Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-b6fb2 Total loading time: 0.317 Render date: 2021-09-23T12:56:06.334Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Preservation and Recognition of Middle and Early Pleistocene Loess in the Driftless Area, Wisconsin

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Peter M. Jacobs
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Geology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia, 31698
James C. Knox
Affiliation:
Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706
Joseph A. Mason
Affiliation:
Department of Geography, Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Illinois, 60115

Abstract

An exceptional stratigraphic and pedologic record of Pleistocene environmental conditions occurs at the Kieler Site in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin. Peoria, Roxana, Loveland, and pre-Loveland loesses overlie weathered bedrock residuum. The pre-Loveland unit previously has been included as part of the residuum at other Driftless Area sites. Early and middle Pleistocene loesses in the Mississippi Valley are normally absent at most localities. Rather than nondeposition, we suggest the apparent absence of pre-Illinoian loess units is due in part to erosion, but also to weathering that renders loesses unrecognizable so they are classified as “residuum.”

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Autin, W.J., Burns, S.F., Miller, B.J., Saucier, R.T., Snead, J.I., 1991. Quaternary geology of the Lower Mississippi Valley. Quaternary Nonglacial Geology: Conterminous U.S. Geological Society of America, Boulder, p. 547582.Google Scholar
Curry, B.B., Follmer, L.R., 1992. The last interglacial-glacial transition in Illinois: 123-25 ka. Clark, P.U., Lea, P.D., The Last Interglacial-Glacial Transition in North America Geological Society of America Special Paper 270, 7178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Follmer, L. R., Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts. Engineering Geology.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Follmer, L. R., 1995. .Google Scholar
Follmer, L.R., 1983. Sangamonian and Wisconsinan pedogenesis in the Midwestern United States. Wright, H.E. Jr., Late Quaternary Environments of the United States Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. Google Scholar
Frolking, T.A., Jackson, M.L., Knox, J.C., 1983. Origin of red clay over dolomite in the loess-covered Wisconsin Driftless Area uplands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 817820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., Methods of Soil Analysis. Particle-size analysis. Klute, A., 1986. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 383411.Google Scholar
Hallberg, G.R., Fenton, T.E., Miller, G.A., Standard procedures for evaluation of Quaternary materials in Iowa Iowa Geological Survey Technical Information Series 8 Standard weathering zone terminology for the description of Quaternary sediments in Iowa. Hallberg, G.R., 1978. 75109.Google Scholar
Hajic, E.R., 1989. Pre-Wisconsinan loesses and paleosols at Pancake Hollow, west-central Illinois. Quaternary Records of Southwestern Illinois and Adjacent Missouri p. 9198.Google Scholar
Hogan, J.D., Beatty, M.T., 1963. Age and properties of Peorian loess and buried paleosols in southwestern Wisconsin. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 27, 345350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, R.E., Moore, D.M., Reynolds, R.C. Jr., 1993. The nature, detection, occurrence, and origin of kaolinite/smectite. Murray, H.H., Bundy, W.M., Harvey, C.C., Kaolin Genesis and Utilization The Clay Minerals Society, Boulder, 291323.Google Scholar
Jacobs, P.M., Knox, J.C., 1994. Provenance and pedology of a long-term Pleistocene depositional sequence in Wisconsin's Driftless Area. Catena 22, 4968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, J.E., Saunders, J.J., 1986. Geochelone in Illinois and the Illinoian–Sangamonian vegetation of the type region. Quaternary Research 25, 8999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knox, J.C., 1982. Quaternary history of the Kickapoo and lower Wisconsin River valleys, Wisconsin. Quaternary History of the Driftless Area p. 165.Google Scholar
Knox, J.C., Attig, J.W., 1988. Geology of the pre-Illinoian sediment in the Bridgeport terrace, lower Wisconsin River valley, Wisconsin. Journal of Geology 96, 505513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knox, J.C., Leigh, D.S., 1990. Valley trenching at the Driftless Area Boice Site. Geological Society of America, p. F26F31.Google Scholar
Knox, J.C., Maher, L.J., 1974. Late Quaternary Environments of the Driftless Area: Southwestern Wisconsin. p. 2443.Google Scholar
Knox, J.C., Leigh, D.S., Frolking, T.A., 1990. Rountree Formation (New). Clayton, L., Attig, J.W., Geology of Sauk County Wisconsin 6467.Google Scholar
Leigh, D.S., 1994. Roxana silt of the Upper Mississippi Valley: Lithology, source, and paleoenvironment. Geological Society of America Bulletin 106, 430442.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leigh, D.S., Knox, J.C., 1993. AMS radiocarbon age of the Upper Mississippi Valley Roxana Silt. Quaternary Research 39, 282289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leigh, D.S., Knox, J.C., 1994. Loess of the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area. Quaternary Research 42, 3040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewkowicz, A.G., 1992. Factors influencing the distribution and initiation of active-layer detachment slides on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. Dixon, J.C., Abrahams, A.D., Periglacial Geomorphology Wiley, New York, 224250.Google Scholar
McKay, E.D., 1979. Wisconsinan loess stratigraphy of Illinois. Wisconsinan, Sangamonian, and Illinoian Stratigraphy in Central Illinois p. 95108.Google Scholar
McKay, E.D., 1989. Illinoian and older loesses and tills at the Maryville Section. Quaternary Records of Southwestern Illinois and Adjacent Missouri p. 2130.Google Scholar
Machette, M., 1986. Calcium and magnesium carbonates. Singer, M.J., Janitzky, P., Field and Laboratory Procedures Used in a Soil Chronosequence Study 3033.Google Scholar
Mackay, J.R., 1981. Active layer slope movement in a continuous permafrost environment, Garry Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18, 16661680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milligan, T.G., Kranck, K., 1991. Electroresistance particle size analyzers. Syvitski, J.P.M., Principles and Applications of Particle Size Analysis Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 109118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, R.V., Ellis, R. Jr., 1982. Iron. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., Methods of Soil Analysis American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 301312.Google ScholarPubMed
Richmond, G.M., Fullerton, D.S., 1986. Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America. Sibrava, V., Bowen, D.Q., Richmond, G.M., Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere Quaternary Science Reviews, 5, 183196.Google Scholar
Rodbell, D.T., Forman, S.L., 1995. Loess and paleosol stratigraphy, and thermoluminescence age estimates of Mississippi Valley loess in western Tennessee. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Program 27, A-170.Google Scholar
Ruhe, R.V., 1974. Sangamon paleosols and Quaternary environments in Midwestern United States. Mahaney, W.C., Quaternary Environments York University Press, Toronto, 153167.Google Scholar
Saucier, R.T., 1994. Geomorphology and Quaternary Geologic History of the Lower Mississippi Valley. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg. Google Scholar
Simonson, R.W., 1995. Airborne dust and its significance to soils. Geoderma 65, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1992. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 5th ed.: USDA-SCS. United States Government Printing Office, Washington. Google Scholar
Soil Survey Staff 1993. Soil Survey Manual (revised): USDA-SCS, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Zhu, H., Baker, R.G., 1995. Vegetation and climate of the last glacial-interglacial cycle in southern Illinois, USA. Journal of Paleolimnology 14, 337354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Preservation and Recognition of Middle and Early Pleistocene Loess in the Driftless Area, Wisconsin
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Preservation and Recognition of Middle and Early Pleistocene Loess in the Driftless Area, Wisconsin
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Preservation and Recognition of Middle and Early Pleistocene Loess in the Driftless Area, Wisconsin
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *