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Prediction of depression symptoms in individual subjects with face and eye movement tracking

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 November 2020

Aleks Stolicyn*
Affiliation:
Division of Psychiatry, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kennedy Tower, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Morningside Park, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 10 Crichton Street, Edinburgh EH8 9AB, UK
J. Douglas Steele
Affiliation:
Division of Imaging Science and Technology, School of Medicine, Dundee University, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
Peggy Seriès
Affiliation:
Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 10 Crichton Street, Edinburgh EH8 9AB, UK
*
Author for correspondence: Aleks Stolicyn E-mail: a.stolicyn@ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Background

Depression is a challenge to diagnose reliably and the current gold standard for trials of DSM-5 has been in agreement between two or more medical specialists. Research studies aiming to objectively predict depression have typically used brain scanning. Less expensive methods from cognitive neuroscience may allow quicker and more reliable diagnoses, and contribute to reducing the costs of managing the condition. In the current study we aimed to develop a novel inexpensive system for detecting elevated symptoms of depression based on tracking face and eye movements during the performance of cognitive tasks.

Methods

In total, 75 participants performed two novel cognitive tasks with verbal affective distraction elements while their face and eye movements were recorded using inexpensive cameras. Data from 48 participants (mean age 25.5 years, standard deviation of 6.1 years, 25 with elevated symptoms of depression) passed quality control and were included in a case-control classification analysis with machine learning.

Results

Classification accuracy using cross-validation (within-study replication) reached 79% (sensitivity 76%, specificity 82%), when face and eye movement measures were combined. Symptomatic participants were characterised by less intense mouth and eyelid movements during different stages of the two tasks, and by differences in frequencies and durations of fixations on affectively salient distraction words.

Conclusions

Elevated symptoms of depression can be detected with face and eye movement tracking during the cognitive performance, with a close to clinically-relevant accuracy (~80%). Future studies should validate these results in larger samples and in clinical populations.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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