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Sex differences in regional gray matter density in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 October 2022

Stuart B. Murray*
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Joel P. Diaz-Fong
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Christina J. Duval
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Ane A. Balkchyan
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Jason M. Nagata
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Darrin J. Lee
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA USC Neurorestoration Center, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Kyle T. Ganson
Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Arthur W. Toga
USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Steven J. Siegel
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Kay Jann
USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Author for correspondence: Stuart B. Murray, E-mail:;



Binge eating disorder (BED) is a pernicious psychiatric disorder which is linked with broad medical and psychiatric morbidity, and obesity. While BED may be characterized by altered cortical morphometry, no evidence to date examined possible sex-differences in regional gray matter characteristics among those with BED. This is especially important to consider in children, where BED symptoms often emerge coincident with rapid gray matter maturation.


Pre-adolescent, 9–10-year old boys (N = 38) and girls (N = 33) with BED were extracted from the 3.0 baseline (Year 0) release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. We investigated sex differences in gray matter density (GMD) via voxel-based morphometry. Control sex differences were also assessed in age and body mass index and developmentally matched control children (boys N = 36; girls N = 38). Among children with BED, we additionally assessed the association between dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) GMD and parent-reported behavioral approach and inhibition tendencies.


Girls with BED uniquely demonstrate diffuse clusters of greater GMD (p < 0.05, Threshold Free Cluster Enhancement corrected) in the (i) left dlPFC (p = 0.003), (ii) bilateral dmPFC (p = 0.004), (iii) bilateral primary motor and somatosensory cortex (p = 0.0003) and (iv) bilateral precuneus (p = 0.007). Brain-behavioral associations suggest a unique negative correlation between GMD in the left dlPFC and behavioral approach tendencies among girls with BED.


Early-onset BED may be characterized by regional sex differences in terms of its underlying gray matter morphometry.

Original Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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