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The GLEAM 4-Jy (G4Jy) Sample: I. Definition and the catalogue

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2020

Sarah V. White*
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
Thomas M. O Franzen
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia ASTRON: the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Chris J. Riseley
Affiliation:
CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA6102, Australia Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, via P. Gobetti 93/2, 40129Bologna, Italy INAF – Istituto di Radioastronomia, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129Bologna, Italy
O. Ivy Wong
Affiliation:
ICRAR, University of Western Australia (M468), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA6009, Australia
Anna D. Kapińska
Affiliation:
ICRAR, University of Western Australia (M468), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA6009, Australia National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro NM87801, USA
Natasha Hurley-Walker
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
Joseph R. Callingham
Affiliation:
ASTRON: the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Kshitij Thorat
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), 2 Fir Street, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa
Chen Wu
Affiliation:
ICRAR, University of Western Australia (M468), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA6009, Australia
Paul Hancock
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
Richard W. Hunstead
Affiliation:
Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW2006, Australia
Nick Seymour
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
Jesse Swan
Affiliation:
School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania7001Australia
Randall Wayth
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
John Morgan
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
Rajan Chhetri
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
Carole Jackson
Affiliation:
ASTRON: the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Stuart Weston
Affiliation:
Institute for Radio Astronomy and Space Research (IRASR), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland1010, New Zealand
Martin Bell
Affiliation:
University of Technology Sydney, 15 Broadway, Ultimo NSW2007, Australia
Bi-Qing For
Affiliation:
ICRAR, University of Western Australia (M468), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA6009, Australia
B. M. Gaensler
Affiliation:
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ONM5S 3H4, Canada
Melanie Johnston-Hollitt
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA6102, Australia
André Offringa
Affiliation:
ASTRON: the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Lister Staveley-Smith
Affiliation:
ICRAR, University of Western Australia (M468), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA6009, Australia
*
Author for correspondence: Sarah V. White, E-mail: sarahwhite.astro@gmail.com

Abstract

The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) has observed the entire southern sky (Declination, $\delta< 30^{\circ}$ ) at low radio frequencies, over the range 72–231MHz. These observations constitute the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA (GLEAM) Survey, and we use the extragalactic catalogue (EGC) (Galactic latitude, $|b| >10^{\circ}$ ) to define the GLEAM 4-Jy (G4Jy) Sample. This is a complete sample of the ‘brightest’ radio sources ( $S_{\textrm{151\,MHz}}>4\,\text{Jy}$ ), the majority of which are active galactic nuclei with powerful radio jets. Crucially, low-frequency observations allow the selection of such sources in an orientation-independent way (i.e. minimising the bias caused by Doppler boosting, inherent in high-frequency surveys). We then use higher-resolution radio images, and information at other wavelengths, to morphologically classify the brightest components in GLEAM. We also conduct cross-checks against the literature and perform internal matching, in order to improve sample completeness (which is estimated to be $>95.5$ %). This results in a catalogue of 1863 sources, making the G4Jy Sample over 10 times larger than that of the revised Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3CRR; $S_{\textrm{178\,MHz}}>10.9\,\text{Jy}$ ). Of these G4Jy sources, 78 are resolved by the MWA (Phase-I) synthesised beam ( $\sim2$ arcmin at 200MHz), and we label 67% of the sample as ‘single’, 26% as ‘double’, 4% as ‘triple’, and 3% as having ‘complex’ morphology at $\sim1\,\text{GHz}$ (45 arcsec resolution). We characterise the spectral behaviour of these objects in the radio and find that the median spectral index is $\alpha=-0.740 \pm 0.012$ between 151 and 843MHz, and $\alpha=-0.786 \pm 0.006$ between 151MHz and 1400MHz (assuming a power-law description, $S_{\nu} \propto \nu^{\alpha}$ ), compared to $\alpha=-0.829 \pm 0.006$ within the GLEAM band. Alongside this, our value-added catalogue provides mid-infrared source associations (subject to 6” resolution at 3.4 $\mu$ m) for the radio emission, as identified through visual inspection and thorough checks against the literature. As such, the G4Jy Sample can be used as a reliable training set for cross-identification via machine-learning algorithms. We also estimate the angular size of the sources, based on their associated components at $\sim1\,\text{GHz}$ , and perform a flux density comparison for 67 G4Jy sources that overlap with 3CRR. Analysis of multi-wavelength data, and spectral curvature between 72MHz and 20GHz, will be presented in subsequent papers, and details for accessing all G4Jy overlays are provided at https://github.com/svw26/G4Jy.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Astronomical Society of Australia 2020; published by Cambridge University Press

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