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Temporal reproduction and its neuroanatomical correlates in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 June 2016

V. A. Pironti*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herschel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK MRC/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge, UK Adult ADHD Clinic, Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Ida Darwin, Fulbourn, Cambridge, UK
M.-C. Lai
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, Cambridge, UK
S. Morein-Zamir
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herschel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK MRC/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge, UK
U. Müller
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herschel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK Adult ADHD Clinic, Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Ida Darwin, Fulbourn, Cambridge, UK
E. T. Bullmore
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herschel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK MRC/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge, UK
B. J. Sahakian
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herschel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK MRC/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge, UK
*
*Address for correspondence: Dr V. A. Pironti, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herschel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0SZ, UK. (Email: vp271@cam.ac.uk)

Abstract

Background

Little is known about time perception, its putative role as cognitive endophenotype, and its neuroanatomical underpinnings in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method

Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 typically developing controls matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional grey-matter volumes. Temporal processing was investigated as a putative cognitive endophenotype using a temporal reproduction paradigm. General linear modelling was employed to examine the relationship between temporal reproduction performances and grey-matter volumes.

Results

ADHD participants were impaired in temporal reproduction and unaffected first-degree relatives performed in between their ADHD probands and typically developing controls. Increased grey-matter volume in the cerebellum was associated with poorer temporal reproduction performance.

Conclusions

Adults with ADHD are impaired in time reproduction. Performances of the unaffected first-degree relatives are in between ADHD relatives and controls, suggesting that time reproduction might be a cognitive endophenotype for adult ADHD. The cerebellum is involved in time reproduction and might play a role in driving time performances.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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