Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-fnprw Total loading time: 2.387 Render date: 2022-08-17T20:13:07.896Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

The Last Interglacial Ocean

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

James D. Hays
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
Warren L. Prell
Affiliation:
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
William F. Ruddiman
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
Ted C. Moore
Affiliation:
Exxon, Stratigraphic Prediction Section, Houston, Texas 77001
Nilva G. Kipp
Affiliation:
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
Barbara E. Molfino
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
George H. Denton
Affiliation:
University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473
Terence J. Hughes
Affiliation:
University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473
William L. Balsam
Affiliation:
Southampton College, Southampton, New York 11968
Charlotte A. Brunner
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley, California 94720
Jean-Claude Duplessy
Affiliation:
Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA, 91190 Gif sur Yvette, France
Ann G. Esmay
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
James L. Fastook
Affiliation:
University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473
John Imbrie
Affiliation:
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
Lloyd D. Keigwin
Affiliation:
University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881
Thomas B. Kellogg
Affiliation:
University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473
Andrew McIntyre
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
Robley K. Matthews
Affiliation:
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
Alan C. Mix
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
Joseph J. Morley
Affiliation:
Lamont-doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964
Nicholas J. Shackleton
Affiliation:
Godwin Laboratory, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RS, England
S. Stephen Streeter
Affiliation:
Chevron, Le Habra, California 90631
Peter R. Thompson
Affiliation:
Arco Oil & Gas Company, Dallas, Texas 75221

Abstract

The final effort of the CLIMAP project was a study of the last interglaciation, a time of minimum ice volume some 122,000 yr ago coincident with the Substage 5e oxygen isotopic minimum. Based on detailed oxygen isotope analyses and biotic census counts in 52 cores across the world ocean, last interglacial sea-surface temperatures (SST) were compared with those today. There are small SST departures in the mid-latitude North Atlantic (warmer) and the Gulf of Mexico (cooler). The eastern boundary currents of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans are marked by large SST anomalies in individual cores, but their interpretations are precluded by no-analog problems and by discordancies among estimates from different biotic groups. In general, the last interglacial ocean was not significantly different from the modern ocean. The relative sequencing of ice decay versus oceanic warming on the Stage 6/5 oxygen isotopic transition and of ice growth versus oceanic cooling on the Stage 5e/5d transition was also studied. In most of the Southern Hemisphere, the oceanic response marked by the biotic census counts preceded (led) the global ice-volume response marked by the oxygen-isotope signal by several thousand years. The reverse pattern is evident in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, where the oceanic response lagged that of global ice volume by several thousand years. As a result, the very warm temperatures associated with the last interglaciation were regionally diachronous by several thousand years. These regional lead-lag relationships agree with those observed on other transitions and in long-term phase relationships; they cannot be explained simply as artifacts of bioturbational translations of the original signals.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adam, D.P., Sims, J.D., Throckmorton, C.K. (1981). 130,000-Year continuous pollen record from Clear Lake, Lake County, California Geology 9, 373377 2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alvinerie, J., Caralp, M., Latouche, C., Moyes, J., Vigneaux, M. (1978). Contribution to the knowledge of the paleohydrology of the north-east Atlantic during the terminal Quaternary period Oceanologica Acta 1, 8798 Google Scholar
Ambach, W. (1980). Anstieg der CO2-Konzentration in der Atmosphare und Klimaanderung: Mogliche Auswirkungen auf den Gronlandischen Eisschild Wetter und Leben 32, 135142 Google Scholar
Bader, H., (1961). The Greenland Ice Sheet U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, New Hampshire Cold Regions Science and Engineering Report 1-B2Google Scholar
, A.W.H., Damuth, J.E., Lott, L., Free, R. (1976). Late Quaternary climatic record in western equatorial Atlantic sediment Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 165200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belanger, P.E., Curry, W.B., Matthews, R.K. (1981). Core-top evaluation of benthic foraminiferal isotopic ratios for paleoceanographic interpretation Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 33, 205220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bensen, C.S., (1962). Stratigraphic Studies in the Snow and Firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Laboratory Hanover, New Hampshire Research Report Number 70Google Scholar
