Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-5wlnc Total loading time: 0.227 Render date: 2021-07-30T17:04:10.415Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Nutrient density and affordability of foods in Brazil by food group and degree of processing

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 October 2020

Kennya Beatriz Siqueira
Affiliation:
Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, Rua Eugênio do Nascimento, 610, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
Cristiano AV Borges
Affiliation:
Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, Rua Eugênio do Nascimento, 610, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
Mirella L Binoti
Affiliation:
Federal University of Viçosa, Nutrition and Health Department, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
Amanda F Pilati
Affiliation:
Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Nutrition Department, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
Paulo HF da Silva
Affiliation:
Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Nutrition Department, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
Shilpi Gupta
Affiliation:
Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Box 353410, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Adam Drewnowski
Affiliation:
Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Box 353410, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective:

Affordable nutrition refers to the relation between nutrient density of foods and their monetary cost. There are limited data on affordable nutrition in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to develop a nutrient density score and nutrient affordability metrics for 377 most consumed foods in Brazil.

Design:

The foods were aggregated into seven major food groups and four NOVA food categories. Nutrient composition data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Food prices were obtained from retailer websites and were converted to prices per 100 g and 418 kJ. The Nutrient Rich Food (NRF8.2) score was based on protein, fiber, vitamins A, C and E, Ca, Fe and K. Nutrients to limit were sugar and Na. Affordability was measured as kcal/R$ and nutrients/R$.

Results:

Grains, fats and sweets were more energy dense and had lower NRF8.2 scores than dairy, vegetables and fruits. Grains, fats and sweets were the lowest cost sources of energy. Vegetables and fruits, beans, nuts and seeds and eggs and dairy were the lowest cost sources of multiple nutrients. Ultra-processed foods (48 % of total) had higher energy density and lower NRF8.2 scores than did unprocessed foods. In Brazil, fruits, vegetables and dairy products offered the most nutrients per real.

Conclusions:

Analysis of the relationship between nutrient density of foods and their cost can help identify locally available foods that are nutrient rich, affordable and culturally acceptable. Achieving high nutrient density at an affordable cost should be the goal of Brazil’s food systems.

Type
Research paper
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Prentice, AM (2018) The double burden of malnutrition in countries passing through the economic transition. Ann Nutr Metab 72, Suppl. 3, 4754.Google ScholarPubMed
Severi, C & Moratorio, X (2014) Double burden of undernutrition and obesity in Uruguay. Am J Clin Nutr 100, Suppl. 6, 1659S1662S.Google ScholarPubMed
Kroker-Lobos, MF, Pedroza-Tobías, A, Pedraza, LS et al. (2014) The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr 100, Suppl. 6, 1652S1658S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freire, WB, Silva-Jaramillo, KM, Ramírez-Luzuriaga, MJ et al. (2014) The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador. Am J Clin Nutr 100, Suppl. 6, 1636S1643S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conde, WL & Monteiro, CA (2014) Nutrition transition and double burden of undernutrition and excess of weight in Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 100, Suppl. 6, 1617S-1622S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batal, M, Steinhouse, L & Delisle, H (2018) The nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition. Med Sante Trop 28, Suppl. 4, 345350.Google ScholarPubMed
Drewnowski, A & Popkin, BM (1997) The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutr Rev 55, Suppl. 2, 3143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drewnowski, A & Specter, S (2004) Poverty and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 79, Suppl. 1, 616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bond, L (2019) Obesity in Brazil up to 19.8 % from 2006–2018. Brazil: Agência Brasil; available at https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/geral/noticia/2019–07/obesity-brazil-198–2006–2018 (accessed February 2020).Google Scholar
Darmon, N & Drewnowski, A (2015) Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis. Nutr Rev 73, Suppl. 10, 643660.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drewnowski, A & Darmon, N (2005) Food choices and diet costs: an economic analysis. J Nutr 135, Suppl. 4, 900904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brazil (2014) Dietary Guidelines for Brazilian Population. Brasília: Ministry of Health (MS); available at http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/dietary_guidelines_brazilian_population.pdf (accessed February 2020).Google Scholar
Drewnowski, A (2020) Analysing the affordability of the EAT-Lancet diet. Lancet Glob Health 8, Suppl. 1, e6e7.Google ScholarPubMed
Verly, E Jr, Sichieri, R, Darmon, N et al. (2019) Planning dietary improvements without additional costs for low-income individuals in Brazil: linear programming optimization as a tool for public policy in nutrition and health. Nutr J 18, Suppl. 1, 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verly, E Jr, Darmon, N, Sichieri, R et al. (2020) Reaching culturally acceptable and adequate diets at the lowest cost increment according to income level in Brazilian households. PLoS One 15, Suppl. 3, e0229439.Google ScholarPubMed
Poppino, RE (2020) Brazil. https://www.britannica.com/place/Brazil/Agriculture (accessed February 2020).Google Scholar
Drewnowski, A (2010) The Nutrient Rich Foods Index helps to identify healthy, affordable foods. Am J Clin Nutr 91, Suppl. 4, 1095S1101S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drewnowski, A (2013) New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost? J Acad Nutr Diet 113, Suppl. 9, 11821187.Google ScholarPubMed
Dubois, C, Tharrey, M & Darmon, N (2017) Identifying foods with good nutritional quality and price for the Opticourses intervention research project. Public Health Nutr 20, Suppl. 17, 30513059.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mendoza, A, Pérez, AE, Aggarwal, A et al. (2017) Energy density of foods and diets in Mexico and their monetary cost by socioeconomic strata: analyses of ENSANUT data 2012. J Epidemiol Community Health 71, Suppl. 7, 713721.Google ScholarPubMed
Gupta, S, Hawk, T, Aggarwal, A et al. (2019) Characterizing ultra-processed foods by energy density, nutrient density, and cost. Front Nutr 6, 70.Google ScholarPubMed
Monteiro, CA, Cannon, G, Levy, RB et al. (2016) NOVA The star shines bright. World Nutr 7, 2838.Google Scholar
Rodrigues, PRM, Monteiro, LS, Cunha, DB et al. (2020) Adult food consumption by household composition: an analysis of the first National Dietary Survey, Brazil, 2008–2009. Public Health Nutr 23, Suppl. 2, 193201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2011) Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008–2009: Table of Reference Measures for Food Consumed in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2018) USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 2015–2016. Food Surveys Research Group Home Page. https://www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg (accessed February 2020).Google Scholar
Drewnowski, A (2018) Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity. Br J Nutr 120, Suppl. 1, S8S14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drewnowski, A (2017) Uses of nutrient profiling to address public health needs: from regulation to reformulation. Proc Nutr Soc 76, Suppl. 3, 220229.Google ScholarPubMed
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2010) Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008–2009: Anthropometry and Nutritional Status of Children, Adolescents and Adults in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
Drewnowski, A (2009) Defining nutrient density: development and validation of the nutrient rich foods index. J Am Coll Nutr 28, Suppl. 4, 421S426S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fulgoni, VL 3rd, Keast, DR & Drewnowski, A (2009) Development and validation of the nutrient-rich foods index: a tool to measure nutritional quality of foods. J Nutr 139, Suppl. 8, 15491554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
USDoA (2015) 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture; available at https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ (accessed February 2020).Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nutrient density and affordability of foods in Brazil by food group and degree of processing
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Nutrient density and affordability of foods in Brazil by food group and degree of processing
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Nutrient density and affordability of foods in Brazil by food group and degree of processing
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *