Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-22jsc Total loading time: 0.216 Render date: 2021-10-25T15:13:15.322Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Sea Surface Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Changes in the Aegean Sea from about 11,200 BP to Present

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2016

Yorgos Facorellis*
Affiliation:
Department of Antiquities and Works of Art Conservation, Faculty of Fine Arts, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Aghiou Spyridonos St., 12210 Egaleo, Athens, Greece
Evi Vardala-Theodorou
Affiliation:
Department of Antiquities and Works of Art Conservation, Faculty of Fine Arts, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Aghiou Spyridonos St., 12210 Egaleo, Athens, Greece
*
Corresponding author. Email: yfacorel@teiath.gr.

Abstract

Archaeological excavations in two coastal sites of Greece, Ftelia on Mykonos and Cyclops Cave on Youra, have provided suitable material (charcoal/marine mollusk shell paired samples deposited simultaneously in undisturbed anthropogenic layers) to estimate regional changes of the sea surface radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) in the Aegean Sea. Moreover, pre-bomb 14C ages of marine mollusk shells of known collection date, from Piraeus and Nafplion in Greece and Smyrna in Turkey, also contributed to the marine reservoir calculation during recent years. In this article, these already published results, 10 in total, are considered and calibrated again using the latest issues of the calibration curves IntCal13 and Marine13. The same calibration data were applied to 11 more paired samples from the archaeological sites of Palamari on Skyros and Franchthi Cave in the Argolic Gulf, published here for the first time, in order to investigate the fluctuation of the reservoir ages R(t) and ΔR values in the Aegean Sea from ∼11,200 BP (∼13,000 cal BP) to present. Our data show that R(t) and ΔR values are not constant through time and may vary from 1220 ± 148 to −3 ± 53 yr and −451 ± 68 to 858 ± 154 14C yr, respectively. An attempt was also made to correlate these fluctuations with eastern Mediterranean paleo-environmental proxies and other relevant paleoceanographic data found in the literature.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ascough, P, Cook, G, Dugmore, A. 2005. Methodological approaches to determining the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect. Progress in Physical Geography 29(4):532–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bard, E. 1988. Correction of AMS 14C ages measured in planktonic foraminifera: paleoceanographic implications. Paleoceanography 3(6):635–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berkman, PA, Forman, SL. 1996. Pre-bomb radiocarbon and reservoir correction for calcareous marine species in the Southern Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 23(4):363–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broecker, WS, Olson, EA. 1961. Lamont radiocarbon measurements VII. Radiocarbon 3:176204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casford, JSL, Rohling, EJ, Abu-Zied, R, Cooke, S, Fontainer, C, Leng, M, Lykousis, V. 2002. Circulation changes and nutrient concentrations in the late Quaternary Aegean Sea: a nonsteady state concept for sapropel formation. Paleoceanography 17(2):1024–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Vries, H, Barendsen, GW. 1953. Radiocarbon dating by a proportional counter filled with carbon dioxide. Physica 19:9871003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delamotte, M, Vardala-Theodorou, E. 2001. Shells from the Greek Seas. Athens: The Goulandris Natural History Museum.Google Scholar
Domack, EW. 1992. Modern carbon-14 ages and reservoir corrections for the Antarctic Peninsula and Gerlache Strait area. Antarctic Journal of the United States 27:63–4.Google Scholar
Dye, T. 1994. Apparent ages of marine shells: implications for archaeological dating in Hawai'i. Radiocarbon 36(1):51–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Facorellis, Y. 1996. Study of the conditions and the parameters for high precision dating with 14C [PhD thesis]. University of Patras, Department of Physics, Greece. ISBN: 960-90516-0-X.Google Scholar
Facorellis, Y. 2003. Radiocarbon dating the Greek Mesolithic. In: Galanidou, N, Perlès, C, editors. Proceedings of the Round Table Meeting on “The Greek Mesolithic: Problems and Perspectives.” London: British School at Athens Studies Series 10. p 5167.Google Scholar
