Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-mp689 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-24T13:15:41.297Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Neural predictors of cognitive-behavior therapy outcome in anxiety-related disorders: a meta-analysis of task-based fMRI studies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 January 2022

Maria Picó-Pérez
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), University of Minho, Braga, Portugal ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal Clinical Academic Center – Braga, Braga, Portugal
Miquel A. Fullana*
Adult Psychiatry and Psychology Department, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
Anton Albajes-Eizagirre
Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Opticks Security, Barcelona, Spain
Daniel Vega
Psychiatry and Mental Health Department, Consorci Sanitari de l'Anoia & Fundació Sanitària d'Igualada, Igualada, Barcelona, Spain Unitat de Psicologia Mèdica, Departament de Psiquiatria i Medicina Legal & Institut de Neurociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
Josep Marco-Pallarés
Department of Cognition, Development and Educational Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Cognition and Brain Plasticity Unit, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain
Ana Vilar
Institut de Neuropsiquiatria i Addiccions, Hospital de Dia Infanto Juvenil Litoral Mar, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Jacobo Chamorro
Anxiety Unit, Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Addictions, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Kim L. Felmingham
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Ben J. Harrison
Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
Joaquim Radua
Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Carles Soriano-Mas
Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Sciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Author for correspondence: Miquel A. Fullana, E-mail:



Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a well-established first-line intervention for anxiety-related disorders, including specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Several neural predictors of CBT outcome for anxiety-related disorders have been proposed, but previous results are inconsistent.


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating whole-brain predictors of CBT outcome in anxiety-related disorders (17 studies, n = 442).


Across different tasks, we observed that brain response in a network of regions involved in salience and interoception processing, encompassing fronto-insular (the right inferior frontal gyrus-anterior insular cortex) and fronto-limbic (the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) cortices was strongly associated with a positive CBT outcome.


Our results suggest that there are robust neural predictors of CBT outcome in anxiety-related disorders that may eventually lead (probably in combination with other data) to develop personalized approaches for the treatment of these mental disorders.

Original Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Shared first authorship

