Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-tvhzr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-24T14:58:50.472Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Posttraumatic psychopathology and the pace of the epigenetic clock: a longitudinal investigation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 June 2018

Erika J. Wolf*
National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Mark W. Logue
National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Biomedical Genetics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Filomene G. Morrison
National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Elizabeth S. Wilcox
National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA
Annjanette Stone
Pharmacogenomics Analysis Laboratory, Research Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR, USA
Steven A. Schichman
Pharmacogenomics Analysis Laboratory, Research Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR, USA
Regina E. McGlinchey
Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center and Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
William P. Milberg
Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center and Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Mark W. Miller
National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Author for correspondence: Erika J. Wolf, E-mail:



Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress/trauma exposure are cross-sectionally associated with advanced DNA methylation age relative to chronological age. However, longitudinal inquiry and examination of associations between advanced DNA methylation age and a broader range of psychiatric disorders is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if PTSD, depression, generalized anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders predicted acceleration of DNA methylation age over time (i.e. an increasing pace, or rate of advancement, of the epigenetic clock).


Genome-wide DNA methylation and a comprehensive set of psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were assessed in 179 Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans who completed two assessments over the course of approximately 2 years. Two DNA methylation age indices (Horvath and Hannum), each a weighted index of an array of genome-wide DNA methylation probes, were quantified. The pace of the epigenetic clock was operationalized as change in DNA methylation age as a function of time between assessments.


Analyses revealed that alcohol-use disorders (p = 0.001) and PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms (p = 0.02) at Time 1 were associated with an increasing pace of the epigenetic clock over time, per the Horvath (but not the Hannum) index of cellular aging.


This is the first study to suggest that posttraumatic psychopathology is longitudinally associated with a quickened pace of the epigenetic clock. Results raise the possibility that accelerated cellular aging is a common biological consequence of stress-related psychopathology, which carries implications for identifying mechanisms of stress-related cellular aging and developing interventions to slow its pace.

Original Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Achur, RN, Freeman, WM and Vrana, KE (2010) Circulating cytokines as biomarkers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 5, 8391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aiello, AE, Dowd, JB, Jayabalasingham, B, Feinstein, L, Uddin, M, Simanek, AM, Cheng, CK, Galea, S, Wildman, DE and Koenen, K (2016) PTSD is associated with an increase in aged T cell phenotypes in adults living in Detroit. Psychoneuroendocrinology 67, 133141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antoni, FA, Hunter, EF, Lowry, PJ, Noble, JM and Seckl, JR (1992) Atriopeptin: an endogenous corticotropin-release inhibiting hormone. Endocrinology 130, 17531755.Google ScholarPubMed
