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The formation of planetary systems with SPICA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 November 2021

I. Kamp*
Affiliation:
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
M. Honda
Affiliation:
Department of Biosphere-Geosphere Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama, Okayama 700-0005, Japan
H. Nomura
Affiliation:
Division of Science, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
M. Audard
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
D. Fedele
Affiliation:
INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go Fermi 5, 50126 Firenze, Italy
L. B. F. M. Waters
Affiliation:
Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics & Particle Physics, Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
Y. Aikawa
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan
A. Banzatti
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, Texas State University, 749 N Comanche Street, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
J.E. Bowey
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
M. Bradford
Affiliation:
California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
C. Dominik
Affiliation:
Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
K. Furuya
Affiliation:
Division of Science, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
E. Habart
Affiliation:
Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, 91405, Orsay, France
D. Ishihara
Affiliation:
Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, 252-5210 Kanagawa, Japan
D. Johnstone
Affiliation:
NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7, Canada
G. Kennedy
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
M. Kim
Affiliation:
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, 24118 Kiel, Germany Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
Q. Kral
Affiliation:
LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
S.-P. Lai
Affiliation:
Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
B. Larsson
Affiliation:
Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Department of Astronomy, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
M. McClure
Affiliation:
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
A. Miotello
Affiliation:
ESO, Garching, Germany
M. Momose
Affiliation:
College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan
T. Nakagawa
Affiliation:
Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, 252-5210 Kanagawa, Japan
D. Naylor
Affiliation:
Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4, Canada
B. Nisini
Affiliation:
INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via di Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (RM)
S. Notsu
Affiliation:
Star and Planet Formation Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
T. Onaka
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506, Japan
E. Pantin
Affiliation:
CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, France
L. Podio
Affiliation:
INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go Fermi 5, 50126 Firenze, Italy
P. Riviere Marichalar
Affiliation:
Observatorio Astronóomico Nacional (OAN,IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid, Spain
W. R. M. Rocha
Affiliation:
Niels Bohr Institute & Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K., Denmark
P. Roelfsema
Affiliation:
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
T. Shimonishi
Affiliation:
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, Ikarashi-ninocho 8050, Nishi-ku, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan; Environmental Science Program, Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi-ninocho 8050, Nishi-ku, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan
Y.-W. Tang
Affiliation:
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
M. Takami
Affiliation:
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
R. Tazaki
Affiliation:
Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
S. Wolf
Affiliation:
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, 24118 Kiel, Germany
M. Wyatt
Affiliation:
Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
N. Ysard
Affiliation:
Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, 91405, Orsay, France
*
*Author for correspondence: Inga Kamp, E-mail: kamp@astro.rug.nl

Abstract

In this era of spatially resolved observations of planet-forming disks with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and large ground-based telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Keck, and Subaru, we still lack statistically relevant information on the quantity and composition of the material that is building the planets, such as the total disk gas mass, the ice content of dust, and the state of water in planetesimals. SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is an infrared space mission concept developed jointly by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and European Space Agency (ESA) to address these questions. The key unique capabilities of SPICA that enable this research are (1) the wide spectral coverage $10{-}220\,\mu\mathrm{m}$ , (2) the high line detection sensitivity of $(1{-}2) \times 10^{-19}\,\mathrm{W\,m}^{-2}$ with $R \sim 2\,000{-}5\,000$ in the far-IR (SAFARI), and $10^{-20}\,\mathrm{W\,m}^{-2}$ with $R \sim 29\,000$ in the mid-IR (SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument (SMI), spectrally resolving line profiles), (3) the high far-IR continuum sensitivity of 0.45 mJy (SAFARI), and (4) the observing efficiency for point source surveys. This paper details how mid- to far-IR infrared spectra will be unique in measuring the gas masses and water/ice content of disks and how these quantities evolve during the planet-forming period. These observations will clarify the crucial transition when disks exhaust their primordial gas and further planet formation requires secondary gas produced from planetesimals. The high spectral resolution mid-IR is also unique for determining the location of the snowline dividing the rocky and icy mass reservoirs within the disk and how the divide evolves during the build-up of planetary systems. Infrared spectroscopy (mid- to far-IR) of key solid-state bands is crucial for assessing whether extensive radial mixing, which is part of our Solar System history, is a general process occurring in most planetary systems and whether extrasolar planetesimals are similar to our Solar System comets/asteroids. We demonstrate that the SPICA mission concept would allow us to achieve the above ambitious science goals through large surveys of several hundred disks within $\sim\!2.5$ months of observing time.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Australia

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