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Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depression: a systematic review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 September 2015

Y. Noda
Affiliation:
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
W. K. Silverstein
Affiliation:
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
M. S. Barr
Affiliation:
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
F. Vila-Rodriguez
Affiliation:
Non-Invasive Neurostimulation Therapies Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
J. Downar
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
T. K. Rajji
Affiliation:
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
P. B. Fitzgerald
Affiliation:
Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University Central Clinical School, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
B. H. Mulsant
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
S. N. Vigod
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Reproductive Life Stages Program, Women's Mental Health Program, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Z. J. Daskalakis
Affiliation:
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
D. M. Blumberger
Affiliation:
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses worldwide and a leading cause of disability, especially in the setting of treatment resistance. In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising alternative strategy for treatment-resistant depression and its clinical efficacy has been investigated intensively across the world. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of rTMS are still not fully understood. This review aims to systematically synthesize the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms of treatment response to rTMS in patients with depression. Medline (1996–2014), Embase (1980–2014) and PsycINFO (1806–2014) were searched under set terms. Three authors reviewed each article and came to consensus on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All eligible studies were reviewed, duplicates were removed, and data were extracted individually. Of 1647 articles identified, 66 studies met both inclusion and exclusion criteria. rTMS affects various biological factors that can be measured by current biological techniques. Although a number of studies have explored the neurobiological mechanisms of rTMS, a large variety of rTMS protocols and parameters limits the ability to synthesize these findings into a coherent understanding. However, a convergence of findings suggest that rTMS exerts its therapeutic effects by altering levels of various neurochemicals, electrophysiology as well as blood flow and activity in the brain in a frequency-dependent manner. More research is needed to delineate the neurobiological mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of rTMS. The incorporation of biological assessments into future rTMS clinical trials will help in this regard.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

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Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depression: a systematic review
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Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depression: a systematic review
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Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depression: a systematic review
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