Facorellis, Y. 2011. Sequential radiocarbon dating and calculation of the marine reservoir effect. In: The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic Networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece. Volume II: Bone Tool Industries, Dietary Resources and the Paleoenvironment, and Archeometrical Studies. Prehistory Monographs 31. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press. p 361–72.Google Scholar
Facorellis, Y. 2013. Radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites in caves and rockshelters in Greece. In: Mavridis, F, Jensen, J, editors. Stable Places and Changing Perceptions: Cave Archaeology in Greece and Adjacent Areas. BAR International Series 2558 Oxford: Archaeopress. p 1972.Google Scholar
Facorellis, Y, Maniatis, Y. 2002. Radiocarbon dating of the Neolithic settlement of Ftelia on Mykonos—calculation of the marine reservoir effect in the Aegean Sea. In: Sampson, A, editor. The Neolithic Settlement at Ftelia, Mykonos. Rhodes: University of the Aegean. p 309–15.Google Scholar
Facorellis, Y, Maniatis, Y, Kromer, B. 1997. Study of the parameters affecting the corre1ation of background versus cosmic radiation in CO2 counters: reliability of dating results. Radiocarbon 39(3):225–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Facorellis, Y, Maniatis, Y, Kromer, B. 1998. Apparent 14C ages of marine mollusks shells from a Greek island—calculation of the marine reservoir effect in the Aegean Sea. Radiocarbon 40(2):963–74.Google Scholar
Farrand, WR. 2000. Depositional history of Franchthi Cave-sediments, stratigraphy, and chronology. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece, Fascicle 12. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Farrand, WR. 2003. Depositional environments and site formation during the Mesolithic occupations of Franchthi Cave, Peloponnesos, Greece. In: Galanidou, N, Perlès, C, editors. The Greek Mesolithic: Problems and Perspectives. London: British School at Athens Studies Series 10. p 6978.Google Scholar
Fishman, B, Forbes, H, Lawn, B. 1977. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XIX. Radiocarbon 19(2):188228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forster, GR. 1981. The age and growth of Callista chione . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 61:881–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodfriend, GA, Flessa, KW. 1997. Radiocarbon reservoir ages in the Gulf of California: roles of upwelling and flow from the Colorado River. Radiocarbon 39(2):139–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goslar, T, Pazdur, MF. 1985. Contamination studies on mollusk shell samples. Radiocarbon 27(1):3342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heier-Nielsen, S, Heinemeier, J, Nielsen, HL, Rud, N. 1995. Recent reservoir ages for Danish fjords and marine waters. Radiocarbon 37(3):875–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ingram, BL, Southon, JR. 1997. Reservoir ages in eastern Pacific coastal and estuarine waters. Radiocarbon 38(3):573–82.Google Scholar
Jacobsen, TW. 1981. Franchthi Cave and the beginning of settled village life in Greece. Hesperia 50(4):303–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobsen, TW, Farrand, WR. 1987. Franchthi Cave and Paralia: Maps, Plans and Sections. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece 1. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Kromer, B, Münnich, KO. 1992. CO2 gas proportional counting in radiocarbon dating - review and perspective. In: Taylor, RE, Long, A, Kra, RS, editors. Radiocarbon after Four Decades: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 184–97.Google Scholar
Lambeck, K. 1996. Sea-level change and shoreline evolution in Aegean Greece since Upper Palaeolithic time. Antiquity 70(269):588611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lascaratos, A. 1989. Hydrology of the Aegean Sea. In Charnock, H, editor. Winds and Currents of the Mediterranean Basin. Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography 40. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p 313–34.Google Scholar