Bentley, C.R. (1983). The West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Diagnosis and prognosis Proceedings, Carbon Dioxide Research Conference: Carbon Dioxide, Science and Consensus. Berkly Springs, W. Va., Sept. 19–23, 1982 Vol. 021, IV.3IV.50 Google Scholar
Berger, A. (1978). Long-term variations of caloric insolation resulting from the earth's orbital elements Quaternary Research 9, 139167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, W.H. (1968). Planktonic foraminifera: Selective solution and paleoclimatic interpretation Deep-Sea Research 15, 143 Google Scholar
Berger, W.H. (1970). Planktonic foraminifera: Selective solution and the lysocline Marine Geology 8, 111138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, W.H. (1971). Sedimentation of planktonic foraminifera Marine Geology 11, 325358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, W.H. (1973). Deep-sea carbonate: Evidence for a coccolith lysocline Deep-Sea Research 20, 917921 Google Scholar
Berger, W.H. (1978). Oxygen-18 stratigraphy in deep-sea sediments: Additional evidence for the deglacial meltwater effect Deep-Sea Research 25, 473480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, W.H. (1982). On the definition of the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in deep-sea sediment. Sveriges geologiska undersökning Avhand Uppsat. C 766, 270280 NR 794Google Scholar
Berger, W.H., Johnson, R.F. (1978). On the thickness and the 14C age of the mixed layer in deep-sea carbonates Earth and Planetary Science Letters 41, 223227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, W.H., Johnson, R.F., Killingley, J.S. (1977). Unmixing of the deep-sea record and the deglacial meltwater spike Nature (London) 269, 661663 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, W.H., Killingley, J.S. (1977). Glacial-Holocene transition in deep-sea carbonates: Selective dissolution and the stable isotope signal Science 197, 563566 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berger, W.H., Piper, D.J.W. (1972). Planktonic foraminifera: Differential settling, dissolution and redeposition Limnology and Oceanography 17, 275286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowen, D.Q. (1979). Quaternary correlations Nature (London) 277, 171172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broecker, W.S. (1975). Floating ice caps in the Arctic Ocean Science 188, 11161118 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Broecker, W.S. (1981). Glacial to interglacial changes in ocean and atmosphere chemistry Berger, A., Climatic Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories Reidel Dordrecht/Boston 111121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broecker, W.S., Thurber, D.L., Goddard, J., Matthews, R.K., Ku, T.-L., Mesolella, K.J. (1968). Milankovitch hypothesis supported by precise dating of coral reefs and deep-sea sediments Science 159, 297300 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Broecker, W.S., Van Donk, J. (1970). Insolation changes, ice volumes and the δ18O record in deep-sea cores Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 8, 169198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunner, C.A. (1979). Distribution of planktonic foraminifera in surface sediments of the Gulf of mexico Micropaleontology 25, 325335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chappell, J. (1974). Geology of coral terraces, Huon Peninsula, New Guinea: A study of Quaternary tectonic movements and sea level changes Geological Society of America, Bulletin 85, 553570 2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, J.A., Farrell, W.E., Peltier, W.R. (1978). Global changes in postglacial sea level: A numerical calculation Quaternary Research 9, 265287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CLIMAP, (1976). The surface of the ice-age earth: By CLIMAP Project Members Science 191, 11311137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CLIMAP, (1981). Seasonal reconstructions of the earth's surface at the last glacial maximum: By CLIMAP Project Members Map and Chart Series 36 (Text, Maps and Microfiche) Geological Society of America (A Mc-Intyre, Leader)Google Scholar
Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D. (1976). Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Geological Society of America, Memoir 145 Google Scholar
Coope, G.R. (1970). Climatic interpretation of late Weichselian Coleoptera from the British Isles Revue de Geographie Physique et de Geologie Dynamique 12, 149155 Google Scholar
Crabtree, R.D., Doake, C.S.M. (1982). Pine Island Glacier and its drainage basin: Results from radio-echo sounding Annals of Glaciology 3, 6570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowley, T.J. (1981). Temperature and circulation changes in the eastern North Atlantic during the last 150,000 years: Evidence from the planktonic foraminiferal record Marine Micropaleontology 6, 97129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S.J., Clausen, H.B., Langway, C.C. Jr. (1971). Climatic record revealed by the Camp Century ice core Turekian, K.K., The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages Yale Univ. Press New Haven, Conn 3756 Google Scholar
Dansgaard, W., Tauber, H. (1969). Glacier oxygen-18 content and Pleistocene ocean temperatures Science 166, 499502 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darbyshire, J. (1964). A hydrological investigation of the Agulhas Current area Deep-Sea Research 11, 781815 Google Scholar
Darbyshire, M. (1966). The surface waters near the coasts of southern Africa Deep-Sea Research 13, 5781 Google Scholar
Davis, M.B., Spear, R.W., Shane, L.K. (1980). Holocene climates of New England Quaternary Research 14, 240250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deevey, E.S. Jr., Flint, R.F. (1957). Post-glacial hypsithermal interval Science 125, 182184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denton, G.H., Armstrong, R.L., Stuiver, M. (1971). The late Cenozoic glacial history of Antarctica Turekian, K.K., The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages Yale Univ. Press New Haven, Conn 267306 Google Scholar
Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J. (1981a). The Last Great Ice Sheets Wiley-Interscience New York Google Scholar
Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J. (1981b). The Arctic Ice Sheet: An outrageous hypothesis Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J., The Last Great Ice Sheets Wiley-Interscience New York 437467 Google Scholar
Diester-Haass, L. (1975). Sedimentation and climate in the late Quaternary between Senegal and the Cape Verde Islands “Meteor” Forschungs-Ergebnisse, Reihe C 20, 132 Google Scholar
Diester-Haass, L. (1976). Late Quaternary climate variations in northwest Africa deduced from East Atlantic sediment cores Quarternary Research 6, 299314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diester-Haass, L., Schrader, H.J., Thiede, J. (1973). Sedimentological and paleoclimatological investigations of two pelagic ooze cores off Cape Barbas, north-west Africa “Meteor” Forschungs-Ergebnisse, Reihe C 16, 1966 Google Scholar
Drewry, D.J. (1980). Response of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to CO2 Induced Climatic Warming, Conference Report University of Maine at Orono, 8–10 April 1980 108144 Google Scholar
Duplessy, J.C. (1978). Isotope studies Gribbin, J., Climatic Change Cambridge Univ. Press Cambridge 4647 Google Scholar
Duplessy, J.C., Chenouard, L., Vila, F. (1975). Weyl's theory of glaciation supported by isotopic study of Norwegian core K-11 Science 188, 12081209 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duplessy, J.C., Delibrias, G., Turon, J.L., Pujol, C., Duprat, J. (1981). Deglacial warming of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean: Correlation with the paleoclimatic evolution of the European continent Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 35, 121144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duplessy, J.C., Moyes, J., Pujol, C. (1980). Deep water formation in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last Ice Age Nature (London) 286, 479482 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duplessy, J.C., Shackleton, N.J., Matthews, R.K., Prell, W., Ruddiman, W.F., Caralp, M., Hendy, C.H. (1984). Carbon-13 record of benthic foraminifera in the last interglacial ocean: Implications for the carbon cycle and the global deep water circulation Quaternary Research 21, 225243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Embley, R.W., Morley, J.J. (1980). Quaternary sedimentation and paleoenvironmental studies off Namibia (south-west Africa) Marine Geology 36, 183204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emiliani, C. (1955). Pleistocene temperatures Journal of Geology 63, 538578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emiliani, C. (1966). Palaeotemperature analysis of Caribbean cores P6304-8 and P6304-9 and a generalized temperature curve for the last 425,000 years Journal of Geology 74, 109126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emiliani, C. (1969). Interglacial high sea levels and the control of Greenland ice by the precession of the equinoxes Science 166, 15031504 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emiliani, C., Gartner, S., Lidz, B., Eldredge, K., Elvey, D.K., Huang, T.C., Stipp, L., Swanson, M.F. (1975). Paleoclimatological analysis of late Quaternary cores from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico Science 189, 10831088 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Erez, J. (1979). Modification of the oxygen-isotope record in deep-sea cores by Pleistocene dissolution cycles Nature (London) 281, 535538 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairbanks, R.G., Matthews, R.K. (1978). The marine oxygen isotope record in Pleistocene coral, Barbados, West Indies Quaternary Research 10, 181196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fastook, J.L. (1981). The west Antarctic ice Sheet: Possible source for future dramatic changes in the global water budget Symposium on the Global Water Budget Oxford University, August, 1981 Google Scholar