Beech, RD, Qu, J, Leffert, JJ, Lin, A, Hong, KA, Hansen, J, Umlauf, S, Mane, S, Zhao, H and Sinha, R (2012) Altered expression of cytokine signaling pathway genes in peripheral blood cells of alcohol dependent subjects: preliminary findings. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36, 14871496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blake, DD, Weathers, FW, Nagy, LM, Kaloupek, DG, Gusman, FD, Charney, DS and Keane, TM (1995) The development of a clinician-administered PTSD scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress 8, 7590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boks, MP, van Mierlo, HC, Rutten, BP, Radstake, TR, De Witte, L, Geuze, E, Horvath, S, Schalkwyk, LC, Vinkers, CH, Broen, JC and Vermetten, E (2015) Longitudinal changes of telomere length and epigenetic age related to traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 51, 506512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breen, MS, Maihofer, AX, Glatt, SJ, Tylee, DS, Chandler, SD, Tsuang, MT, Risbrough, VB, Baker, DG, O'Connor, DT, Nievergelt, CM and Woelk, CH (2015) Gene networks specific for innate immunity define post-traumatic stress disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 20, 15381545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breton, CV, Marsit, CJ, Faustman, E, Nadeau, K, Goodrich, JM, Dolinoy, DC, Herbstman, J, Holland, N, LaSalle, JM, Schmidt, R, Yousefi, P, Perera, F, Joubert, BR, Wiemels, J, Taylor, M, Yang, IV, Chen, R, Hew, KM, Freeland, DM, Miller, R and Murphy, SK (2017) Small-magnitude effect sizes in epigenetic end points are important in children's environmental health studies: The Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center's Epigenetics Working Group. Environmental Health Perspectives 125, 511526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, JE, Irwin, MR, Levine, M, Seeman, TE, Absher, D, Assimes, T and Horvath, S (2017) Epigenetic aging and immune senescence in women with insomnia symptoms: findings from the women's health initiative study. Biological Psychiatry 81, 136144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, BH, Marioni, RE, Colicino, E, Peters, MJ, Ward-Caviness, CK, Tsai, PC, Roetker, NS, Just, AC, Demerath, EW, Guan, W, Bressler, J, Fornage, M, Studenski, S, Vandiver, AR, Moore, AZ, Tanaka, T, Kiel, DP, Liang, L, Vokonas, P, Schwartz, J, Lunetta, KL, Murabito, JM, Bandinelli, S, Hernandez, DG, Melzer, D, Nalls, M, Pilling, LC, Price, TR, Singleton, AB, Gieger, C, Holle, R, Kretschmer, A, Kronenberg, F, Kunze, S, Linseisen, J, Meisinger, C, Rathmann, W, Waldenberger, M, Visscher, PM, Shah, S, Wray, NR, McRae, AF, Franco, OH, Hofman, A, Uitterlinden, AG, Absher, D, Assimes, T, Levine, ME, Lu, AT, Tsao, PS, Hou, L, Manson, JE, Carty, CL, LaCroix, AZ, Reiner, AP, Spector, TD, Feinberg, AP, Levy, D, Baccarelli, A, van Meurs, J, Bell, JT, Peters, A, Deary, IJ, Pankow, JS, Ferrucci, L and Horvath, S (2016) DNA methylation-based measures of biological age: meta-analysis predicting time to death. Aging (Albany NY) 8, 18441865.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, RT, Ballas, ZK, Waldschmidt, TJ, Vandersteen, D, LaBrecque, DR and Cook, BL (1995) Modulation of T-cell adhesion markers, and the CD45R and CD57 antigens in human alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 19, 555563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, RT, Waldschmidt, TJ, Ballas, ZK, Cook, BL, Booth, BM, Stewart, BC and Garvey, MJ (1994) Fine T-cell subsets in alcoholics as determined by the expression of l-selectin, leukocyte common antigen, and β-integrin. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 18, 7180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darrow, SM, Verhoeven, JE, Revesz, D, Lindqvist, D, Penninx, BW, Delucchi, KL, Wolkowitz, OM and Mathews, CA (2016) The association between psychiatric disorders and telomere length: a meta-analysis involving 14,827 persons. Psychosomatic Medicine 78, 776787.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, EG, Humphreys, KL, McEwen, LM, Sacchet, MD, Camacho, MC, MacIsaac, JL, Lin, DTS, Kobor, MS and Gotlib, IH (2017) Accelerated DNA methylation age in adolescent girls: associations with elevated diurnal cortisol and reduced hippocampal volume. Translational Psychiatry 7, e1223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durso, DF, Bacalini, MG, Sala, C, Pirazzini, C, Marasco, E, Bonafé, M, do Valle, ÍF, Gentilini, D, Castellani, G and Faria, AMC (2017) Acceleration of leukocytes’ epigenetic age as an early tumor and sex-specific marker of breast and colorectal cancer. Oncotarget 8, 23237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
First, MB, Gibbon, M, Spitzer, RL and Benjamin, LS (1997). User's Guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders: SCID-II. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.Google Scholar
Fülöp, T, Dupuis, G, Witkowski, JM and Larbi, A (2016) The role of immunosenescence in the development of age-related diseases. Revista de Investigación Clínica 68, 8491.Google ScholarPubMed