Lawn, B. 1971. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XIV. Radiocarbon 13(2):363–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawn, B. 1974. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XVII. Radiocarbon 16(2):219–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawn, B. 1975. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XVIII. Radiocarbon 17(2):196215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maniatis, Y, Papadopoulos, S. 2011. 14C dating of a final Neolithic-Early Bronze age transition period settlement at Aghios Ioannis on Thassos (North Aegean). Radiocarbon 53(1):2137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mariolakos, ID, Mariolakos, DI. 2004. The Argon Field in Arcadia, the sinkhole of Nestani village, god Poseidon and the submarine Dini Springs in the Argolic Gulf (Peloponnisos, Greece): a geomythological approach of the Poseidon's birth. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece 36:1146–53.Google Scholar
Mercone, D, Thomson, J, Croudace, IW, Siani, G, Paterne, M, Troelstra, S. 2000. Duration of S1, the most recent sapropel in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, as indicated by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and geochemical evidence. Paleoceanography 15(3):336–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mook, WG, Streurman, HJ. 1983. Physical and chemical aspects of radiocarbon dating. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on 14C and Archaeology. Groningen 1981. PACT. p 3155.Google Scholar
Münnich, KO. 1957. Messung naturlichen radiokohlenstoffs mit einem CO2 proportional zahlrohr. Einige anwendungen der methode. Inaugural-dissertation zur erlangung der doktorwurde hohen naturwissenschaftlich-mathematischen fakultat der Ruprecht-Karl-Universitat zu Heidelberg, Germany.Google Scholar
Oeschger, H, Siegenthaler, U, Schotterer, U, Gugelmann, A. 1975. A box-diffusion model to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature. Tellus 27(2):168–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, EA, Broecker, WS. 1959. Lamont natural radiocarbon measurements V. American Journal of Science Radiocarbon Supplement 1:128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsson, IU. 1979. The importance of the pre-treatment of wood and charcoal samples in radiocarbon dating. In: Berger, R, Suess, HE, editors. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Radiocarbon Conference. Berkeley: University California Press. p 135–46.Google Scholar
Olsson, IU. 1986. Radiometric methods. In: Berglund, B, editor. Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p 273312.Google Scholar
Papaconstantinou, C, Zenetos, A, Vassilopoulou, V, Tserpes, G, editors. 2007. State of the Hellenic Fisheries. Athens: National Centre for Marine Research.Google Scholar
Papathanassiou, E, Zenetos, A, editors. 2005. State of the Hellenic Marine Environment. Athens: National Centre for Marine Research.Google Scholar
Parlama, L. 2007. Palamari Skyros. Observations on the evolution of the settlement during 3rd millennium BC and urbanization problems. In: Simantoni-Bournia, E, Laimos, AA, Mendoni, LG, Kourou, N, editors. Aμúμoνα Eργα. Volume in Honour of V. Lambrinoudakis. Athens. p 2548. In Greek.Google Scholar
Parlama, L. 2009. Palamari Skyros. The excavation of the fortifications, 2000–2007. In: Κερμάτια Φιλίας. Volume in Honour of I. Touratsoglou. Athens. p 227–41. In Greek.Google Scholar
Parlama, L, Theochari, M, Bonatsos, S, Romanou, Ch, Manos, I. 2010. Palamari Skyros: the middle Bronze Age town. Proceedings of the International Conference MESOHELLADIKA, Athens 8–12 March 2006. p 281–9.Google Scholar
Pavlopoulos, K, Triantaphyllou, M, Karkanas, P, Kouli, K, Syrides, G, Vouvalidis, K, Palyvos, N, Tsourou, T. 2010. Paleoenvironmental evolution and prehistoric human environment, in the embayment of Palamari (Skyros Island, Greece) during Middle-Late Holocene. Quaternary International 216(1–2):4153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peharda, M, Ezgeta-Balić, D, Radman, M, Sinjkević, N, Vrgoš, N, Isajlović, I. 2012. Age, growth and population structure of Acanthocardia tuberculata (Bivalvia: Cardiidae) in the eastern Adriatic Sea. Scientia Marina 76(1):5966.Google Scholar
Perlès, C. 2001. The Early Neolithic in Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perlès, C. 2003. The Mesolithic at Franchthi: an overview of the data and problems. In: Galanidou, N, Perlès, C, editors. The Greek Mesolithic: Problems and Perspectives. London: British School at Athens Studies Series 10. p 7987.Google Scholar