Fastook, J.L. (1984). West Antarctica, the sea-level controlled marine instability: Past and future Hansen, J., Takahashi, T., Climate Sensitivity: Sensitivity to Solar Irradiance and CO2 . Maurice Ewing Symposium Series. Vol. 4, American Geophysical Union Washington, D.C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flint, R.F., (1971). Glacial and Quaternary Geology Wiley New York Google Scholar
Flohn, H. (1977). Stehen wir vor einter Klima-Katastrophy? Umschau 77, 561569 Google Scholar
Frenzel, B., (1973). Climatic Fluctuations of the Ice Age Case Western Reserve Univ. Press Cleveland/London Google Scholar
Funder, S., Hjort, C. (1973). Aspects of the Weichselian chronology in central east Greenland Boreas 2, 6984 Google Scholar
Gardner, J.V. (1973). The Eastern Equatorial Atlantic: Sedimentation, Faunal and Sea-Surface Temperature Responses to Global Climate Changes during the Past 200,000 Years Ph.D. thesis Columbia University New York, N.Y Google Scholar
Gardner, J.V., Hays, J.D. (1976). Responses of sea-surface temperature and circulation to global climatic change during the past 200,000 years in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 221246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gascoyne, M., Currant, A.P., Lord, T.C. (1981). Ipswichian fauna of Victoria Cave and the marine palaeoclimatic record Nature (London) 294, 652654 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaven, C., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Petit-Maire, N. (1981). A Pleistocene lacustrine episode in southeastern Libya Nature (London) 290, 131133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudet, G., Moyes, J., Pujol, C. (1976). Contribution des foraminiferes planctoniques à la paleoclimatologie du Quaternaire terminal de l'Atlantique nord-oriental Bulletin de Institut de Geologie du Bassin d'Aquitaine 19, 149168 Google Scholar
Gordon, A.L. (1983). Comments about the ocean role in the Antarctic glacial ice balance Proceedings, Carbon Dioxide Research Conference: Carbon Dioxide, Science and Consensus. Berkly, W. Va., Sept. 19–23, 1982 Vol. 021, IV.75IV.86 Google Scholar
Graham, D.W., Corliss, B.H., Bender, M.L., Keigwin, L.D. (1981). Carbon and oxygen isotopic disequilibria of recent deep-sea benthic foraminifera Marine Micropaleontology 6, 483497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanor, J.S., Marshall, N.F. (1971). Mixing of sediment by organisms Perkins, B.F., Trace Fossils. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication. 127135 Google Scholar
Harris, T.F.W. (1972). Sources of the Agulhas Current in the spring of 1964 Deep-Sea Research 19, 633650 Google Scholar
Harris, T.F.W., van Foreest, D. (1978). The Agulhas Current in March 1969 Deep-Sea Research 25, 549561 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hays, J.D. (1978). A review of the late Quaternary climatic history of the Antarctic seas van Zinderen Bakker, E.M., Antarctic Glacial History and World Palaeoenvironments A. A. Balkema Rotterdam 5771 Google Scholar
Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., Shackleton, N.J. (1976). Variations in the earth's orbit: Pacemaker of the ice ages Science 194, 11211132 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hays, J.D., Peruzza, A. (1972). The significance of calcium carbonate oscillations in equatorial Atlantic deep-sea sediments for the end of the Holocene warm interval Quaternary Research 2, 355362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heusser, L.E., Shackleton, N.J. (1979). Direct marine-continental corrlation: 150,000-Year oxygen isotope pollen record from the North Pacific Science 204, 837839 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heusser, C.J., Streeter, S.S. (1980). A temperature and precipitation record of the past 16,000 years in southern Chile Science 210, 13451347 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howard, W., Prell, W.L. (1984). Comparison of radiolarian and foraminiferal paleoecology in the southern Indian Ocean: New evidence for the interhemispheric timing of climatic change Quaternary Research 21, 244263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T.J. (1975). The west Antarctic Ice Sheet: Instability, disintegration, and initiation of the ice ages Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 13, 502526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T.J. (1977). West Antarctic ice streams Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 15, 146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T.J. (1982). On the disintegration of ice shelves: The role of thinning Annals of Glaciology 3, 146151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T.J. (1983a). On the disintegration of ice shelves: The role of fracture Journal of Glaciology 29, 98117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T.J. (1983b). The stability of the west Antiarctic Ice Sheet: What has happened and what will happen Proceedings, Carbon Dioxide Research Conference: Carbon Dioxide, Science and Consensus. Berkly, W. Va., Sept. 19–23, 1982 Vol. 021, IV.51IV.73 Google Scholar
