Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ttngx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-23T15:55:42.353Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Comparison of 14C and U-Th Ages in Corals from IODP #310 Cores Offshore Tahiti

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2016

Nicolas Durand*
CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopole de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France
Pierre Deschamps
CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopole de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France
Edouard Bard
CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopole de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France
Bruno Hamelin
CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopole de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France
Gilbert Camoin
CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopole de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France
Alexander L Thomas
Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3 AN, United Kingdom
Gideon M Henderson
Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3 AN, United Kingdom
Yusuke Yokoyama
Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute and Department of Earth and Planetary Science University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwashi, Chiba 277-8564, Japan Institute of Biogeosciences, JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Japan
Hiroyuki Matsuzaki
Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
Corresponding author:
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]


Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Shallow-water tropical corals can be used to calibrate the radiocarbon timescale. In this paper, we present a new data set based on the comparison between 14C ages and U-Th ages measured in fossil corals collected offshore the island of Tahiti during the Integrated Oceanic Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 310. After applying strict mineralogical and geochemical screening criteria, the Tahiti record provides new data for 2 distinct time windows: 7 data for the interval between 29 and 37 cal kyr BP and 58 for the last deglaciation period, notably a higher resolution for the 14–16 cal kyr BP time interval. There are 3 main outcomes of this study. First, it extends the previous Tahiti record beyond 13.9 cal kyr BP, the oldest U-Th age obtained on cores drilled onshore in the modern Tahiti barrier reef. Second, it strengthens the data set of the 14–15 cal kyr BP period, allowing for better documentation of the 14C age plateau in this time range. This age plateau corresponds to a drop of the atmospheric 14C synchronous with an abrupt period of sea-level rise (Melt Water Pulse 1 A, MWP-1 A). The Tahiti 14C record documents complex changes in the global carbon cycle due to variations in the exchange rates between its different reservoirs. Third, during the Heinrich event 1, the Tahiti record disagrees with the Cariaco record, but is in broad agreement with other marine and continental data.

Research Article
Copyright © 2013 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 



Present address: Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 UMS 2572, CEA-Saclay, Bât. 450, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.


Andersen, MB, Stirling, CH, Potter, E-K, Halliday, AN. 2004. Toward epsilon levels of measurement precision on 234U/238U by using MC-ICPMS. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 237:107–18.Google Scholar
Bard, E. 1988. Correction of accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured in planktonic foraminifera: paleoceanographic implications. Paleoceanography 3(6):635–45.Google Scholar
Bard, E. 1998. Geochemical and geophysical implications of the radiocarbon calibration. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62(12):2025–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Fairbanks, RG, Zindler, A. 1990a. Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass-spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals. Nature 345(6274):405–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Fairbanks, RG. 1990b. U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years. Nature 346(6283):456–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Fairbanks, RG, Zindler, A, Mathieu, G, Arnold, M. 1990c. U/Th and 14C ages of corals from Barbados and their use for calibrating the 14C time scale beyond 9000 years B.P. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 52(3–4):461–8.Google Scholar
