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Opportunities for diet quality improvement: the potential role of staple grain foods

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2021

Mariane de Mello Fontanelli
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Angela Martinez Arroyo
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904, São Paulo, SP, Brazil School Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
Cristiane Hermes Sales
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Chris J Seal
Affiliation:
Human Nutrition Research Centre, Public Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
Regina Mara Fisberg
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective:

Given the high disease burden associated with the low intake of whole grains, modelling studies that estimate the impact of dietary strategies to increase more healthful grain foods consumption are essential to inform evidence-based and culturally specific policies. The current study investigated the potential nutritional impact of replacing staple grain foods with more healthful options.

Design:

Based on the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study, we modelled the substitution of white rice and white bread with brown rice and whole-wheat bread. Outcomes included changes in more healthful grain foods, energy and nutrient intakes.

Setting:

Urban area of São Paulo, Brazil.

Participants:

Participants aged over 12 years who completed a semi-structured questionnaire and one 24-h recall (n 1741).

Results:

The substitution of all white rice and white bread with brown rice and whole-wheat bread, respectively, would result in more than 5 % increases in Zn (+9·1 %), Ca (+9·3 %), vitamin E (+18·8 %), dietary fibre (+27·0 %) and Mg (+52·9 %) intake, while more than a 5 % decrease would be seen for total carbohydrate (–6·1 %), folate (–6·6 %), available carbohydrate (–8·5 %), Fe (–8·6 %), vitamin B6 (–12·5 %), vitamin B2 (–17·4 %), and vitamin B1 (–20·7 %). A substantial increase in the amount of more healthful grain foods consumed would be seen (10 g/d to 220 g/d, or from 4 % to 69 % of total grain intake).

Conclusions:

Replacing white rice and white bread with their whole-grain versions has the potential to improve diet quality, suggesting they are prime targets for policy actions aiming at increasing intake of more healthful grain foods.

Type
Research paper
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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