Reimer, PJ, McCormac, FG. 2002. Marine radiocarbon reservoir corrections for the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. Radiocarbon 44(1):159–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Haflidason, H, Hajdas, I, Hatté, C, Heaton, TJ, Hoffmann, DL, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, Manning, SW, Niu, M, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Scott, EM, Southon, JR, Staff, RA, Turney, CSM, der Plicht, J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, SW, Thompson, G. 1981. Radiocarbon corrections for marine shell dates with application to southern Pacific Northwest Coast prehistory. Syesis 14:4557.Google Scholar
Sabelli, B, Giannuzzi-Savelli, R, Bedulli, D. 1990. Annotated Check-List of Mediterranean Marine Mollusks. Volumes I, II, III. Bologna: Societá Italiana di Malacologia.Google Scholar
Sampson, A, editor. 2002. The Neolithic Settlement at Ftelia, Mykonos. University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Rhodes.Google Scholar
Sampson, A, editor. 2008. The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic Networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece. Volume I: Intra-Site Analysis, Local Industries, and Regional Site Distribution. Prehistory Monographs 21. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press.Google Scholar
Sampson, A, editor. 2011. The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic Networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece. Volume II: Bone Tool Industries, Dietary Resources and the Paleoenvironment, and Archeometrical Studies. Prehistory Monographs 31. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press.Google Scholar
Sangiorgi, F, Capotondi, L, Combourieu, N, Vigliotti, L, Brinkhuis, H, Giunta, S, Lotter, AF, Morigi, C, Negri, A, Reichart, G-J. 2003. Holocene seasonal sea-surface temperature variations in the southern Adriatic Sea inferred from a multiproxy approach. Journal of Quaternary Science 18(8):723–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackleton, JC, van Andel, TH. 1980. Prehistoric shell assemblages from Franchthi Cave and evolution of the adjacent coastal zone. Nature 288(5789):357–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siani, G, Paterne, M, Arnold, M, Bard, E, Métivier, B, Tisnerat, N, Bassinot, F. 2000. Radiocarbon reservoir ages in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Radiocarbon 42(2):271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siani, G, Paterne, M, Michel, E, Sulpizio, R, Sbrana, A, Arnold, M, Haddad, G. 2001. Mediterranean Sea surface radiocarbon reservoir age changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Science 294(5548):1917–20; supplemental online files at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5548/1917/DC1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Southon, JR, Rodman, AO, True, D. 1995. A comparison of marine and terrestrial radiocarbon ages from northern Chile. Radiocarbon 37(2):389–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Braziunas, TF. 1993. Modeling atmospheric 14C influences and 14C ages of marine samples to 10,000 BC. Radiocarbon 35(1):137–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Pearson, GW, Braziunas, T. 1986. Radiocarbon age calibration of marine samples back to 9,000 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon 28(2B):9801021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Reimer, PJ, Braziunas, TF. 1998. High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples. Radiocarbon 40(3):1127–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sveinbjörnsdóttir, ÁE, Heinemeier, J, Arneborg, J, Lynnerup, N, Ólafsson, G, Zoëga, G. 2010. Dietary reconstruction and reservoir correction of 14C dates on bones from pagan and early Christian graves in Iceland. Radiocarbon 52(2–3):682–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Andel, TH, Lianos, N. 1983. Prehistoric and historic shorelines of the Southern Argolid Peninsula: a subbottom profiler study. Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 12(4):303–24.Google Scholar
Yüce, H. 1995. North Aegean water masses. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 41(3):325–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Sea Surface Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Changes in the Aegean Sea from about 11,200 BP to Present
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Sea Surface Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Changes in the Aegean Sea from about 11,200 BP to Present
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Sea Surface Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Changes in the Aegean Sea from about 11,200 BP to Present
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *