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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 August 2020
To describe the anthropometry, socioeconomic circumstances, diet and screen time usage of adolescents in India and Africa as context to a qualitative study of barriers to healthy eating and activity.
Cross-sectional survey, including measured height and weight and derived rates of stunting, low BMI, overweight and obesity. Parental schooling and employment status, household assets and amenities, and adolescents’ dietary diversity, intake of snack foods, mobile/smartphone ownership and TV/computer time were obtained via a questionnaire.
Four settings each in Africa (rural villages, West Kiang, The Gambia; low-income urban communities, Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire; low/middle-class urban communities, Jimma, Ethiopia; low-income township, Johannesburg, South Africa) and India (rural villages, Dervan; semi-rural villages, Pune; city slums, Mumbai; low-middle/middle-class urban communities, Mysore).
Convenience samples (n 41–112 per site) of boys and girls, half aged 10–12 years and another half aged 15–17 years, were recruited for a qualitative study.
Both undernutrition (stunting and/or low BMI) and overweight/obesity were present in all settings. Rural settings had the most undernutrition, least overweight/obesity and greatest diet diversity. Urban Johannesburg (27 %) and Abidjan (16 %), and semi-rural Pune (16 %) had the most overweight/obesity. In all settings, adolescents reported low intakes of micronutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, and substantial intakes of salted snacks, cakes/biscuits, sweets and fizzy drinks. Smartphone ownership ranged from 5 % (West Kiang) to 69 % (Johannesburg), higher among older adolescents.
The ‘double burden of malnutrition’ is present in all TALENT settings. Greater urban transition is associated with less undernutrition, more overweight/obesity, less diet diversity and higher intakes of unhealthy/snack foods.
The TALENT collaboration comprises: Laurence Adonis-Koffy, Yopougon University Hospital Faculty of Medical Sciences, UFHB de Cocody, Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Ulka Banavali, Regional Center for Adolescent Health and Nutrition, BKL Walawalkar Rural Medical College, Chiplun, India; Edna Bosire, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Meera Gandhi, Centre for the Study of Social Change, Mumbai, India; Abraham Haileamlak, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Landing Jarjou, MRC Unit The Gambia; Elizabeth Kimani-Murage, African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya; Egnon Kouakou, PAC-CI, Abidjan, Ivory Coast; G.V. Krishnaveni, Epidemiology Research Unit, CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India; Valeriane Leroy, Inserm U1027, University of Toulouse, Paul Sabatier, France; Sophie Moore, Kings College London, London, UK; Shane Norris, Developmental Pathways Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Suvarna Patil, Regional Center for Adolescent Health and Nutrition, BKL Walawalkar Rural Medical College, Chiplun, India; Sirazul Ameen Sahariah, Centre for the Study of Social Change, Mumbai, India; Kate Ward, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, UK; Susie Weller, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, UK; Stephanie Wrottesley, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Chittaranjan Yajnik, Diabetes Research Unit, KEM Hospital, Pune, India; Pallavi Yajnik, Diabetes Research Unit, KEM Hospital, Pune, India.
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