Bard, E, Arnold, M, Fairbanks, RG, Hamelin, B. 1993. 230Th/234U and 14C ages obtained by mass spectrometry on corals. Radiocarbon 35(1):191–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Arnold, M, Montaggioni, LF, Cabioch, G, Faure, G, Rougerie, F. 1996. Deglacial sea-level record from Tahiti corals and the timing of global meltwater discharge. Nature 382(6588):241–4.Google Scholar
Bard, E, Arnold, M, Hamelin, B, Tisnérat-Laborde, N, Cabioch, G. 1998. Radiocarbon calibration by means of mass spectrometric 230Th/234U and 14C ages of corals: an updated database including samples from Barbados, Mururoa and Tahiti. Radiocarbon 40(3):1085–92.Google Scholar
Bard, E, Ménot-Combes, G, Rostek, F. 2004a. Present status of radiocarbon calibration and comparison records based on Polynesian corals and Iberian Margin sediments. Radiocarbon 46(3):1189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, E, Rostek, F, Ménot-Combes, G. 2004b. Radiocarbon calibration beyond 20,000 14C yr B.P. by means of planktonic foraminifera of the Iberian Margin. Quaternary Research 61(2):204–14.Google Scholar
Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Delanghe-Sabatier, D. 2010. Deglacial Meltwater Pulse 1B and Younger Dryas sea levels revisited with boreholes at Tahiti. Science 327(5970):1235–7.Google Scholar
Butzin, M, Prange, M, Lohmann, G. 2005. Radiocarbon simulations for the glacial ocean: the effects of wind stress, Southern Ocean sea ice and Heinrich events. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235(1–2):4561.Google Scholar
Butzin, M, Prange, M, Lohmann, G. 2012. Readjustment of glacial radiocarbon chronology by self-consistent three-dimensional ocean circulation modeling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 317–318:177–84.Google Scholar
Cabioch, G, Banks-Cutler, KA, Beck, WJ, Burr, GS, Corrège, T, Edwards, RL, Taylor, FW. 2003. Continuous reef growth during the last 23 cal kyr BP in a tectonically active zone (Vanuatu, South West Pacific). Quaternary Science Reviews 22(15–17):1771–86.Google Scholar
Camoin, GF, Iryu, Y, Mclnroy D, and the Expedition 310 scientists. 2007a. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management. Volume 310: College Station: IODP International, Inc.Google Scholar
Camoin, GF, Iryu, Y, Mclnroy D, and the Expedition 310 scientists. 2007b. IODP Expedition 310 reconstructs sea-Level, climatic and environmental changes in the South Pacific during the Last Deglaciation. Scientific Drilling 5:412.Google Scholar
Capps, SB, Zender, CS. 2008. Observed and CAM3 GCM sea surface wind speed distributions: characterization, comparison, and bias reduction. Journal of Climate 21:6569–85.Google Scholar
Cardinal, D, Hamelin, B, Bard, E, Patzold, J. 2001. Sr/Ca, U/Ca and δ18O records in recent massive corals from Bermuda: relationships with sea surface temperature. Chemical Geology 176(1–4):213–33.Google Scholar
Chen, JH, Curran, HA, White, B, Wasserburg, GJ. 1991. Precise chronology of the last interglacial period: 234U-230Th data from fossil coral reefs in the Bahamas. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103(1):8297.Google Scholar
Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Hoff, J, Gallup, CD, Richards, DA, Asmerom, Y. 2000. The half-lives of uranium-234 and thorium-230. Chemical Geology 169(1–2):1733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Condon, DJ, McLean, N, Noble, SR, Bowring, SA. 2010. Isotopic composition (238U/235U) of some commonly used uranium reference materials. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74(24):7127–43.Google Scholar
Cottereau, E, Arnold, M, Moreau, C, Baqué, D, Bavay, D, Caffy, I, Comby, C, Dumoulin, J-P, Hain, S, Perron, M, Salomon, J, Setti, V. 2007. Artemis, the new 14C AMS at LMC14 in Saclay, France. Radiocarbon 49(2):291–9.Google Scholar
Cowan, GA, Adler, HH. 1976. The variability of the natural abundance of 235U. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 40(12):1487–90.Google Scholar
Cutler, KB, Gray, SC, Burr, GS, Edwards, RL, Taylor, FW, Cabioch, G, Beck, JW, Cheng, H, Moore, J. 2004. Radiocarbon calibration to 50 kyr BP with paired 14C and 230Th dating of corals from Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. Radiocarbon 46(3):1127–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delanghe, D, Bard, E, Hamelin, B. 2002. New TIMS constraints on the uranium-238 and uranium-234 in seawaters from the main ocean basins and the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Chemistry 80(1):7993.Google Scholar
Delaygue, G, Stocker, TF, Joos, F, Plattner, GK. 2003. Simulation of atmospheric radiocarbon during abrupt oceanic circulation changes: trying to reconcile models and reconstructions. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(15–17):1647–58.Google Scholar
Deschamps, P, Doucelance, R, Ghaleb, B, Michelot, JL. 2003. Further investigations on optimized tail correction and high-precision measurement of Uranium isotopic ratios using Multi-Collector ICP-MS. Chemical Geology 201(1–2):141–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deschamps, P, Durand, N, Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Camoin, G, Thomas, AL, Henderson, GM, Okuno, J, Yokoyama, Y. 2012. Ice sheet collapse and sea-level rise at the B⊘lling warming, 14,600 yr ago. Nature 483(7391):559–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM, Griffin, S, Hwang, J, Komada, T, Beaupré, SR, Druffel-Rodriguez, KC, Santos, GM, Southon, J. 2004. Variability of monthly radiocarbon during the 1760s in corals from the Galapagos Islands. Radiocarbon 46(2):627–32.Google Scholar
Edwards, RL, Chen, JH, Ku, T-L, Wasserburg, GJ. 1987a. Precise timing of the Last Interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals. Science 236(4808):1547–53.Google Scholar
Edwards, RL, Chen, JH, Wasserburg, GJ. 1987b. 238U-234U-230Th-232Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 81(2–3):175–92.Google Scholar
Edwards, RL, Beck, JW, Burr, GS, Donahue, DJ, Chappell, JMA, Bloom, AL, Druffel, ERM, Taylor, FW. 1993. A large drop in atmospheric 14C/12C and reduced melting in the Younger Dryas, documented with 230Th ages of corals. Science 260(5110):962–8.Google Scholar
Esat, TM, Yokoyama, Y. 2006. Variability in the uranium isotopic composition of the oceans over glacial–interglacial timescales. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(16):4140–50.Google Scholar
Fairbanks, RG, Mortlock, RA, Chiu, T-C, Cao, L, Kaplan, A, Guilderson, TP, Fairbanks, TW, Bloom, AL, Grootes, PM, Nadeau, M-J. 2005. Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(16–17):1781–96.Google Scholar
Felis, T, Merkel, U, Asami, R, Deschamps, P, Hathorne, EC, Kölling, M, Bard, E, Cabioch, G, Durand, N, Prangue, M, Schulz, M, Cahyarini, SY, Pfeiffer, M. 2012. Pronounced interannual variability in tropical South Pacific temperatures during Heinrich stadial 1. Nature Communications 3:965, doi:10.1038/ncomms1973.Google Scholar
Frank, M, Schwarz, B, Baumann, S, Kubik, PW, Suter, M, Mangini, A. 1997. A 200 kyr record of cosmogenic radionuclide production rate and geomagnetic field intensity from 10Be in globally stacked deep-sea sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 149(1–4):121–30.Google Scholar
Friedrich, M, Lucke, A, Hanisch, S. 2004a. Late Glacial environmental and climatic changes from synchronized terrestrial archives of Central Europe: the Network PROSIMUL. PAGES News 12(2):27–9.Google Scholar
Friedrich, M, Remmele, S, Kromer, B, Hofmann, J, Spurk, M, Kaiser, KF, Orcel, C, Küppers, M. 2004b. The 12,460-year Hohenheim oak and pine tree-ring chronology from central Europe—a unique annual record for radiocarbon calibration and paleoenvironment reconstructions. Radiocarbon 46(3):1111–22.Google Scholar
Goslar, T, Arnold, M, Bard, E, Kuc, T, Pazdur, MF, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, M, Tisnerat, N, Rózanski, K, Walanus, A, Wicik, B, Wiêckowski, K. 1995. High concentration of atmospheric 14C during the Younger Dryas cold episode. Nature 377(6548):414–7.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, DL, Beck, JW, Richards, DA, Smart, PL, Singarayer, JS, Ketchmark, T, Hawkesworth, CJ. 2010. Towards radiocarbon calibration beyond 28 ka using speleothems from the Bahamas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 289(1–2):110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hogg, AG, Turney, CSM, Palmer, JG, Fifield, LK, Baillie, MGL. 2006. The potential for extending IntCal04 using OIS-3 New Zealand sub-fossil kauri. PAGES News 14(3):11–2.Google Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Fink, D, Kaiser, KF, Friedrich, M, Kromer, B, Levchenko, VA, Zoppi, U, Smith, AM, Bertuch, F. 2009. Atmospheric 14C variations derived from tree rings during the early Younger Dryas. Quaternary Science Reviews 28(25–26):2982–90.Google Scholar
Hughen, KA, Overpeck, JT, Lehman, SJ, Kashgarian, M, Southon, JR, Peterson, LC. 1998. A new 14C calibration data set for the last deglaciation based on marine varves. Radiocarbon 40(1):483–94.Google Scholar
Hughen, KA, Southon, JR, Lehman, SJ, Overpeck, JT. 2000. Synchronous radiocarbon and climate shifts during the last deglaciation. Science 290(5498):1951–4.Google Scholar
Hughen, KA, Southon, JR, Bertrand, CJH, Frantz, B, Zermeño, P. 2004a. Cariaco Basin calibration update: revisions to calendar and 14C chronologies for core PL07-58PC. Radiocarbon 46(3):1161–87.Google Scholar
Hughen, KA, Lehman, S, Southon, J, Overpeck, J, Marchal, O, Herring, C, Turnbull, J. 2004b. 14C activity and global carbon cycle changes over the past 50,000 years. Science 303(5655):202–7.Google Scholar
Hughen, KA, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Beck, JW, Bertrand, CJH, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Cutler, KB, Damon, PE, Edwards, RL, Fairbanks, RG, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, TP, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, Manning, S, Bronk Ramsey, C, Reimer, PJ, Reimer, RW, Remmele, S, Southon, JR, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, FW, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2004c. Marine04 marine radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3):1059–86.Google Scholar
Hughen, K, Southon, J, Lehman, S, Bertrand, C, Turnbull, J. 2006. Marine-derived 14C calibration and activity record for the past 50,000 years updated from the Cariaco Basin Quaternary Science Reviews 25(23–24):3216–27.Google Scholar
Keigwin, LD, Lehman, SJ. 1994. Deep circulation change linked to HEINRICH event 1 and Younger Dryas in a middepth North Atlantic core. Paleoceanography 9(2):185–94.Google Scholar
Kitagawa, H, van der Plicht, J. 2000. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration beyond 11,900 cal BP from Lake Suigetsu laminated sediments. Radiocarbon 42(3):369–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Köhler, P, Muscheler, R, Fischer, H. 2006. A model-based interpretation of low-frequency changes in the carbon cycle during the last 120,000 years and its implications for the reconstruction of atmospheric Δ14C. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7:Q11N06, doi:10.1029/2005GC001228.Google Scholar
Laj, C, Kissel, C, Mazaud, A, Michel, E, Muscheler, R, Beer, J. 2002. Geomagnetic field intensity, North Atlantic Deep Water circulation and atmospheric Δ14C during the last 50 kyr. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 200(1–2):177–90.Google Scholar
Leduc, G, Vidal, L, Tachikawa, K, Bard, E. 2009. ITCZ rather than ENSO signature for abrupt climate changes across the tropical Pacific? Quaternary Research 72(1):123–31.Google Scholar
Lourantou, A, Lavric, JV, Köhler, P, Barnola, J-M, Michel, E, Paillard, D, Raynaud, D, Chappellaz, D. 2010. A detailed carbon isotopic constraint on the causes of the deglacial CO2 increase. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24: GB2015, doi::10.1029/2009GB003545.Google Scholar
Mason, AJ, Henderson, GM. 2010. Correction of multi-collector-ICP-MS instrumental biases in high-precision uranium-thorium chronology. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 295:2635.Google Scholar
McGee, D, Broecker, WS, Winckler, G. 2010. Gustiness: the driver of glacial dustiness? Quaternary Science Reviews 29(17–18):2340–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McManus, JF, Francois, R, Gherardi, JM, Keigwin, LD, Brown-Leger, S. 2004. Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature 428(6985):834–7.Google Scholar
Min, GR, Edwards, RL, Taylor, FW, Recy, J, Gallup, CD, Beck, JW. 1995. Annual cycles of U/Ca in coral skeletons and U/Ca thermometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59(10):2025–42.Google Scholar
Mook, WG, van der Plicht, J. 1999. Reporting 14C activities and concentrations. Radiocarbon 41(3):227–39.Google Scholar
Muscheler, R, Kromer, B, Björck, S, Svensson, A, Friedrich, M, Kaiser, KF, Southon, J. 2008. Tree rings and ice cores reveal 14C calibration uncertainties during the Younger Dryas. Nature Geoscience 1:263–7.Google Scholar
Palmer, J, Lorrey, A, Turney, CSM, Hogg, A, Baillie, M, Fifield, K, Ogden, J. 2006. Extension of New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) tree-ring chronologies into Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3. Journal of Quaternary Science 21(7):779–87.Google Scholar
Paterne, M, Ayliffe, LK, Arnold, M, Cabioch, G, Tisnérat-Laborde, N, Hatté, C, Douville, E, Bard, E. 2004. Paired 14C and 230Th/230U dating of surface corals from the Marquesas and Vanuatu (sub-equatorial Pacific) in the 3000 to 15,000 cal yr interval. Radiocarbon 46(2):551–66.Google Scholar
Piotrowski, AM, Goldstein, SL, Hemming, SR, Fairbanks, RG. 2005. Temporal relationship of carbon cycling and ocean circulation at glacial boundaries. Science 307(5717):1933–8.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, SO, Andersen, KK, Svensson, AM, Steffensen, JP, Vinther, B, Clausen, HB, Siggaard-Andersen, M-L, Johnsen, SJ, Larsen, LB, Dahl-Jensen, D, Bigler, M, Röthlisberger, R, Fischer, H, Goto-Azuma, K, Hansson, M, Ruth, U. 2006. A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D06102, doi:: 10.1029/2005JD006079.Google Scholar
Rea, DK. 1994. The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian dust deposition in the deep-sea the geologic history of wind. Reviews of Geophysics 32(2):159–95.Google Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Hughen, KA, Guilderson, TP, McCormac, G, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Barratt, P, Beck, JW, Buck, CE, Damon, PE, Friedrich, M, Kromer, B, Bronk Ramsey, C, Reimer, RW, Remmele, S, Southon, JR, Stuiver, M, van der Plicht, J. 2002. Preliminary report of the first workshop of the IntCal04 radiocarbon calibration/comparison working group. Radiocarbon 44(3):653–61.Google Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Bertrand, CJH, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Cutler, KB, Damon, PE, Edwards, RL, Fairbanks, RG, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, TP, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, Manning, S, Bronk Ramsey, C, Reimer, RW, Remmele, S, Southon, JR, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, FW, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2004. IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3):1029–58.Google Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, McCormac, G, Reimer, RW, Bard, E, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, TP, Manning, S, Guilderson, TP, Southon, JR, Hogg, AG, Stuiver, M, Hughen, KA, van der Plicht, J, Kromer, B, van der Plicht, J, Manning, S, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2006. Comment on “Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals” by R.G Fairbanks et al. (Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005) 1781–1796) and “Extending the radiocarbon calibration beyond 26,000 years before present using fossil corals” by T.-C. Chin et al. (Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005) 1797–1808). Quaternary Science Reviews 25(7–8):855–62.Google Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Hajdas, I, Heaton, TJ, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, McCormac, FG, Manning, SW, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Southon, JR, Talamo, S, Turney, CSM, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2009. IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51(4):1111–50.Google Scholar
Robinson, LF, Belshaw, NS, Henderson, GM. 2004. U and Th concentrations and isotope ratios in modern carbonates and waters from the Bahamas. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(8):1777–89.Google Scholar
Schaub, M, Buntgen, U, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, Talamo, S, Andersen, KK, Rasmussen, SO. 2008a. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings. Quaternary Science Reviews 27(1–2):2941.Google Scholar
