins, Thomas, 149–99. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1998.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. Stories in Red and Black: Pictorial Histories of the Aztecs and Mixtecs. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. “In Tlamatinime: The Wise Men and Women of Aztec Mexico.” In Painted Books and Indigenous Knowledge in Mesoamerica: Manuscript Studies in Honor of Mary Elizabeth Smith, ed. Boone, Elizabeth Hill, 925. New Orleans, LA: Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, 2005.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. Cycles of Time and Meaning in the Mexican Books of Fate. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. “Pictorial Talking: The Figural Rendering of Speech Acts and Texts in Aztec Mexico.” In Sign and Design: Script as Image in Cross-Cultural Perspective (300–1600 CE), ed. Bedos-Rezak, Brigitte Miriam and Hamburger, Jeffrey F., 3150. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill. “Aztec Pictography and Painted Histories.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs, ed. Nichols, Deborah L. and Rodríguez-Alegría, Enrique, 117–27. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.Google Scholar
Boone, Elizabeth Hill, and Urton, Gary, eds. Their Way of Writing: Scripts, Signs, and Pictographies in Pre-Columbian America. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2011.Google Scholar
Burghartz, Susanna, Burkart, Lucas, and Göttler, Christine. “Introduction: ‘Sites of Mediation’ in Early Modern Europe and Beyond. A Working Perspective.” In Sites of Mediation (2016), 120.Google Scholar
Burns, Kathryn. “Notaries, Truth, and Consequences.” American Historical Review 110.2 (2005): 350–79.10.1086/531318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, Kathryn. Into the Archive: Writing and Power in Colonial Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.10.1215/9780822393450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calnek, Edward E.The Ethnographic Content of the Third Part of the Codex Mendoza.” In The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:8191.Google Scholar
Cañizares-Esguerra, Jorge. How to Write the History of the New World: Histories, Epistemologies, and Identities in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Castilló Farreras, Víctor M., and Sepúlveda, María Teresa y Herrera, , eds. La Matrícula de Tributos. Mexico City: SEP, 1991.Google Scholar
Chuchiak, John F. IV. “In Servitio Dei: Fray Diego de Landa, the Franciscan Order, and the Return of the Extirpation of Idolatry in the Colonial Diocese of Yucatán, 1573–1579.” The Americas 61.4 (2005): 611–46.10.1353/tam.2005.0063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clavijero, Francisco Javier. Storia antica del Messico. Cesena, 1780.Google Scholar
The Codex Mendoza. Ed. Berdan, Frances F. and Anawalt, Patricia Rieff. 4 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.Google Scholar
The Codex Mendoza. Ed. Tejada, Jorge Gómez. Quito: Universidad de San Francisco de Quito Press; Oxford: Bodleian Library, forthcoming.Google Scholar
Códice de Huexotzinco. Ed. Hébert, John R., Lobao, Luiz, Noguez, Xavier, et al. Mexico City: Coca-Cola de México, Ediciones Multiarte; Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1995.Google Scholar
Coe, Michael D.The Royal Fifth: Earliest Notices of Maya Writing. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing, no. 28. Washington, DC: Center for Maya Research, 1989.Google Scholar
Colors between Two Worlds: The “Florentine Codex” of Bernardino de Sahagún. Ed. Wolf, Gerhard and Connors, Joseph. Florence: Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-Planck-Institut and Villa I Tatti, The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, 2011.Google Scholar
Connell, William F.After Moctezuma: Indigenous Politics and Self-Government in Mexico City, 1524–1730. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Cook, Noble D., and George Lovell, W., eds. Secret Judgments of God: Old World Disease in Colonial Spanish America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.Google Scholar