Shared senior authorship


Albajes-Eizagirre, A., Solanes, A., Fullana, M. A., Ioannidis, J. P. A., Fusar-Poli, P., Torrent, C.Radua, J. (2019a). Meta-analysis of voxel-based neuroimaging studies using seed-based d mapping with permutation of subject images (SDM-PSI). Journal of Visualized Experiments, 153, 17. doi: 10.3791/59841Google Scholar
Albajes-Eizagirre, A., Solanes, A., Vieta, E., & Radua, J. (2019b). Voxel-based meta-analysis via permutation of subject images (PSI): Theory and implementation for SDM. NeuroImage, 186, 174184. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.077CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aupperle, R. L., Allard, C. B., Simmons, A. N., Flagan, T., Thorp, S. R., Norman, S. B., … Stein, M. B. (2013). Neural responses during emotional processing before and after cognitive trauma therapy for battered women. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 214(1), 4855. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.05.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bar-Haim, Y. (2010). Research review: Attention bias modification (ABM): A novel treatment for anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(8), 859870. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02251.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barlow, D. H. (2004). Psychological treatments. American Psychologist, 59(9), 869878. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.9.869CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, R. A., Erlinger, M., Felmingham, K., Klimova, A., Williams, L. M., Malhi, G.Korgaonkar, M. S. (2021). Reappraisal-related neural predictors of treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 51(14), 24542464. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720001129CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain's default network. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124(1), 138. doi: 10.1196/annals.1440.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buhle, J. T., Silvers, J. A, Wager, T. D., Lopez, R., Onyemekwu, C., Kober, H., … Ochsner, K. N. (2014). Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: A meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 24(11), 29812990. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht154CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burklund, L. J., Torre, J. B., Lieberman, M. D., Taylor, S. E., & Craske, M. G. (2017). Neural responses to social threat and predictors of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy in social anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 261, 5264. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.12.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cano, M., Martínez-Zalacaín, I., Giménez, M., Torrents-Rodas, D., Real, E., Alonso, P., … Fullana, M. A. (2021). Neural correlates of fear conditioning and fear extinction and its association with cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 144, 103927. ScholarPubMed
Chakrabarty, T., Ogrodniczuk, J., & Hadjipavlou, G. (2016). Predictive neuroimaging markers of psychotherapy response. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 24(6), 396405. doi: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000132CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, C.-H., Hsu, S.-C., & Liu, C.-Y. (2021). Dysfunctional frontal activation of mismatch negativity in panic disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 280(Pt A), 211218. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colvonen, P. J., Glassman, L. H., Crocker, L. D., Buttner, M. M., Orff, H., Schiehser, D. M., … Afari, N. (2017). Pretreatment biomarkers predicting PTSD psychotherapy outcomes: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 75, 140156. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.01.027CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craske, M. G., Niles, A. N., Burklund, L. J., Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Vilardaga, J. C. P., Arch, J. J.Lieberman, M. D. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: Outcomes and moderators. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(6), 10341048. doi: 10.1037/a0037212CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doehrmann, O., Ghosh, S. S., Polli, F. E., Reynolds, G. O., Horn, F., Keshavan, A., Triantafyllou, C., … Gabrieli, J. D. (2013). Predicting treatment response in social anxiety disorder from functional magnetic resonance imaging. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(1), 87. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapsychiatry.5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drabant, E. M., McRae, K., Manuck, S. B., Hariri, A. R., & Gross, J. J. (2009). Individual differences in typical reappraisal use predict amygdala and prefrontal responses. Biological Psychiatry, 65(5), 367373. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.09.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Etkin, A., Büchel, C., & Gross, J. J. (2015). The neural bases of emotion regulation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(11), 693700. doi: 10.1038/nrn4044CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Falconer, E., Allen, A., Felmingham, K. L., Williams, L. M., & Bryant, R. A. (2013). Inhibitory neural activity predicts response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74(9), 895901. doi: 10.4088/JCP.12m08020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99(1), 2035. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.99.1.20CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., … Etkin, A. (2017). PTSD Psychotherapy outcome predicted by brain activation during emotional reactivity and regulation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(12), 11631174. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16091072CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fullana, M. A., Harrison, B. J., Soriano-Mas, C., Vervliet, B., Cardoner, N., Àvila-Parcet, A., & Radua, J. (2016). Neural signatures of human fear conditioning: An updated and extended meta-analysis of fMRI studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(4), 500508. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.88CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fullana, M. A., & Simpson, H. B. (2016). The potential Use of neuroimaging biomarkers in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 3(3), 246252. doi: 10.1007/s40501-016-0087-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ge, R., Blumberger, D. M., Downar, J., Daskalakis, Z. J., Dipinto, A. A., Tham, J. C. W., … Vila-Rodriguez, F. (2017). Abnormal functional connectivity within resting-state networks is related to rTMS-based therapy effects of treatment-resistant depression: A pilot study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 218, 7581. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.060CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gross, J.J. (2014). Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation (2nd ed., pp. 320). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Grupe, D. W., & Nitschke, J. B. (2013). Uncertainty and anticipation in anxiety: An integrated neurobiological and psychological perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(7), 488501. doi: 10.1038/nrn3524CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hauser, T. U., Iannaccone, R., Dolan, R. J., Ball, J., Hättenschwiler, J., Drechsler, R., … Brem, S. (2017). Increased fronto-striatal reward prediction errors moderate decision making in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychological Medicine, 47(7), 12461258. doi: 10.1017/S0033291716003305CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, S. C., & Hofmann, S. G. (2017). The third wave of cognitive behavioral therapy and the rise of process-based care. World Psychiatry, 16(3), 245246. doi: 10.1002/wps.20442CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofmann, S. G., & Smits, J. A. J. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 621632. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v69n0415CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalisch, R., & Gerlicher, A. M. V. (2014). Making a mountain out of a molehill: On the role of the rostral dorsal anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in conscious threat appraisal, catastrophizing, and worrying. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 42, 18. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.02.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klumpp, H., Fitzgerald, D. A., Angstadt, M., Post, D., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Neural response during attentional control and emotion processing predicts improvement after cognitive behavioral therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Psychological Medicine, 44(14), 31093121. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714000567CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klumpp, H., Fitzgerald, D. A., Piejko, K., Roberts, J., Kennedy, A. E., & Phan, K. L. (2016). Prefrontal control and predictors of cognitive behavioral therapy response in social anxiety disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(4), 630640. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv146CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klumpp, H., Roberts, J., Kennedy, A. E., Shankman, S. A., Langenecker, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Phan, K. L. (2017). Emotion regulation related neural predictors of cognitive behavioral therapy response in social anxiety disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 75, 106112. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.01.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Korn, C. W., & Bach, D. R. (2019). Minimizing threat via heuristic and optimal policies recruits hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(7), 733745. doi: 10.1038/s41562-019-0603-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loerinc, A. G., Meuret, A. E., Twohig, M. P., Rosenfield, D., Bluett, E. J., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Response rates for CBT for anxiety disorders: Need for standardized criteria. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 7282. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lueken, U., Straube, B., Konrad, C., Wittchen, H.-U., Ströhle, A., Wittmann, A., … Kircher, T. (2013). Neural substrates of treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(11), 13451355. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12111484CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lueken, U., Zierhut, K. C., Hahn, T., Straube, B., Kircher, T., Reif, A., … Domschke, K. (2016). Neurobiological markers predicting treatment response in anxiety disorders: A systematic review and implications for clinical application. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 66, 143162. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.04.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marwood, L., Wise, T., Perkins, A. M., & Cleare, A. J. (2018). Meta-analyses of the neural mechanisms and predictors of response to psychotherapy in depression and anxiety. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 95, 6172. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.022CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgiève, M., N'diaye, K., Haynes, W. I. A., Granger, B., Clair, A. H., Pelissolo, A., & Mallet, L. (2014). Dynamics of psychotherapy-related cerebral haemodynamic changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder using a personalized exposure task in functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 14611473. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713002237CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Müller, V. I., Cieslik, E. C., Laird, A. R., Fox, P. T., Radua, J., Mataix-Cols, D., … Eickhoff, S. B. (2018). Ten simple rules for neuroimaging meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 84, 151161. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.11.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norman, L. J., Mannella, K. A., Yang, H., Angstadt, M., Abelson, J. L., Himle, J. A., … Taylor, S. F. (2021). Treatment-specific associations between brain activation and symptom reduction in OCD following CBT: A randomized fMRI trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 178(1), 3947. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19080886CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Northoff, G. (2020). Anxiety disorders and the brain's resting-state networks: From altered spatiotemporal synchronization to psychopathological symptoms. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1191, 7190. doi: 10.1007/978-981-32-9705-0_5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2014). The neural bases of emotion and emotion regulation: A valuation perspective. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation (2nd ed., pp. 2342). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Olatunji, B. O., Ferreira-Garcia, R., Caseras, X., Fullana, M. A., Wooderson, S., Speckens, A., … Mataix-Cols, D. (2014). Predicting response to cognitive behavioral therapy in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder from functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychological Medicine, 44(10), 21252137. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713002766CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paulus, M. P., & Stein, M. B. (2006). An insular view of anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 60(4), 383387. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.042CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Picó-Pérez, M., Alemany-Navarro, M., Dunsmoor, J. E., Radua, J., Albajes-Eizagirre, A., Vervliet, B., … Fullana, M. A. (2019a). Common and distinct neural correlates of fear extinction and cognitive reappraisal: A meta-analysis of fMRI studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 104, 102115. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.029CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Picó-Pérez, M., Ipser, J., Taylor, P., Alonso, P., López-Solà, C., Real, E., … Soriano-Mas, C. (2019b). Intrinsic functional and structural connectivity of emotion regulation networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 36(2), 110120. doi: 10.1002/da.22845CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Picó-Pérez, M., Radua, J., Steward, T., Menchón, J. M., & Soriano-Mas, C. (2017). Emotion regulation in mood and anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of fMRI cognitive reappraisal studies. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 79(June), 96104. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.06.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Picó-Pérez, M., Silva, P., De Melo, V., Radua, J., Mataix-Cols, D., Sousa, N., … Morgado, P. (2020). Modality-specific overlaps in brain structure and function in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Multimodal meta-analysis of case-control MRI studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 112(January), 8394. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.01.033CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pittig, A., van den Berg, L., & Vervliet, B. (2016). The key role of extinction learning in anxiety disorders: Behavioral strategies to enhance exposure-based treatments. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(1), 3947. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000220CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Frontocingulate dysfunction in depression: Toward biomarkers of treatment response. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(1), 183206. doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.166CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Price, R. B., Cummings, L., Gilchrist, D., Graur, S., Banihashemi, L., Kuo, S. S., & Siegle, G. J. (2018). Towards personalized, brain-based behavioral intervention for transdiagnostic anxiety: Transient neural responses to negative images predict outcomes following a targeted computer-based intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(12), 10311045. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000309CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radua, J., Mataix-Cols, D., Phillips, M. L., El-Hage, W., Kronhaus, D. M., Cardoner, N., & Surguladze, S. (2012). A new meta-analytic method for neuroimaging studies that combines reported peak coordinates and statistical parametric maps. European Psychiatry, 27(8), 605611. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.04.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radua, J., Rubia, K., Canales-Rodríguez, E. J., Pomarol-Clotet, E., Fusar-Poli, P., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2014). Anisotropic kernels for coordinate-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5(Feb), 13. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reinecke, A., Thilo, K., Filippini, N., Croft, A., & Harmer, C. J. (2014). Predicting rapid response to cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder: The role of hippocampus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 62, 120128. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.07.017CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schienle, A., Köchel, A., Ebner, F., Reishofer, G., & Schäfer, A. (2010). Neural correlates of intolerance of uncertainty. Neuroscience Letters, 479(3), 272276. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.05.078CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soriano-Mas, C. (2021). Functional brain imaging and OCD. In Fineberg, N. A., & Robbins, T.W. (Eds.), Current topics in behavioral neurosciences (pp. 270292). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. doi: 10.1007/7854_2020_203.Google Scholar
Sterne, J. A. C., Sutton, A. J., Ioannidis, J. P. A., Terrin, N., Jones, D. R., Lau, J., Carpenter, J.Higgins, J. P. T. (2011). Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 343(Jul22 1), d4002. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tian, S., Sun, Y., Shao, J., Zhang, S., Mo, Z., Liu, X., … Lu, Q. (2020). Predicting escitalopram monotherapy response in depression: The role of anterior cingulate cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 41(5), 12491260. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24872CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsolaki, E., Narr, K. L., Espinoza, R., Wade, B., Hellemann, G., Kubicki, A., … Pouratian, N. (2021). Subcallosal cingulate structural connectivity differs in responders and nonresponders to electroconvulsive therapy. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 6(1), 1019. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.05.010Google ScholarPubMed
Uchida, M., Biederman, J., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Micco, J., De Los Angeles, C., Brown, A., … Whitfield-Gabrieli, S. (2014). Emotion regulation ability varies in relation to intrinsic functional brain architecture. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(12), 17381748. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vai, B., Bulgarelli, C., Godlewska, B. R., Cowen, P. J., Benedetti, F., & Harmer, C. J. (2016). Fronto-limbic effective connectivity as possible predictor of antidepressant response to SSRI administration. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26(12), 20002010. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.09.640CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Volz, K. G., Schubotz, R. I., & Von Cramon, D. Y. (2003). Predicting events of varying probability: Uncertainty investigated by fMRI. NeuroImage, 19(2), 271280. doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00122-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wampold, B. E. (2015). How important are the common factors in psychotherapy? An update. World Psychiatry, 14(3), 270277. doi: 10.1002/wps.20238CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenzel, A. (2017). Basic strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 40(4), 597609. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2017.07.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whiteford, H. A., Degenhardt, L., Rehm, J., Baxter, A. J., Ferrari, A. J., Erskine, H. E., … Vos, T. (2013). Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. The Lancet, 382(9904), 15751586. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61611-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, T. Y., Sid, A., Wensing, T., Eickhoff, S. B., Habel, U., Gur, R. C., & Nickl-Jockschat, T. (2019). Neural networks of aggression: ALE meta-analyses on trait and elicited aggression. Brain Structure and Function, 224(1), 133148. doi: 10.1007/s00429-018-1765-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Picó-Pérez et al. supplementary material

Picó-Pérez et al. supplementary material

Download Picó-Pérez et al. supplementary material(File)
File 3.3 MB