Schaub, M, Kaiser, KF, Frank, DC, Buntgen, U, Kromer, B, Talamo, S. 2008b. Environmental change during the Aller⊘d and Younger Dryas reconstructed from Swiss tree-ring data. Boreas 37(1):7486.Google Scholar
Schmitt, J, Schneider, R, Elsig, J, Leuenberger, D, Lourantou, A, Chappellaz, J, Köhler, P, Joos, F, Stocker, TF, Leuenberger, M, Fischer, H. 2012. Carbon isotope constraints on the deglacial CO2 rise from ice cores. Science 336(6082):711–4.Google Scholar
Seard, C, Camoin, G, Yokoyama, Y, Matsuzaki, H, Durand, N, Bard, E, Sepulcre, S, Deschamps, P. 2011. Microbialite development patterns in the last deglacial reefs from Tahiti (French Polynesia; IODP Expedition #310): implications on reef framework architecture. Marine Geology 279(1–4):6386.Google Scholar
Sepulcre, S, Durand, N, Bard, E. 2009. Mineralogical determination of reef and periplatform carbonates: calibration and implications for paleoceanography and radiochronology. Global and Planetary Change 66:19.Google Scholar
Shackleton, NJ, Fairbanks, RG, Chiu, T-C, Parrenin, F. 2004. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for 14C. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(14–15):1513–22.Google Scholar
Southon, J, Noronha, AL, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Wang, Y. 2012. A high-resolution record of atmospheric 14C based Hulu Cave speleothem H82. Quaternary Science Reviews 33:3241.Google Scholar
Stambaugh, MC, Guyette, RP. 2009. Progress in constructing a long oak chronology from the central United States. Tree-Ring Research 65(2):147–56.Google Scholar
Stirling, CH, Esat, TM, McCulloch, MT, Lambeck, K. 1995. High-precision U-series dating of corals from Western Australia and implications for the timing and duration of the Last Interglacial. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 135(1–4):115–30.Google Scholar
Stirling, CH, Andersen, MB, Potter, EK, Halliday, AN. 2007. Low-temperature isotopic fractionation of uranium. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264(1–2):208–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355–63.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M, Reimer, PJ, Bard, E, Beck, JW, Burr, GS, Hughen, KA, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, van der Plicht, J, Spurk, M. 1998. INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24,000–0 cal BP. Radiocarbon 40(3):1041–83.Google Scholar
Thomas, AL, Henderson, GM, Deschamps, P, Yokoyama, Y, Mason, AJ, Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Durand, N, Camoin, G. 2009. Penultimate deglacial sea-level timing from uranium/thorium dating of Tahitian corals. Science 324(5931):1186–9.Google Scholar
Vogel, JS, Southon, JR, Nelson, DE, Brown, TA. 1984. Performance of catalytically condensed carbon for use in accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 5(2):289–93.Google Scholar
Wang, YJ, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, An, ZS, Wu, JY, Shen, C-C, Dorale, JA. 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294(5550):2345–8.Google Scholar
Weyer, S, Anbar, AD, Gerdes, A, Gordon, GW, Algeo, TJ, Boyle, EA. 2008. Natural fractionation of 238U/235U. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(2):345–59.Google Scholar
Yokoyama, Y, Esat, TM. 2004. Long term variations of uranium isotopes and radiocarbon in the surface seawater recorded in corals. In: Shiyomi, M, Kawahata, H, Koizumi, A, Tsuda, A, Awaya, Y, editors. Global Environmental Change in the Ocean and on Land. Tokyo: TERRAPUB. p 279309.Google Scholar
Yokoyama, Y, Esat, TM, Lambeck, K, Fifield, LK. 2000. Last ice age millennial scale climate changes recorded in Huon Peninsula corals. Radiocarbon 42(3):383401.Google Scholar
Yokoyama, Y, Miyairi, Y, Matsuzaki, H, Tsunomori, F. 2007. Relation between acid dissolution time in the vacuum test tube and time required for graphitization for AMS target preparation. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):330–4.Google Scholar
Zhu, ZR, Wyrwoll, K-H, Collins, LB, Chen, JH, Wasserburg, GJ, Eisenhauer, A. 1993. High-precision U-series dating of Last Interglacial events by mass spectrometry: Houtman Abrolhos Islands, western Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 118(1–4):281–93.Google Scholar