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Vegetation and environmental changes in Northern Anatolia between 134 and 119 ka recorded in Black Sea Sediments

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Lyudmila S. Shumilovskikh*
Department of Palynology and Climate Dynamics, University of Göttingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
Helge W. Arz
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany
Antje Wegwerth
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany
Dominik Fleitmann
Department of Archaeology, School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, Reading RG6 6AB, UK Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 3, 3012 Bern, Switzerland Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 3, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Fabienne Marret
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZT, UK
Norbert Nowaczyk
Helmholtz Center Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Pavel Tarasov
Institute of Geological Sciences, Palaeontology Section, Freie University Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, House D, Berlin 12249, Germany
Hermann Behling
Department of Palynology and Climate Dynamics, University of Göttingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
*Corresponding author at: Department of Palynology and Climate Dynamics, Albrecht-von-Haller Institute for Plant Sciences, University of G"ttingen, Untere Karsp"le 2, 37073 G"ttingen, Germany. Fax: + 49 551 395719. E-mail address: (L.S. Shumilovskikh).


This multiproxy study on SE Black Sea sediments provides the first detailed reconstruction of vegetation and environmental history of Northern Anatolia between 134 and 119 ka. Here, the glacial–interglacial transition is characterized by several short-lived alternating cold and warm events preceding a meltwater pulse (~ 130.4–131.7 ka). The latter is reconstructed as a cold arid period correlated to Heinrich event 11. The initial warming is evidenced at ~ 130.4 ka by increased primary productivity in the Black Sea, disappearance of ice-rafted detritus, and spreading of oaks in Anatolia. A Younger Dryas-type event is not identifiable. The Eemian vegetation succession corresponds to the main climatic phases in Europe: i) the QuercusJuniperus phase (128.7–126.4 ka) indicates a dry continental climate; ii) the OstryaCorylusQuercusCarpinus phase (126.4–122.9 ka) suggests warm summers, mild winters, and high year-round precipitation; iii) the FagusCarpinus phase (122.9–119.5 ka) indicates cooling and high precipitation; and iv) increasing Pinus at ~ 121 ka marks the onset of cooler/drier conditions. Generally, pollen reconstructions suggest altitudinal/latitudinal migrations of vegetation belts in Northern Anatolia during the Eemian caused by increased transport of moisture. The evidence for the wide distribution of Fagus around the Black Sea contrasts with the European records and is likely related to climatic and genetic factors.

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University of Washington

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