Glahn, A, Riera Knorrenschild, R, Rhein, M, Haschemi Nassab, M, Groschl, M, Heberlein, A, Muschler, M, Frieling, H, Bleich, S and Hillemacher, T (2014) Alcohol-induced changes in methylation status of individual CpG sites, and serum levels of vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxification treatment. European Addiction Research 20, 143150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hannum, G, Guinney, J, Zhao, L, Zhang, L, Hughes, G, Sadda, S, Klotzle, B, Bibikova, M, Fan, JB, Gao, Y, Deconde, R, Chen, M, Rajapakse, I, Friend, S, Ideker, T and Zhang, K (2013) Genome-wide methylation profiles reveal quantitative views of human aging rates. Molecular Cell 49, 359367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harlaar, N, Bryan, AD, Thayer, RE, Karoly, HC, Oien, N and Hutchison, KE (2014) Methylation of a CpG site near the ALDH1A2 gene is associated with loss of control over drinking and related phenotypes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 38, 713721.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horvath, S (2013) DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types. Genome Biology 14, R115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horvath, S, Gurven, M, Levine, ME, Trumble, BC, Kaplan, H, Allayee, H, Ritz, BR, Chen, B, Lu, AT, Rickabaugh, TM, Jamieson, BD, Sun, D, Li, S, Chen, W, Quintana-Murci, L, Fagny, M, Kobor, MS, Tsao, PS, Reiner, AP, Edlefsen, KL, Absher, D and Assimes, TL (2016) An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease. Genome Biology 17, 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jovanovic, T, Vance, LA, Cross, D, Knight, AK, Kilaru, V, Michopoulos, V, Klengel, T and Smith, AK (2017) Exposure to violence accelerates epigenetic aging in children. Scientific Reports 7, 8962.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kananen, L, Marttila, S, Nevalainen, T, Kummola, L, Junttila, I, Mononen, N, Kähönen, M, Raitakari, O, Hervonen, A and Jylhä, M (2016) The trajectory of the blood DNA methylome ageing rate is largely set before adulthood: evidence from two longitudinal studies. Age 38, 65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC, Sonnega, A, Bromet, E, Hughes, M and Nelson, CB (1995) Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 10481060.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kozlenkov, A, Jaffe, AE, Timashpolsky, A, Apontes, P, Rudchenko, S, Barbu, M, Byne, W, Hurd, YL, Horvath, S and Dracheva, S (2017) DNA methylation profiling of human prefrontal cortex neurons in heroin users shows significant difference between genomic contexts of hyper-and hypomethylation and a younger epigenetic age. Genes 8, 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kubany, ES, Haynes, SN, Leisen, MB, Owens, JA, Kaplan, AS, Watson, SB and Burns, K (2000) Development and preliminary validation of a brief broad-spectrum measure of trauma exposure: the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment 12, 210224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leclercq, S, Cani, PD, Neyrinck, AM, Starkel, P, Jamar, F, Mikolajczak, M, Delzenne, NM and de Timary, P (2012) Role of intestinal permeability and inflammation in the biological and behavioral control of alcohol-dependent subjects. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 26, 911918.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, ME, Lu, AT, Bennett, DA and Horvath, S (2015) Epigenetic age of the pre-frontal cortex is associated with neuritic plaques, amyloid load, and Alzheimer's disease related cognitive functioning. Aging (Albany NY) 7, 11981211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, C, Marioni, RE, Hedman, AK, Pfeiffer, L, Tsai, PC, Reynolds, LM, Just, AC, Duan, Q, Boer, CG, Tanaka, T, Elks, CE, Aslibekyan, S, Brody, JA, Kuhnel, B, Herder, C, Almli, LM, Zhi, D, Wang, Y, Huan, T, Yao, C, Mendelson, MM, Joehanes, R, Liang, L, Love, SA, Guan, W, Shah, S, McRae, AF, Kretschmer, A, Prokisch, H, Strauch, K, Peters, A, Visscher, PM, Wray, NR, Guo, X, Wiggins, KL, Smith, AK, Binder, EB, Ressler, KJ, Irvin, MR, Absher, DM, Hernandez, D, Ferrucci, L, Bandinelli, S, Lohman, K, Ding, J, Trevisi, L, Gustafsson, S, Sandling, JH, Stolk, L, Uitterlinden, AG, Yet, I, Castillo-Fernandez, JE, Spector, TD, Schwartz, JD, Vokonas, P, Lind, L, Li, Y, Fornage, M, Arnett, DK, Wareham, NJ, Sotoodehnia, N, Ong, KK, van Meurs, JB, Conneely, KN, Baccarelli, AA, Deary, IJ, Bell, JT, North, KE, Liu, Y, Waldenberger, M, London, SJ, Ingelsson, E and Levy, D (2016) A DNA methylation biomarker of alcohol consumption. Molecular Psychiatry 23, 422433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Logue, MW, Smith, AK, Wolf, EJ, Maniates, H, Stone, A, Schichman, SA, McGlinchey, RE, Milberg, W and Miller, MW (2017) The correlation of methylation levels measured using Illumina 450 K and EPIC BeadChips in blood samples. Epigenomics 9, 13631371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macaulay, R, Akbar, AN and Henson, SM (2013) The role of the T cell in age-related inflammation. Age 35, 563572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marioni, RE, Shah, S, McRae, AF, Chen, BH, Colicino, E, Harris, SE, Gibson, J, Henders, AK, Redmond, P, Cox, SR, Pattie, A, Corley, J, Murphy, L, Martin, NG, Montgomery, GW, Feinberg, AP, Fallin, MD, Multhaup, ML, Jaffe, AE, Joehanes, R, Schwartz, J, Just, AC, Lunetta, KL, Murabito, JM, Starr, JM, Horvath, S, Baccarelli, AA, Levy, D, Visscher, PM, Wray, NR and Deary, IJ (2015) DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. Genome Biology 16, 25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGlinchey, RE, Milberg, WP, Fonda, JR and Fortier, CB (2017). A methodology for assessing deployment trauma and its consequences in OEF/OIF/OND veterans: the TRACTS longitudinal prospective cohort study. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 26, e1556.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKinney, BC, Lin, H, Ding, Y, Lewis, DA and Sweet, RA (2017) DNA methylation evidence against the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia. NPJ Schizophrenia 3, 13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, MW, Lin, AP, Wolf, EJ and Miller, DR (2017) Oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuroprogression in chronic PTSD. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 26, 5769.Google Scholar
Miller, MW, Wolf, EJ, Reardon, A, Greene, A, Ofrat, S and McInerney, S (2012) Personality and the latent structure of PTSD comorbidity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 26, 599607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muschler, MA, Hillemacher, T, Kraus, C, Kornhuber, J, Bleich, S and Frieling, H (2010) DNA methylation of the POMC gene promoter is associated with craving in alcohol dependence. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna) 117, 513519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Passos, IC, Vasconcelos-Moreno, MP, Costa, LG, Kunz, M, Brietzke, E, Quevedo, J, Salum, G, Magalhães, PV, Kapczinski, F and Kauer-Sant'Anna, M (2015) Inflammatory markers in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. The Lancet Psychiatry 2, 10021012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perna, L, Zhang, Y, Mons, U, Holleczek, B, Saum, KU and Brenner, H (2016) Epigenetic age acceleration predicts cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German case cohort. Clinical Epigenetics 8, 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Philibert, RA, Penaluna, B, White, T, Shires, S, Gunter, T, Liesveld, J, Erwin, C, Hollenbeck, N and Osborn, T (2014) A pilot examination of the genome-wide DNA methylation signatures of subjects entering and exiting short-term alcohol dependence treatment programs. Epigenetics 9, 12121219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quach, A, Levine, ME, Tanaka, T, Lu, AT, Chen, BH, Ferrucci, L, Ritz, B, Bandinelli, S, Neuhouser, ML and Beasley, JM (2017) Epigenetic clock analysis of diet, exercise, education, and lifestyle factors. Aging (Albany NY) 9, 419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ratanatharathorn, A, Boks, MP, Maihofer, AX, Aiello, AE, Amstadter, AB, Ashley-Koch, AE, Baker, DG, Beckham, JC, Bromet, E, Dennis, M, Garrett, ME, Geuze, E, Guffanti, G, Hauser, MA, Kilaru, V, Kimbrel, NA, Koenen, KC, Kuan, PF, Logue, MW, Luft, BJ, Miller, MW, Mitchell, C, Nugent, NR, Ressler, KJ, Rutten, BPF, Stein, MB, Vermetten, E, Vinkers, CH, Youssef, NA, Workgroup, VAM-AM, Workgroup, PPE, Uddin, M, Nievergelt, CM and Smith, AK (2017) Epigenome-wide association of PTSD from heterogeneous cohorts with a common multi-site analysis pipeline. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 174, 619630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sommershof, A, Aichinger, H, Engler, H, Adenauer, H, Catani, C, Boneberg, E-M, Elbert, T, Groettrup, M and Kolassa, I-T (2009) Substantial reduction of naive and regulatory T cells following traumatic stress. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 23, 11171124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitzer, R, Gibbon, M and Williams, J (1998) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders: Patient Edition (February 1996 Final). New York, NY: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
Strohle, A, Feller, C, Strasburger, CJ, Heinz, A and Dimeo, F (2006) Anxiety modulation by the heart? Aerobic exercise and atrial natriuretic peptide. Psychoneuroendocrinology 31, 11271130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szabo, G and Mandrekar, P (2009) A recent perspective on alcohol, immunity, and host defense. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 33, 220232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voisey, J, Lawford, BR, Morris, CP, Wockner, LF, Noble, EP, Young, RM and Mehta, D (2017) Epigenetic analysis confirms no accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia. NPJ Schizophrenia 3, 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weidner, CI and Wagner, W (2014) The epigenetic tracks of aging. Biological Chemistry 395, 13071314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiedemann, K, Jahn, H, Yassouridis, A and Kellner, M (2001) Anxiolyticlike effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on cholecystokinin tetrapeptide-induced panic attacks: preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 371377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, EJ and Morrison, FM (2017) Traumatic stress and accelerated cellular aging: from epigenetics to cardiometabolic disease. Current Psychiatry Reports 19, 75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, EJ, Logue, MW, Hayes, JP, Sadeh, N, Schichman, SA, Stone, A, Salat, DH, Milberg, W, McGlinchey, R and Miller, MW (2016) Accelerated DNA methylation age: associations with PTSD and neural integrity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 63, 155162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, EJ, Logue, MW, Stoop, TB, Schichman, SA, Stone, A, Sadeh, N, Hayes, JP and Miller, MW (2017). Accelerated DNA methylation age: associations with PTSD and mortality. Psychosomatic Medicine 80, 4248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, EJ, Maniates, H, Nugent, N, Maihofer, AX, Armstrong, D, Ratanatharathorn, A, Ashley-Koch, AE, Garrett, M, Kimbrel, NA, Lori, A, Va Mid-Atlantic Mirecc, Workgroup, Aiello, AE, Baker, DG, Beckham, JC, Boks, MP, Galea, S, Geuze, E, Hauser, MA, Kessler, RC, Koenen, KC, Miller, MW, Ressler, KJ, Risbrough, V, Rutten, BPF, Stein, MB, Ursano, RJ, Vermetten, E, Vinkers, CH, Uddin, M, Smith, AK, Nievergelt, CM and Logue, MW (2018) Traumatic stress and accelerated DNA methylation age: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 92, 123134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zannas, AS, Arloth, J, Carrillo-Roa, T, Iurato, S, Roh, S, Ressler, KJ, Nemeroff, CB, Smith, AK, Bradley, B, Heim, C, Menke, A, Lange, JF, Bruckl, T, Ising, M, Wray, NR, Erhardt, A, Binder, EB and Mehta, D (2015) Lifetime stress accelerates epigenetic aging in an urban, African American cohort: relevance of glucocorticoid signaling. Genome Biology 16, 266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, H and Gelernter, J (2017) DNA methylation and alcohol use disorders: progress and challenges. The American Journal on Addictions 26, 502515.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhang, R, Miao, Q, Wang, C, Zhao, R, Li, W, Haile, CN, Hao, W and Zhang, XY (2013) Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in alcohol dependence. Addiction Biology 18, 392403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhao, R, Zhang, R, Li, W, Liao, Y, Tang, J, Miao, Q and Hao, W (2013) Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in discordant sib pairs with alcohol dependence. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry 5, 3950.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zheng, Y, Joyce, BT, Colicino, E, Liu, L, Zhang, W, Dai, Q, Shrubsole, MJ, Kibbe, WA, Gao, T, Zhang, Z, Jafari, N, Vokonas, P, Schwartz, J, Baccarelli, AA and Hou, L (2016) Blood epigenetic age may predict cancer incidence and mortality. EBioMedicine 5, 6873.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Wolf et al. supplementary material

Wolf et al. supplementary material 1

Download Wolf et al. supplementary material(File)
File 46 KB