Hughes, T.J., Denton, G.H., Grosswald, M.G. (1977). Was there a late-Wurm Arctic Ice Sheet? Nature (London) 266, 596602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutson, W.H. (1977). Transfer functions under noanalog conditions: Experiments with Indian Ocean planktonic foraminifera Quaternary Research 8, 355367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutson, W.H. (1980). Bioturbation of deep-sea sediments: Oxygen isotopes and stratigraphic uncertainty Geology 8, 127130 2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutson, W.H., Prell, W.L. (1980). A paleoecological transfer function, FI-2, for Indian Ocean planktonic foraminifera Journal of Paleontology 54, 381399 Google Scholar
Imbrie, J., Imbrie, J.Z. (1980). Modeling the climatic response to orbital variations Science 207, 943953 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imbrie, J., Kipp, N.G. (1971). A new micropaleontological method for quantitative paleoclimatology: Application to a late Pleistocene Caribbean core Turekian, K.K., Yale Univ. Press New Haven, Conn 71181 Google Scholar
Imbrie, J., Van Donk, J., Kipp, N.G. (1973). Paleoclimatic investigation of a late Pleistocene Caribbean deep-sea core: Comparison of isotopic and faunal methods Quaternary Research 3, 1038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iversen, J. (1973). The development of Denmark's nature since the last glacial Danmarks Geologiske Undersoegelse Raekke 5, No. 7-6 Google Scholar
Johnson, T.C. (1974). The dissolution of siliceous microfossils in surface sediments of the eastern tropical Pacific Deep-Sea Research 21, 851864 Google Scholar
Jones, G. (1980). Benthic mixing intensity in the 9300 B.P. subpolar North Atlantic Transactions, American Geophysics Union 61, 259 Google Scholar
Jones, G., Ruddiman, W.F. (1982). Assessing the global meltwater spike Quaternary Research 17, 148172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, J.L. (1967). Significance of distribution of planktonic foraminifera in the equatorial Atlantic undercurrent Micropaleontology 13, 489501 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keen, D.H., Harmon, R.S., Andrews, J.T. (1981). U series and amino acid dates from Jersey Nature (London) 289, 162164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kellogg, T.B. (1976). Late Quaternary climatic changes: Evidence from deep-sea cores of Norwegian and Greenland seas Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 77110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kellogg, T.B. (1980). Paleoclimatology and paleo-oceanography of the Norwegian and Greenland seas: Glacial-interglacial contrasts Boreas 9, 115137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kellogg, T.B., Duplessy, J.-C., Shackleton, N.J. (1978). Planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotope stratigraphy and paleoclimatology of Norwegian Sea cores Boreas 7, 6173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kellogg, T.B., Kellogg, D.E., Anderson, J.B. (1982). Preliminary results of microfossil analyses of Amundsen Sea sediment cores Antarctic Journal of the United States 17, 125126 Google Scholar
Kellogg, T.B., Truesdale, R.S. (1979). Late Quaternary paleoecology and paleoclimatology of the Ross Sea: The diatom record Marine Micropaleontology 4, 137158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kennett, J.P., Shackleton, N.J. (1975). Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater recorded in Gulf of Mexico deep-sea cores Science 188, 147150 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khotinskii, A., (1977). Holocene of the Northern Eurasia Nauka Moscow [in Russian]Google Scholar
Kipp, N.G. (1976). New transfer function for estimating past sea-surface conditions from sea bed distribution of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the North Atlantic Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 342 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kominz, M.A., Heath, G.R., Ku, T.-L., Pisias, N.G. (1979). Brunhes time scales and the interpretation of climatic change Earth and Planetary Science Letters 45, 394410 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ku, T.L., Kimmel, M.A., Easton, W.H., O'Neil, T.J. (1974). Eustatic sea level 120,000 years ago on Oahu, Hawaii Science 183, 959962 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kukla, G. (1977). Pleistocene land-sea correlations: 1. Europe Earth-Science Reviews 13, 307374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kukla, G. (1980). End of the last interglacial: A predictive model of the future? Palaeocology of Africa 12, 395408 Google Scholar
Kutzbach, J. (1981). Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: Climate experiments using the earth's orbital parameters for 9,000 years ago Science 214, 5961 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamb, H.H., (1972). Climate: Present, Past and Future Vol. I, Methuen London “Fundamentals and Climate Now.”Google Scholar
Mangerud, J., Sonstegaard, E., Sejrup, H.P. (1979). Correlation of the Eemian (interglacial) stage and the deep-sea oxygen-isotope stratigraphy Nature (London) 277, 189192 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mangerud, J., Sonstegaard, E., Sejrup, H.P., Haldorsen, S. (1981). A continuous Eemian-early Weichselian sequence containing pollen and marine fossils at Fjosanger, western Norway Boreas 10, 137208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McIntyre, A., McIntyre, R. (1971). Coccolith concentrations and differential solution in oceanic sediments Funnel, B.M., Reidel, W.R., The Micropaleontology of Oceans Cambridge Univ. Press Cambridge 253261 Google Scholar