Cortés, Hernán. Letters from Mexico. Ed. and trans. Pagden, Anthony. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Cummins, Thomas. “From Lies to Truth: Colonial Ekphrasis and the Act of Crosscultural Translation.” In Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America, 1450–1650, ed. Farago, Claire, 152–74. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Dean, Carolyn. A Culture of Stone: Inka Perspectives on Rock. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, Carolyn, and Leibsohn, Dana. “Hybridity and Its Discontents: Considering Visual Culture in Colonial Spanish America.” Colonial Latin American Review 12.1 (2003): 535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz Balsera, Viviana. The Pyramid under the Cross: Franciscan Discourses of Evangelization and the Nahua Christian Subject in Sixteenth-Century Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. The True History of the Conquest of New Spain. Trans. Janet Burke and Ted Humphrey. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2012.Google Scholar
Diel, Lori Boornazian. The Tira de Tepechpan: Negotiating Place under Aztec and Spanish Rule. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Diel, Lori Boornazian. “From Orderly Past to Chaotic Present: The Transition to Spanish Rule in Aztec Pictorial Histories.” In Constructing Power and Place in Mesoamerica: Pre-Hispanic Paintings from Three Regions, ed. Paxton, Merideth and Cicero, Leticia Staines, 7794. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2017.Google Scholar
Domenici, Davide. “Cose dell'altro mondo: Nuovi dati sul collezionismo italiano di oggetti messicani tra XVI e XVII secolo.” In L'Impero e le Hispaniae: Da Traiano a Carlo V; Classicismo e potere nell'arte spagnola, ed. De Maria, S. and Paradas López de Corselas, M., 471–83. Bologna: Bononia University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Domenici, Davide. “Nuovi dati per una storia dei codici messicani della Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.” Miscellanea Bibliothecae Apostolicae Vaticanae 22 (2016): 341–62.Google Scholar
Domenici, Davide, Grazia, Chiara, Buti, David, et al. “The Painting Materials of the Codex Mendoza.” In The Codex Mendoza (forthcoming), chapter 2.Google Scholar
Domenici, Davide, and Laurencich-Minelli, Laura. “Domingo de Betanzos’ Gift to Pope Clement VII in 1532–1533: Tracking the Early History of Some Mexican Objects and Codices in Italy.Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl 47 (January–June 2014): 169209.Google Scholar
Douglas, Eduardo de Jesús. In the Palace of Nezahualcoyotl: Painting Manuscripts, Writing the Pre-Hispanic Past in Early Colonial Period Tetzcoco, Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.Google Scholar
Duarte, Rocío. “The Colegio Imperial de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco and Its Aftermath: Nahua Intellectuals and the Spiritual Conquest of Mexico.” In A Companion to Latin American Literature and Culture, ed. Castro-Klarén, Sarah, 86105. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008.Google Scholar
Escalante Gonzalbo, Pablo. Los códices mesoamericanos antes y después de la conquista española: Historia de un lenguaje pictográfico. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2010.Google Scholar
EurAsian Matters: China, Europe, and the Transcultural Object, 1600–1800. Ed. Grasskamp, Anna and Juneja, Monica. Cham: Springer, 2018.10.1007/978-3-319-75641-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo. De la natural hystoria de las Indias [Sumario]. Toledo, 1526.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Barbara. Mimesis and Empire: The New World, Islam, and European Identities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garibay, Angel María. Historia de la literatura náhuatl. 2 vols. Mexico City: Editorial Porrúa, 1954.Google Scholar
Garone Gravier, Marina. “Sahagún's Codex and Book Design in the Indigenous Context.” In Colors between Two Worlds (2011), 157–97.Google Scholar
Gerritsen, Anne. “Transcultural Objects, Movements, and Bodies.” In EurAsian Matters (2018), 239–46.10.1007/978-3-319-75641-7_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez Tejada, Jorge. “Making the Codex Mendoza, Constructing the Codex Mendoza: A Reconsideration of a 16th-Century Mexican Manuscript.” PhD diss., Yale University, 2013.Google Scholar
Gómez Tejada, Jorge. “Conquest, Growth and Evolution: Indigenist Discourse in the Codex Mendoza.” In Mesoamerican Manuscripts: New Scientific Approaches and Interpretations, ed. Jansen, Maarten, Lladó-Buisán, Virginia M., and Snijders, Ludo, 120–33. Leiden: Brill, 2018.Google Scholar
