Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ndmmz Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-24T11:38:43.364Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Pollen Distribution in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Linda Heusser
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, New York University, Box 608, Tuxedo, New York 10987 USA
William L. Balsam
Affiliation:
Division of Natural Sciences, Southampton College of Long Island University, Southampton, New York 11968 USA

Abstract

Distributional patterns of palynomorphs in core tops from the continental margin of the northeast Pacific Ocean (30°–60°N lat 118°–150°W long) reflect the effects of fluvial and marine sedimentation as well as the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Maximum pollen concentration (grains/cm3 of marine sediment) occurs off the mouth of the Columbia River and off San Francisco Bay (the outlet of the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers) and appears to be coincident with areas of high terrigenous lutite deposition. The abundance of pollen and spores in shelf sediments is extremely variable with high concentrations typical only of the finest sediments. On the slope, rise and abyssal plain, pollen concentration shows a general decrease with distance from shore. This suggests that in the northeast Pacific pollen is transported into the marine environment primarily by rivers and that, in terms of sedimentation, pollen may be regarded as part of the organic component of fine-grained lutum.

Pinus, the principal pollen component of marine sediment on the northeast Pacific margin, is concentrated adjacent to the major drainage systems of areas in which pine grows. Tsuga heterophylla, Picea, and Alnus, important components of the temperate conifer forest, are concentrated off the area of their optimal development, western Washington. Quercus, Sequoia, and Compositae concentrations are greater off the southern California coast where they are prominent in the vegetation. The relative (percent) abundance of most of these pollen taxa in marine sediments reflects a positive relationship to their distribution on land. Picea and Alnus are relatively more important north of 45°N, Tsuga heterophylla between 45°–50°N, and Quercus, Sequoia, and Compositae south of 40°N. Pine percentages increase seaward, from less than 10% of the pollen sum in shelf sediments to over 50% in sediments on the abyssal plain. This seems to indicate selective transport of pine pollen. Factor analysis of pollen data from the 61 core tops results in four pollen assemblages. Three of these assemblages (Quercus-Compositae-Sequoia, Tsuga heterophylla-Pinus, and Alnus-Picea) reflect the distribution of vegetation on the adjacent continent, one (Pinus) reflects primarily the effects of marine sedimentation.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adam, D.P. (1964). Exploratory palynology in the Sierra Nevada, California Interim Research Report 4 Geochron Laboratories, University of Arizona Google Scholar
Adam, D.P. (1974). Palynological applications of principal component and cluster analyses Journal of Research, United States Geological Survey 2 727-741 Google Scholar
Balsam, W. Heusser, L.E. (1976). Direct correlation of sea surface paleotemperatures, deep circulation, and terrestrial paleoclimates: Foraminiferal and palynological evidence from two cores off Chesapeake Bay Marine Geology 21 121-147 Google Scholar
Bottema, S. van Straaten, L.M.J.V. (1966). Malacology and palynology of two cores from the Adriatic Sea floor Marine Geology 4 553-564 Google Scholar
Carlson, P.R. (1967). Marine geology of Astoria submarine canyon Oregon State University, Ph.D. Thesis 259 Google Scholar
Colinvaux, P.A. (1974). Report on pollen analyses of sediments from the Bering and Chukehi Seas Unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
Cross, A.T. (1973). Source and distribution of palynomorphs of the Gulf of California Geoscience and Man 11 156 Google Scholar
Cross, A.T. Thompson, G.G. Zaitzeff, J.B. (1966). Source and distribution of palynomorphs in bottom sediments, southern part of Gulf of California Marine Geology 4 467-524 Google Scholar
Davey, R.J. (1971). Palynology and paleoenvironmental studies, with special reference to the continental shelf sediments of South Africa Planktonic Conference Proceedings 1 331-347 Google Scholar
Duncan, J.R. (1968). Late Pleistocene and postglacial sedimentation and stratigraphy of deep-sea environments off Oregon Oregon State University, Ph.D. Thesis 222 Google Scholar
Evitt, W.R. (1969). Dinoflagellates and other organisms in palynological preparations Tschudy, R.H. Scott, R.A. Aspects of Palynology Wiley New York 439-479 Google Scholar
Faegri, J. Iversen, K. (1964). Textbook of Pollen Analysis Hafner New York 237 Google Scholar
Florer, L.E. (1973). Pollen analysis of marine sediments off the Washington coast Marine Geology 14 73-78 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franklin, J.F. Dyrness, C.T. (1973). Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-8 417 Google Scholar
Griggs, C.B. (1969). Cascadia channel: the anatomy of a deep-sea channel Oregon State University, Ph.D. Thesis 183 Google Scholar
Groot, J.J. Groot, C.B. (1971). Horizontal and vertical distribution of pollen and spores in Quaternary sequences Funnell, B.M. Riedel, W.R. The Micropaleontology of Oceans University Press Cambridge 493-505 Google Scholar
Gross, M.G. Carey, A.G. Fowler, G.A. Kulm, D.D. (1972). Distribution of organic carbon in surface sediment Pruter, A.T. Alverson, D.I. The Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Ocean Waters University of Washington Press Seattle 254-264 Google Scholar
Habib, D. Thurber, D. Ross, D. Donahue, J. (1970). Holocene palynology of the middle America trench near Tehuantepec, Mexico Geological Society of America Memoir 126 261 Google Scholar
Hansen, H.P. (1947). Postglacial forest succession, climate, and chronology in the Pacific Northwest American Philosophical Society Transactions 37 1-130 Google Scholar
Hansen, H.P. (1949). Pollen content of moss polsters in relation to forest composition The American Midland Naturalist 42 473-479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Havinga, A.J. (1964). Investigation into the differential corrosion susceptibility of pollen and spores Pollen et Spores 4 621-635 Google Scholar
Heusser, C.J. (1960). Late-Pleistocene Environments of North Pacific North America 308American Geographical Society Special Publication 35Google Scholar
Heusser, C.J. (1973). Postglacial vegetation on Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 15 277-285 Google Scholar
Heusser, C.J. Florer, L.E. (1973). Correlation of marine and continental Quaternary pollen records from the northeast Pacific and western Washington Quaternary Research 3 661-670 Google Scholar
Holeman, J.N. (1968). The sediment yield of major rivers of the world Water Resources Research 4 737-747 Google Scholar
Imbrie, J. Kipp, N.G. (1971). A new micropaleontological method for quantitative paleoclimatology: Application to a late Pleistocene Caribbean core Turekian, K.K. Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages Yale University Press New Haven 71-182 Google Scholar
Koroneva, E.V. (1957). Spore-pollen analysis of bottom sediments of the Sea of Okhotsk Trudy Institua Okeanologii Akademiya Nauk SSSR 22 221-251 Google Scholar
Koroneva, E.V. (1968). Distribution and preservation of pollen in sediments in the western part of the Pacific Ocean Geological Bulletin 2 Department of Geology, Queens College Flushing, New York 1-17 Google Scholar
Koreneva, E.V. (1971). Spores and pollen in Mediterranean bottom sediments Funnel, B.M. Reidel, W.B. The Micropaleontology of Oceans University Press Cambridge 361-371 Google Scholar
Kulm, L.D. Fowler, G.A. (1974). Oregon continental margin structure and stratigraphy: A test of the imbricate thrust model Burk, C.A. Drake, C.L. The Geology of Continental Margins Springer-Verlag New York 261-284 Google Scholar
Kulm, L.D. Roush, R.C. Harlett, J.C. Neudeck, R.H. Chambers, D.M. Runge, E.J. (1975). Oregon continental shelf sedimentation: Interrelationships of facies distribution and sedimentary processes Journal of Geology 83 145-175 Google Scholar
Lubliner-Mianowska, K. (1962). Pollen analysis of the surface samples of bottom sediments in the Bay of Gdansk Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 31 305-312 Google Scholar
Mack, R.N. Bryant, V.M. (1974). Modern pollen spectra from the Columbia Basin, Washington Northwest Science 48 183-194 Google Scholar
Mathewes, R.W. (1973). A palynological study of postglacial vegetation changes in the University Research Forst, southeastern British Columbia Canadian Journal of Botany 51 2085-2103 Google Scholar
McAndrews, J.H. Power, D.M. (1973). Palynology of the Great Lakes: The surface sediments of Lake Ontario Canadian Journal of Earth Science 10 777-792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McManus, D.A. (1967). Classifications of submarine physiography in the Gulf of Alaska Northwest Science 41 118-125 Google Scholar
Muller, J. (1959). Palynology of recent Orinoco delta and shelf sediments Micropaleontology 5 1-32 Google Scholar
Munz, P.A. (1974). A flora of southern California University of California Press Berkeley 1086pagesGoogle Scholar
Officials of NOAA (1974). Climates of the States, 2 Water Information Center Port Washington, New York Google Scholar
Peck, R. (1973). Pollen budget studies in a small Yorkshire catchment Birks, H.J.B. West, R.G. Quaternary Plant Ecology Wiley New York 43-60 Google Scholar
Stanley, E.A. (1969). Marine palynology Annual Review of Oceanography and Marine Biology 7 277-292 Google Scholar
Traverse, A. Ginsburg, R.N. (1966). Palynology of the surface sediments of Great Bahama Bank, as related to water movement and sedimentation Marine Geology 4 417-459 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wall, D. (1971). The lateral and vertical distribution of dinoflagellates in Quaternary sediments Funnell, B.M. Reidel, W.R. The Micropaleontology of Oceans Cambridge University Press London/New York 399-405 Google Scholar
Watson, C.E. (1974). The climate of Alaska Climates of the States, 2 Water Information Center Port Washington, New York 481-502 Google Scholar
Webb, T. III Bryson, R.A. (1972). Late and postglacial climatic change in the northern Midwest, U.S.A.: Quantitative estimates derived from fossil pollen spectra by multivariate statistical analysis Quaternary Research 2 70-115 Google Scholar
Williams, D.B. Sarjeant, W.A.S. (1967). Organic-walled microfossils as depth and shoreline indicators Marine Geology 5 389-412 Google Scholar