McIntyre, A., Kipp, N.G., , A.W.H., Crowley, T., Kellogg, T.B., Gardner, J.V., Prell, W., Ruddiman, W.F. (1976). Glacial North Atlantic 18,000 years ago: A CLIMAP reconstruction Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 4376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McIntyre, A., Ruddiman, W.F., Jantzen, R. (1972). Southward penetrations of the North Atlantic polar front: Faunal and floral evidence of large scale surface water mass movements over the last 225,000 years Deep-Sea Research 19, 6177 Google Scholar
Mercer, J.H. (1968). Antarctic ice and Sangamon sea level “Snow and Ice,” General Assembly of Bern (September–October 1967). IAHS Publ.79, 217225 Google Scholar
Mercer, J.H. (1979). West Antarctic ice volume: The interplay of sea level and temperature, and a strandline test for absence of the ice sheet during the last interglacial IAHS Publ. 131, 323330 Google Scholar
Mesolella, K.J., Matthews, R.K., Broecker, W.S., Thurber, D.L. (1969). The astronomical theory of climatic change Journal of Geology 77, 250274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mikkelsen, N. (1978). Preservation of diatoms in glacial to Holocene deep-sea sediments of the equatorial Pacific Geology 6, 553555 2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milankovitch, M.M. (1941). Canon of insolation and the ice-age problem Koniglich Serbische Akademie Beograd [English translation by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations: published for the U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.]Google Scholar
Mitchell, J.M. (1961). Recent secular changes of global temperature Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 95, 235250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molfino, B., Kipp, N.G., Morley, J.J. (1982). Comparison of foraminiferal, coccolithophorid, and radiolarian paleotemperature equations: Assemblage coherency and estimate concordancy Quaternary Research 17, 279313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molina-Cruz, A., Thiede, J. (1978). The glacial eastern boundary current along the Atlantic Eurafrican continental margin Deep-Sea Research 25, 337356 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, T.C., Burckle, L.H., Geitzenauer, K., Luz, B., Molina-Cruz, A., Robertson, J.H., Sachs, H., Sancetta, C., Thiede, J., Thompson, P., Wenkam, C. (1980). The reconstruction of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean of 18,000 yr B.P. Marine Micropaleontology 5, 215247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, T.C., Pisias, N.G., Heath, G.R. (1977). Climatic changes and lags in Pacific carbonate preservation, SST and global ice volume Andersen, N.R., Malahoff, A., The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Oceans Plenum New York 145165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, W.S. (1982). Lat Pleistocene sea level history Ivanovich, M., Harmon, R.S., Uranium Series Disequilibrium: Applications to Environmental Problems Clarendon Oxford 481496 Google Scholar
Morley, J.J. (1979). A transfer function for estimating paleoceanographic conditions based on deep-sea surface sediment distribution of radiolarian assemblages in the South Atlantic Quaternary Research 12, 381395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morley, J.J., Hays, J.D. (1981). Towards a high-resolution, global, deep-sea chronology for the last 750,000 years Earth and Planetary Science Letters 53, 279295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morley, J.J., Robinson, W. (1980). Paleotemperature and faunal variations in two deep-sea records from the northern cape basin Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 12, 487 Google Scholar
Nichols, H. (1967). The post-glacial history of vegetation and climate at Ennadai Lake, Keewatin, and Lynn Lake, Manitoba Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart 18, 176197 Google Scholar
Ninkovich, C.D., Shackleton, N.J. (1975). Distribution, stratigraphic position and age of ash layer “L” in the Panama Basin region Earth and Planetary Science Letters 27, 2034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parkin, D.W., Padgham, R.C. (1975). Further studies on trade winds during the glacial cycles Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 346, 245260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parkin, D.W., Shackleton, N.J. (1973). Trade wind and temperature correlations down a deep-sea core off the Sahara coast Nature 245, 435457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pastouret, L., Chamley, H., Delibras, G., Duplessy, J.-C., Thiede, J. (1978). Late Quaternary climatic changes in western tropical Africa deduced from deep-sea sedimentation off the Niger delta Oceanologica Acta 1, 217232 Google Scholar