Göttler, Christine, and Mochizuki, Mia, eds. The Nomadic Object: The Challenge of World for Early Modern Religious Art. Leiden: Brill, 2017.10.1163/9789004354500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grasskamp, Anna, and Juneja, Monica. “Introduction.” In EurAsian Matters (2018), 333.Google Scholar
Gruzinski, Serge. Images at War: Mexico from Columbus to Blade Runner (1492–2019). Trans. MacLean, Heather. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.10.1215/9780822383116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruzinski, Serge. The Mestizo Mind: The Intellectual Dynamics of Colonization and Globalization. London: Routledge, 2002.Google Scholar
Hamann, Byron Ellsworth. “Seeing and the Mixtec Screenfolds.” Visible Language 38.1 (2004): 67121.Google Scholar
Hamann, Byron Ellsworth. “How Maya Hieroglyphs Got Their Name: Egypt, Mexico, and China in Western Grammatology since the Fifteenth Century.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 152.1 (2008): 168.Google Scholar
Hernández, Francisco. Historia natural de la Nueva España. 2 vols. Mexico City: UNAM, 1959.Google Scholar
Herrera Meza, María del Carmen, and Medrano, Ethelia Ruiz. El Códice de Tepeucila: El entintado mundo de la fijeza imaginaria. Mexico City: INAH and CNCA, 1997.Google Scholar
Herzog, Tamar. “Los escribanos en las Américas: Entre memoria española y memoria indígena.” In El nervio de la república: El oficio de escribano en el Siglo de Oro, ed. Villalba, Enrique and Torné, Emilio, 337–49. Madrid: Calambur, 2010.Google Scholar
Howe, Kathleen Stewart. “The Relationship of Indigenous and European Styles in the Codex Mendoza: An Analysis of Pictorial Style.” In The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:2533.Google Scholar
Humboldt, Alexander von. Vues des cordillères, et monumens des peuples indigènes de l'Amérique. Paris: F. Schoell, 1810.Google Scholar
Johansson, Patrick. “La imagen en los códices nahuas: Consideraciones semiológicas.” Estudios de Cultural Náhuatl 32 (2001): 69124.Google Scholar
Johnson, Carina L.Cultural Hierarchy in Sixteenth-Century Europe: The Ottomans and Mexicans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Kagan, Richard. Urban Images of the Hispanic World, 1493–1793. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Karttunen, Frances F.Rethinking Malinche.” In Indian Women of Early Mexico, ed. Schroeder, Susan, Wood, Stephanie, and Haskett, Robert, 291312. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Kellogg, Susan. Law and the Transformation of Aztec Culture, 1500–1700. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.Google Scholar
King, Mark. “Hearing the Echoes of Verbal Art in Mixtec Writing.” In Writing without Words (1994), 102–36.Google Scholar
Landa, Diego de. Yucatan before and after the Conquest. Trans. Gates, William. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1978.Google Scholar
Laurencich-Minelli, Laura. “From the New World to Bologna, 1533: A Gift for Pope Clement VII and Bolognese Collections of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.” Journal of the History of Collections 24.2 (2012): 145–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leander, Birgitta. In xochitl in cuicatl, flor y canto: La poesía de los aztecas. Mexico City: Institution Nacional Indigenista, 1991.Google Scholar
Legati, Lorenzo. Museo Cospiano annesso a quello del famoso Ulisse Aldrovandi e donata alla sua Patria dall'illustrissimo Signor Ferdinando Cospi. Bologna, 1677.Google Scholar
Leibsohn, Dana. Script and Glyph: Pre-Hispanic History, Colonial Bookmaking and the Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Lenz, Hans. El papel indígena mexicano, historia y supervivencia. Mexico City: Editorial Cultura, 1950.Google Scholar
Lenz, Hans. Historia del papel en México y cosas relacionadas, 1525–1950. Mexico City: Porrúa, 1990.Google Scholar
León Portilla, Miguel. “Dioses.” In Azteca-Mexica, ed. Franch, José Alcina, Portilla, Miguel León, and Moctezuma, Eduardo Matos, 313–32. Madrid: Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario and Lunwerg Editores, 1992.Google Scholar
León Portilla, Miguel. Códices: Los antiguos libros del Nuevo Mundo. Mexico City: Aguilar, 2003.Google Scholar
López de Mariscal, Blanca. “La imprenta en la Nueva España: Un arma para la conquista espiritual.” Hispanófila 174.1 (2016): 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magaloni Kerpel, Diana. “Painters of the New World: The Process of Making the Florentine Codex.” In Colors between Two Worlds (2011), 4778.Google Scholar
Magaloni Kerpel, Diana. The Colors of the New World: Artists, Materials, and the Creation of the Florentine Codex. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2014.Google Scholar
Mathes, W. Michael. The America's First Academic Library: Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco. Sacramento: California State Library Foundation, 1985.Google Scholar
Mignolo, Walter. “Signs and Their Transmission: The Question of the Book in the New World.” In Writing without Words (1994), 228–70.Google Scholar
Mignolo, Walter. The Darker Side of the Renaissance: Literacy, Territoriality, and Colonization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Monaghan, John. “The Text in the Body and the Body in the Text: The Embodied Sign in Mixtec Writing.” In Writing without Words (1994), 87101.Google Scholar
Mundy, Barbara E.The Death of Aztec Tenochtitlan, the Life of Mexico City. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2015.Google Scholar
Mundy, Barbara E., and Hyman, Aaron M.. “Out of The Shadow of Vasari: Towards a New Model of the ‘Artist’ in Colonial Latin America.” Colonial Latin American Review 24.3 (2015): 283317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muñoz Camargo, Diego. “Descripción de la ciudad y provincia de Tlaxcala de las Indias y del Mar Océano para el buen gobierno y ennoblecimiento ellas.” In Relaciones geográficas del siglo XVI: Tlaxcala, ed. Acuña, René. 2 vols. Mexico City: UNAM, 1984.Google Scholar
Myers, Kathleen Ann. Fernández de Oviedo's Chronicle of America: A New History for a New World. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Navarrete, Federico. “Writing, Images, and Time-Space in Aztec Monuments and Books.” In Their Way of Writing: Scripts, Signs, and Pictographies in Pre-Columbian America, ed. Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Urton, Gary, 175–95. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2011.Google Scholar
Nicholson, Henry B.The History of the Codex Mendoza.” In The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:111.Google Scholar
Nowotny, Karl Anton. Tlacuilolli: Style and Contents of the Mexican Pictorial Manuscripts with a Catalog of the Borgia Group. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Olson, Todd. “Reproductive Horror: Sixteenth-Century Mexican Pictures in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Oxford Art Journal 34.3 (2011): 449–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, Todd. “Abduction: The Reception and Reproduction of the Codex Mendoza in France and England (1553–1696).” In The Codex Mendoza (forthcoming), chapter 11.Google Scholar
Pagden, Anthony. Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.1500–c.1800. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Paxton, Merideth, and Cicero, Leticia Staines. Constructing Power and Place in Mesoamerica: Pre-Hispanic Paintings from Three Regions. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2017.Google Scholar
Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. “The Florentine Codex Imagery and the Colonial Tlacuilo.” In The Work of Bernardino de Sahagún: Pioneer Ethnographer of Sixteenth-Century Aztec Mexico, ed. de Alva, Jorge Klor, Nicholson, Henry B., and Keber, Eloise Quiñones, 275–94. Albany, NY: Institute of Mesoamerican Studies, 1988.Google Scholar
Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. The Paradise Garden Murals of Malinalco: Utopia and Empire in Sixteenth-Century Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. “¿Lengua o Diosa? The Early Imaging of Malinche.” In Chipping Away on Earth: Studies in Prehispanic and Colonial Mexico in Honor of Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble, ed. Keber, Eloise Quiñones, Schroeder, Susan, and Hicks, Frederic, 187202. Lancaster, CA: Labyrinthos, 1994.Google Scholar
Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. “Translating the Sacred: The Peripatetic Print in the Florentine Codex, Mexico (1575–1577).” In The Nomadic Object: The Challenge of World for Early Modern Religious Art, ed. Göttler, Christine and Mochizuki, Mia, 187214. Leiden: Brill, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Purchas, Samuel. Purchas his pilgrimage. 2nd. rev. ed.London, 1614.Google Scholar
Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus posthumus or Purchas his pilgrimes. 4 vols. London, 1625.Google Scholar
Rabasa, José.Tell Me the Story of How I Conquered You: Elsewheres and Ethnosuicide in the Colonial Mesoamerican World. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Restall, Matthew. When Montezuma Met Cortes: The True Story of the Meeting That Changed History. New York: HarperCollins, 2018.Google Scholar
Robertson, Donald. Mexican Manuscript Painting of the Early Colonial Period: The Metropolitan Schools. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
Russo, Alessandra. “De Tlacuilolli: Renaissance Artistic Theory in the Wake of the Global Turn.” In Art History in the Wake of the Global Turn, ed. Cassid, Jill H. and D'Souza, Aruna, 2039. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014a.Google Scholar
Russo, Alessandra. The Untranslatable Image: A Mestizo History of the Arts in New Spain, 1500–1600. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014b.Google Scholar
Ruwet, Wayne. “A Physical Description of the Codex Mendoza.” In The Codex Mendoza (1992), 1:1320.Google Scholar
Sahagún, Bernardino de. Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Trans. Anderson, Arthur J. O. and Dibble, Charles E.. 13 vols. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research; Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1950.Google Scholar
Sahagún, Bernardino de. “The Aztec-Spanish Dialogues of 1524.” Trans. J. Jorge Klor de Alva. Alcheringa: Ethnopoetics 4.2 (1980): 52193.Google Scholar
Sandstrom, Alan R., and Sandstrom, Pamela Effrein. Traditional Papermaking and Paper Cult Figures of Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.Google Scholar
SilverMoon. “The Imperial College of Tlatelolco and the Emergence of a New Nahua Intellectual Elite in New Spain (1500–1760).” PhD diss., Duke University, 2007.Google Scholar
Sites of Mediation: Connected Histories of Places, Processes, and Objects in Europe and Beyond, 1450–1650. Ed. Burghartz, Susanna, Burkart, Lucas, and Göttler, Christine. Leiden: Brill, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Michael E.The Aztecs Paid Taxes, Not Tribute.” Mexicon 36.1 (2014): 1922.Google Scholar
Smith, Michael E., and Berdan, Frances F.. “Appendix 4: Province Descriptions.” In Aztec Imperial Strategies, ed. Berdan, Frances F., Blanton, Richard E., Boone, Elizabeth Hill, et al. , 265349. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996.Google Scholar
Tacitus. Agricola; Germania; Dialogue on Oratory. Trans. Hutton, M. and Peterson, W.. Loeb Classical Library 35. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914.Google Scholar
Terraciano, Kevin. The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Nudzahui History, Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Terraciano, Kevin. “Competing Memories of the Conquest of Mexico.” In Contested Visions in the Spanish Colonial World, ed. Katzew, Ilona, 5577. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Tomlinson, Gary. The Singing of the New World: Indigenous Voice in the Era of European Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Toorians, Lauran. “Some Light in the Dark Century of Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus 1.” Codices Manuscripti 9.1 (1983): 2629.Google Scholar
Toorians, Lauran. “Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus 1, Its History Completed.” Codices Manuscripti 10.3 (1984): 8797.Google Scholar
Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.Google Scholar
Townsend, Camilla. Annals of Native America: How the Nahuas of Colonial Mexico Kept Their History Alive. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valle Pérez, Perla. Memorial de los indios de Tepetlaoztoc o Códice Kingsborough. Mexico City: INAH, 1993.Google Scholar
van der Loo, Peter Lodewijk. “Voicing the Painted Image: A Suggestion for Reading the Reverse of the Codex Cospi.” In Writing without Words (1994), 7786.Google Scholar
Whittaker, Gordon, “Nahuatl Hieroglyphic Writing and the Beinecke Map.” In Painting a Map of Sixteenth-Century Mexico City: Land, Writing, and Native Rule, ed. Miller, Mary E. and Mundy, Barbara, 137–56. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Writing without Words: Alternative Literacies in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Ed. Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Mignolo, Walter. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar