Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x5gtn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-28T20:27:22.364Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Opinion paper: poor response to treatment of depression in people in high occupational levels

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 October 2018

Laura Mandelli
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Alessandro Serretti*
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Stefano Porcelli
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Daniel Souery
Affiliation:
Laboratoire de Psychologie Médicale, Université Libre de Bruxelles and PsyPluriel, Brussels, Belgium
Julien Mendlewicz
Affiliation:
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Siegfried Kasper
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Stuart Montgomery
Affiliation:
Imperial College, University of London, London, UK
Joseph Zohar
Affiliation:
Expert Platform on Mental Health, Focus on Depression Tel-Aviv University Israel, Tel-Aviv, Israel
*
Author for correspondence: Alessandro Serretti, E-mail: alessandro.serretti@unibo.it

Abstract

The working environment may have a significant effect on response to treatment of depression and this issue has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the scientific literature. There is evidence showing that being engaged in high-level positions can be an obstacle to the success of treatment. This article discusses the few evidence in the literature and some of the possible mechanisms involved. Specific personality attributes and difficulties in adapting to depression may delay access to care and may also reduce treatment compliance. The presence of stress in jobs that require high cognitive function and lack of social support may be elements that hinder the recovery process. Residual symptoms that impact on cognitive functions may undermine adherence to treatment and adversely affect the response. The implications of these issues are potentially relevant for clinical practice in the treatment of depression and for future research.

Type
Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adisa, R, Alutundu, MB and Fakeye, TO (2009) Factors contributing to nonadherence to oral hypoglycemic medications among ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in Southwestern Nigeria. Pharmacy Practice (Granada) 7, 163169.Google Scholar
Al-Sukhni, M, Maruschak, NA and McIntyre, RS (2015) Vortioxetine: a review of efficacy, safety and tolerability with a focus on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 14, 12911304.Google Scholar
Argyropoulos, SV and Nutt, DJ (2013) Anhedonia revisited: is there a role for dopamine-targeting drugs for depression? Journal of Psychopharmacology 27, 869877.Google Scholar
Bonde, JP (2008) Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. Occupational & Environmental Medicine 65, 438445.Google Scholar
Chan, SM, Chiu, FK, Lam, CW, Wong, SM and Conwell, Y (2014) A multidimensional risk factor model for suicide attempts in later life. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment 10, 18071817.Google Scholar
Cheng, IC, Liao, SC, Lee, MB and Tseng, MM (2007) Predictors of treatment response and length of stay for inpatients with major depression. Journal of Formosan Medical Association 106, 903910.Google Scholar
Coenen, P, Willenberg, L, Parry, S, Shi, JW, Romero, L, Blackwood, DM, Maher, CG, Healy, GN, Dunstan, DW and Straker, LM (2016) Associations of occupational standing with musculoskeletal symptoms: a systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine 52, 176183.Google Scholar
Couser, GP (2008) Challenges and opportunities for preventing depression in the workplace: a review of the evidence supporting workplace factors and interventions. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine 50, 411427.Google Scholar
Drago, A and Serretti, A (2011) Sociodemographic features predict antidepressant trajectories of response in diverse antidepressant pharmacotreatment environments: a comparison between the STAR*D study and an independent trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 31, 345348.Google Scholar
Ekman, M, Granstrom, O, Omerov, S, Jacob, J and Landen, M (2013) The societal cost of bipolar disorder in Sweden. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 16011610.Google Scholar
Evans-Lacko, S and Knapp, M (2016) Global patterns of workplace productivity for people with depression: absenteeism and presenteeism costs across eight diverse countries. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 51, 15251537.Google Scholar
Fava, M (2006) Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of residual symptoms. Journal of Psychopharmacology 20, 2934.Google Scholar
Fava, GA, Fabbri, S and Sonino, N (2002) Residual symptoms in depression: an emerging therapeutic target. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 26, 10191027.Google Scholar
Frank, E (1997) Enhancing patient outcomes: treatment adherence. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 58 Suppl 1, 1114.Google Scholar
Fryers, T, Melzer, D and Jenkins, R (2003) Social inequalities and the common mental disorders: a systematic review of the evidence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 38, 229237.Google Scholar
Harmer, CJ (2008) Serotonin and emotional processing: does it help explain antidepressant drug action? Neuropharmacology 55, 10231028.Google Scholar
Hawksley, B (2007) Work-related stress, work/life balance and personal life coaching. British Journal of Community Nursing 12, 3436.Google Scholar
Hollingshead, AB (1975) Four Factor Index of Social Position. New Haven, CT: Department of Sociology, Yale University.Google Scholar
Jakubovski, E and Bloch, MH (2014) Prognostic subgroups for citalopram response in the STAR*D trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 75, 738747.Google Scholar
Judge, TA, Bono, JE, Ilies, R and Gerhardt, MW (2002) Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87, 765780.Google Scholar
Keefe, RS, McClintock, SM, Roth, RM, Doraiswamy, PM, Tiger, S and Madhoo, M (2014) Cognitive effects of pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 75, 864876.Google Scholar
Kennedy, N and Foy, K (2005) The impact of residual symptoms on outcome of major depression. Current Psychiatry Reports 7, 441446.Google Scholar
Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Koretz, D, Merikangas, KR, Rush, AJ, Walters, EE and Wang, PS (2003) The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289, 30953105.Google Scholar
Kessler, RC, Chiu, WT, Demler, O, Merikangas, KR and Walters, EE (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 617627.Google Scholar
Malpass, A, Shaw, A, Sharp, D, Walter, F, Feder, G, Ridd, M and Kessler, D (2009) ‘Medication career’ or ‘moral career’? The two sides of managing antidepressants: a meta-ethnography of patients’ experience of antidepressants. Social Science & Medicine 68, 154168.Google Scholar
Mandelli, L, Serretti, A, Souery, D, Mendlewicz, J, Kasper, S, Montgomery, S and Zohar, J (2016) High occupational level is associated with poor response to treatment of depression. European Neuropsychopharmacology 26, 13201326.Google Scholar
Marutani, T, Yahata, N, Ikeda, Y, Ito, T, Yamamoto, M, Matsuura, M, Matsushima, E, Okubo, Y, Suzuki, H and Matsuda, T (2011) Functional magnetic resonance imaging study on the effects of acute single administration of paroxetine on motivation-related brain activity. Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience 65, 191198.Google Scholar
Mathers, CD, Salomon, JA, Ezzati, M, Begg, S, Hoorn, SV and Lopez, AD (2006) Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for burden of disease and risk factor estimates. In Lopez, AD, Mathers, CD, Ezzati, M, Jamison, DT and Murray, CJL (eds), Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors, pp. 399426. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McCabe, C, Mishor, Z, Cowen, PJ and Harmer, CJ (2010) Diminished neural processing of aversive and rewarding stimuli during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Biological Psychiatry 67, 439445.Google Scholar
McIntyre, RS, Xiao, HX, Syeda, K, Vinberg, M, Carvalho, AF, Mansur, RB, Maruschak, N and Cha, DS (2015) The prevalence, measurement, and treatment of the cognitive dimension/domain in major depressive disorder. CNS Drugs 29, 577589.Google Scholar
Milner, A, Spittal, MJ, Pirkis, J and LaMontagne, AD (2013) Suicide by occupation: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 203, 409416.Google Scholar
Modini, M, Joyce, S, Mykletun, A, Christensen, H, Bryant, RA, Mitchell, PB and Harvey, SB (2016) The mental health benefits of employment: results of a systematic meta-review. Australasian Psychiatry 24, 331336.Google Scholar
Montejo, AL (2009) Toward depression remission: balancing efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70, e36.Google Scholar
Mrazek, DA, Hornberger, JC, Altar, CA and Degtiar, I (2014) A review of the clinical, economic, and societal burden of treatment-resistant depression: 1996–2013. Psychiatric Services 65, 977987.Google Scholar
Muntaner, C, Eaton, WW, Miech, R and O'Campo, P (2004) Socioeconomic position and major mental disorders. Epidemiologic Reviews 26, 5362.Google Scholar
Papakostas, GI and Culpepper, L (2015) Understanding and managing cognition in the depressed patient. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 76, 418425.Google Scholar
Ridge, D, Kokanovic, R, Broom, A, Kirkpatrick, S, Anderson, C and Tanner, C (2015) ‘My dirty little habit’: patient constructions of antidepressant use and the ‘crisis’ of legitimacy. Social Science & Medicine 146, 5361.Google Scholar
Rusch, N, Angermeyer, MC and Corrigan, PW (2005) Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma. European Psychiatry 20, 529539.Google Scholar
Serretti, A and Chiesa, A (2009) Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction related to antidepressants: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 29, 259266.Google Scholar
Serretti, A and Mandelli, L (2010) Antidepressants and body weight: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71, 12591272.Google Scholar
Serretti, A, Calati, R, Goracci, A, Di Simplicio, M, Castrogiovanni, P and De Ronchi, D (2010) Antidepressants in healthy subjects: what are the psychotropic/psychological effects? European Neuropsychopharmacology 20, 433453.Google Scholar
Shannonhouse, JL, DuBois, DW, Fincher, AS, Vela, AM, Henry, MM, Wellman, PJ, Frye, GD and Morgan, C (2016) Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 69, 1930.Google Scholar
Shelton, RC, Tollefson, GD, Tohen, M, Stahl, S, Gannon, KS, Jacobs, TG, Buras, WR, Bymaster, FP, Zhang, W, Spencer, KA, Feldman, PD and Meltzer, HY (2001) A novel augmentation strategy for treating resistant major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 131134.Google Scholar
Stahl, SM (2015) Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): actions at serotonin receptors may enhance downstream release of four pro-cognitive neurotransmitters. CNS Spectrums 20, 515519.Google Scholar
Sudak, H, Maxim, K and Carpenter, M (2008) Suicide and stigma: a review of the literature and personal reflections. Academic Psychiatry 32, 136142.Google Scholar
Tennant, C (2001) Work-related stress and depressive disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 51, 697704.Google Scholar
Theorell, T, Hammarstrom, A, Aronsson, G, Traskman Bendz, L, Grape, T, Hogstedt, C, Marteinsdottir, I, Skoog, I and Hall, C (2015) A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms. BMC Public Health 15, 738.Google Scholar
Thomas, C and Morris, S (2003) Cost of depression among adults in England in 2000. British Journal of Psychiatry 183, 514519.Google Scholar
Tseng, MC, Cheng, IC, Lee, YJ and Lee, MB (2006) Intermediate-term outcome of psychiatric inpatients with major depression. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 105, 645652.Google Scholar
van der Lem, R, Stamsnieder, PM, van der Wee, NJ, van Veen, T and Zitman, FG (2013) Influence of sociodemographic and socioeconomic features on treatment outcome in RCTs versus daily psychiatric practice. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 975984.Google Scholar
Wada, K, Eguchi, H, Prieto-Merino, D and Smith, DR (2016) Occupational differences in suicide mortality among Japanese men of working age. Journal of Affective Disorders 190, 316321.Google Scholar
Yee, A, Chin, SC, Hashim, AH, Harbajan Singh, MK, Loh, HS, Sulaiman, AH and Ng, CG (2015) Anhedonia in depressed patients on treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant – a two-centered study in Malaysia. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 19, 182187.Google Scholar