Peng, T.-H., Broecker, W.S., Kipphut, G., Shackleton, N.J. (1977). Benthic mixing in deep-sea cores as determined by 14C dating and its implications regarding climate stratigraphy and the fate of fossil fuel CO2 Anderson, N.R., Malahoff, A., The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Oceans Plenum New York 355373 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prell, W.L., Hays, J.D. (1976). Pleistocene faunal and temperature patterns, Colombia Basin Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 201220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radok, V., Barry, R.G., Jenssen, D., Keen, R.A., Kiladis, G.N., McInnes, B., (1982). Climatic and Physical Characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheets: Parts I and II Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Colorado Boulder Google Scholar
Raynaud, D., Lebel, B. (1979). Total gas content and surface elevation of polar ice sheets Nature (London) 281, 289291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romine, K., Moore, T.C. (1981). Radiolarian assemblage distributions and paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last 127,000 years Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 35, 281314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rona, E., Emiliani, C. (1969). Absolute dating of Caribbean cores P6304-8 and P6304-9 Science 163, 6668 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossignol-Strick, M., Nesteroff, V., Olive, P., Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. (1982). After the deluge: Mediterranean stagnation and sapropel formation Nature (London) 295, 105110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., Glover, L.K. (1975). Subpolar North Atlantic circulation at 9300 yr B.P.: Faunal evidence Quaternary Research 5, 361389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., Glover, L.K. (1982). Mixing of volcanic ash zones in subpolar North Atlantic sediments Scrutton, R.A., Talwani, M., The Ocean Floor Wiley New York 3760 Google Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., Heezen, B.C. (1967). Differential solution of planktonic foraminifera Deep-Sea Research 14, 801808 Google Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A. (1976). Northeast Atlantic paleoclimatic changes over the past 600,000 years Cline, R.M., Hays, J.D., Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145. 111146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A. (1979). Warmth of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean during Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet growth Science 204, 173175 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A. (1981a). Oceanic mechanisms for amplification of the 23,000-year ice-volume cycle Science 212, 617627 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A. (1981a). The North Atlantic during the last deglaciation Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 35, 145214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A. (1981c). The mode and mechanism of the last deglaciation: Oceanic evidence Quaternary Research 16, 125134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A., Niebler-Hunt, V., Durazzi, J.T. (1980b). Oceanic evidence for the mechanism of rapid Northern Hemisphere glaciation Quaternary Research 13, 3364 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., Molfino, B., Esmay, A., Pokras, E. (1980a). Evidence bearing on the mechanism of rapid deglaciation Climatic Change 3, 6587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., Sancetta, C.D., McIntyre, A. (1977). Glacial/interglacial response rate of subpolar North Atlantic waters to climatic change: The record left in deep-sea sediments Phylosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 280, 119142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sancetta, C., Imbrie, J., Kipp, N.G. (1973). Climatic record of the past 130,000 years in North Atlantic deep-sea core V23–82: Correlation with the terrestrial record Quaternary Research 3, 110116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarnthein, M., Koopman, B. (1980). Late Quaternary deep-sea record on northwest African dust supply and wind circulation van Zinderen Bakker, E.M. Sr., Coetzee, J.A., Palaeoecology of Africa and the Surrounding Islands A. A. Balkema Rotterdam 239253 Google Scholar
Shackleton, N.J. (1967). Oxygen isotope analyses and paleotemperatures reassessed Nature (London) 215, 1517 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackleton, N.J. (1969). The last interglacial in the marine and terrestrial records Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 174, 135154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackleton, N.J. (1974). Attainment of isotopic equilibrium between ocean water and the benthonic foraminifera genus Uvigerina: Isotopic changes in the ocean during the last glacial Colloques Internationaux CNRS 219, 203209 Google Scholar
Shackleton, N.J. (1977). The oxygen isotope stratigraphic record of the late Pleistocene Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 280, 169182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackleton, N.J., Matthews, R.K. (1977). Oxygen isotope stratigraphy of late Pleistocene Nature (London) 268, 618619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackleton, N.J., Opdyke, N.D. (1973). Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28–238: Oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105year and 106 year scale Quaternary Research 3, 3955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Short, S.K., Nichols, H.N. (1977). Holocene pollen diagrams from subarctic Labrador-Ungava Vegetational History and Climatic Change 9, 265290 Google Scholar
Streeter, S.S., Belanger, P.E., Kellogg, T.B., Duplessy, J.-C. (1982). Late Pleistocene paleooceanography of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea: Benthic foraminiferal evidence Quaternary Research 18, 7290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeter, S.S., Shackleton, N.J. (1979). Paleocirculation of the deep North Atlantic: A 150,000-year record of benthic foraminifera and δ18O Science 203, 168171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M., Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.L., Fastook, J.L. (1981). History of the marine ice sheet in West Antarctica during the last glaciation: A working hypothesis Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J., The Last Great Ice Sheets Wiley New York 319439 Google Scholar
Szabo, B.J., Ward, W.C., Weidie, A.E., Brady, M.J. (1978). Age and magnitude of the late Pleistocene sea-level rise on the eastern Yucatan Peninsula Geology 6, 713715 2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takahashi, K., Honjo, S. (1981). Vertical flux of radiolaria: A taxon-quantitative sediment trap study from the western tropical Atlantic Micropaleontology 27, 140190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiede, J. (1975). Distribution of foraminifera in surface waters of a coastal upwelling area Nature (London) 253, 712714 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiede, J. (1977). Aspects of the variability of the glacial and interglacial North Atlantic eastern boundary current (last 150,000 years) “Meteor” Forschungs Ergebnisse Reihe, C 28, 136 Google Scholar
Thierstein, H.R., Geitzenauer, K.R., Molfino, B., Shackleton, N.J. (1977). Global synchroneity of late Quaternary coccolith datum levels: Validation by oxygen isotopes Geology 5, 400404 2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, R.H. (1976). Thickening of the Ross Ice Shelf and equilibrium state of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Nature (London) 259, 180183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, R.H., Bentley, C.R. (1978). Model for Holocene retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Quaternary Research 10, 150170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, P.R. (1977). Pleistocene and Recent Foraminifera of the Western Pacific Ocean: Biostratigraphy, Dissolution and Paleoecology D.Sc. dissertation Tohoku University Sendai, Japan Google Scholar
Thompson, P.R. (1981). Planktonic foraminifera in the western North Pacific during the past 150,000 years: Comparison of modern and fossil assemblages Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 35, 241279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thunell, R.C., Williams, D.F. (1982). Paleoceanographic events associated with Termination II in the eastern Mediterranean Oceanologica Acta 5, 229233 Google Scholar
Van der Hammen, T., Wijmstra, T.A., Zagwijn, W.H. (1971). The floral record of the late Cenozoic of Europe Turekian, K.K., Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages Yale Univ. Press New Haven, Conn 391414 Google Scholar
Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., Ryan, W.B.F., Cita, M.G. (1977). Stable isotopic fractionation, climatic change and episodic stagnation in the eastern Mediterranean during the late Quaternary Marine Micropaleontology 2, 353370 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vincent, E., Killingley, J.S., Berger, W.S. (1981). Stable isotopic composition of benthic foraminifera from the equatorial Pacific Nature (London) 289, 639643 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walcott, R.I. (1972). Past sea levels, eustasy and deformation of the earth Quaternary Research 2, 114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weidick, A., (1975). A Review of Quaternary Investigations in Greenland Ohio State University, Institute of Polar Studies Report 55Google Scholar
Weidick, A. (1976). Glaciation and the Quaternary of Greenland Escher, A., Watt, W.S., Geology of Greenland 431458 Google Scholar
Woillard, G. (1978). Grande Pile peat bog: A continuous pollen record for the last 140,000 years Quaternary Research 9, 121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woillard, G.M. (1979a). The last interglacial-glacial cycle at Grande Pile in northeastern France Bulletin de la Societe Belge de Geologie 88, 5169 Google Scholar
Woillard, G.M. (1979b). Abrupt end of the last interglacial in north-east France Nature (London) 281, 558562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woillard, G.M., Mook, W.G. (1982). Carbon-14 dates at Grande Pile: Correlation of land and sea chronologies Science 215, 159161 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, S.B., Schofield, E.K. (1973). Pollen evidence for late Quaternary climate changes on Kerguelen Islands Nature (London) 245, 311312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
264
Cited by