Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-fpcrz Total loading time: 0.399 Render date: 2022-06-28T07:18:11.162Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related measures in relation to externalizing behaviors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 September 2018

Kasey G. Creswell*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Aidan G. C. Wright
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Janine D. Flory
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA James J Peters VAMC, New York, NY, USA
Carillon J. Skrzynski
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Stephen B. Manuck
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
*
Author for correspondence: Kasey Creswell, E-mail: kasey@andrew.cmu.edu

Abstract

Background

Trait impulsivity is thought to play a key role in predicting behaviors on the externalizing spectrum, such as drug and alcohol use and aggression. Research suggests that impulsivity may not be a unitary construct, but rather multidimensional in nature with dimensions varying across self-report assessments and laboratory behavioral tasks. Few studies with large samples have included a range of impulsivity-related measures and assessed several externalizing behaviors to clarify the predictive validity of these assessments on important life outcomes.

Methods

Community adults (N = 1295) between the ages of 30 and 54 completed a multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related traits (including 54 self-report scales of personality traits implicated in impulsive behaviors, and four behavioral tasks purporting to assess a construct similar to impulsivity) and reported on five externalizing behavioral outcomes (i.e. drug, alcohol, and cigarette use, and physical and verbal aggression). We ran an exploratory factor analysis on the trait scales, and then a structural equation model predicting the externalizing behaviors from the three higher-order personality factors (i.e. Disinhibition v. Constraint/Conscientiousness, Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality) and the four behavioral tasks.

Results

Relations between the self-report factors and behavioral tasks were small or nonexistent. Associations between the self-report factors and the externalizing outcomes were generally medium to large, but relationships between the behavioral tasks and externalizing outcomes were either nonexistent or small.

Conclusions

These results partially replicate and extend recent meta-analytic findings reported by Sharma et al. (2014) to further clarify the predictive validity of impulsivity-related trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks on externalizing behaviors.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bari, A and Robbins, TW (2013) Inhibition and impulsivity: behavioral and neural basis of response control. Progress in Neurobiology 108, 4479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beatty, WW, Katzung, VM, Moreland, VJ and Nixon, SJ (1995) Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 37, 247253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bechara, A (2007) Iowa Gambling Task Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Bechara, A, Damasio, AR, Damasio, H and Anderson, SW (1994) Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition 50, 715.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Businelle, MS, Kendzor, DE, Rash, CJ, Patterson, SM, Coffey, SF and Copeland, AL (2009) Heavy smokers perform more poorly than nonsmokers on a simulated task of gambling. Substance Use & Misuse 44, 905914.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buss, AH and Perry, M (1992) The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, 452459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carver, CS and White, TL (1994) Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, 319333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, LA (1993) Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
Clark, LA and Watson, D (2008) Temperament: an organizing paradigm for trait psychology. In John, OP, Robins, RW and Perkvin, LA (eds), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 265286.Google Scholar
Cloninger, CR, Przybeck, TR and Svrakic, DM (1991) The tridimensional personality questionnaire: U.S. normative data. Psychological Reports 69, 10471057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cloninger, CR, Svrakic, DM and Przybeck, TR (1993) A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 975990.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coccaro, EF, Berman, ME and Kavoussi, RJ (1997) Assessment of life history of aggression: development and psychometric characteristics. Psychiatry Research 73, 147157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coffey, SF, Gudleski, GD, Saladin, ME and Brady, KT (2003) Impulsivity and rapid discounting of delayed hypothetical rewards in cocaine-dependent individuals. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 11, 1825.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costa, PT and McCrae, RR (1992) Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Cox, WM, Fadardi, JS and Pothos, EM (2006) The addiction-stroop test: theoretical considerations and procedural recommendations. Psychological Bulletin 132, 443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crean, JP, de Wit, H and Richards, JB (2000) Reward discounting as a measure of impulsive behavior in a psychiatric outpatient population. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 8, 155162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creswell, KG, Chung, T, Wright, AGC, Black, JJ, Clark, DB and Martin, CS (2015) Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking. Addiction 110, 775783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Creswell, KG, Bachrach, RL, Wright, AGC, Pinto, A and Ansell, E (2016) Predicting problematic alcohol use with the DSM-5 alternative model of personality pathology. Personality Disorders: Treatment, Research, and Theory 7, 103111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cyders, MA and Coskunpinar, A (2011) Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity? Clinical Psychology Review 31, 965982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cyders, MA and Coskunpinar, A (2012) The relationship between self-report and lab task conceptualizations of impulsivity. Journal of Research in Personality 46, 121124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cyders, MA and Smith, GT (2007) Mood-based rash action and its components: positive and negative urgency. Personality and Individual Differences 43, 839850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cyders, MA, Smith, GT, Spillane, NS, Fischer, S, Annus, AM and Peterson, C (2007) Integration of impulsivity and positive mood to predict risky behavior: development and validation of a measure of positive urgency. Psychological Assessment 19, 107118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Wit, H, Flory, JD, Acheson, A, McCloskey, M and Manuck, SB (2007) IQ and nonplanning impulsivity are independently associated with delay discounting in middle-aged adults. Personality and Individual Differences 42, 111121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Depue, RA and Collins, PF (1999) Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 491517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeYoung, CG (2010) Impulsivity as a personality trait. In Vohs, KD and Baumeister, RF (eds), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications. New York, NY: Guilford Press, pp. 485502.Google Scholar
Dick, DM, Smith, G, Olausson, P, Mitchell, SH, Leeman, RF, O'Malley, SS and Sher, K (2010) Understanding the construct of impulsivity and its relationship to alcohol use disorders. Addiction Biology 15, 217226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dougherty, DM, Bjork, JM, Huckabee, HC, Moeller, FG and Swann, AC (1999) Laboratory measures of aggression and impulsivity in women with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research 85, 315326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dougherty, DM, Mathias, CW, Marsh, DM and Jagar, AA (2005) Laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. Behavior Research Methods 37, 8290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eaton, NR, Krueger, RF, Keyes, KM, Skodol, AE, Markon, KE, Grant, BF and Hasin, DS (2011) Borderline personality disorder co-morbidity: relationship to the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders. Psychological Medicine 41, 10411050.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eysenck, H and Eysenck, MW (1985) Personality and Individual Differences: A Natural Science Approach. New York, NY: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eysenck, SBG and Eysenck, HJ (1977) The place of impulsiveness in a dimensional system of personality. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 16, 5768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
First, M, Spitzer, R, Gibbon, M and Williams, J (2002) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-Patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). New York, NY: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
Flory, JD, Harvey, PD, Mitropoulou, V, New, AS, Silverman, JM, Siever, LJ and Manuck, SB (2006) Dispositional impulsivity in normal and abnormal samples. Journal of Psychiatric Research 40, 438447.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Robinson, JL and Hewitt, JK (2011) Developmental trajectories in toddlers’ self-restraint predict individual differences in executive functions 14 years later: a behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology 47, 14101430.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golden, JC (1978) Stroop Color and Word Test. Chicago, IL: Stoelting Company.Google Scholar
Grant, B, Stinson, F, Dawson, D, Chou, S, Ruan, W and Pickering, R (2006) Co-occurrence of 12-month alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Alcohol Research & Health 29, 121130.Google Scholar
Halder, I, Marsland, AL, Cheong, J, Muldoon, MF, Ferrell, RE and Manuck, SB (2010) Polymorphisms in the CRP gene moderate an association between depressive symptoms and circulating levels of C-reactive protein. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 24, 160167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harmsen, H, Bischof, G, Brooks, A, Hohagen, F and Rumpf, HJ (2006) The relationship between impaired decision-making, sensation seeking and readiness to change in cigarette smokers. Addictive Behaviors 31, 581592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heath, AC, Cloninger, CR and Martin, NG (1994) Testing a model for the genetic structure of personality: a comparison of the personality systems of Cloninger and Eysenck. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66, 762775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heaton, KR, Chelune, GJ, Talley, JL, Kay, GG and Curtiss, G (1993) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised and Expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Hoffman, WF, Moore, M, Templin, R, McFarland, B, Hitzemann, RJ and Mitchell, SH (2006) Neuropsychological function and delay discounting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Psychopharmacology 188, 162170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jahng, S, Trull, TJ, Wood, PK, Tragesser, SL, Tomko, R, Grant, JD, Bucholz, KK and Sher, KJ (2011) Distinguishing general and specific personality disorder features and implications for substance dependence comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 120, 656669.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, SL, Tharp, JA, Peckham, AD, Carver, CS and Haase, CM (2017) A path model of different forms of impulsivity with externalizing and internalizing psychopathology: towards greater specificity. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 56, 235252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirby, KN, Petry, NM and Bickel, WK (1999) Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using control. Journal of Experimental Psychology 128, 7887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kotov, R, Krueger, RF, Watson, D, Achenbach, TM, Althoff, RR, Bagby, RM, Brown, TA, Carpenter, WT, Caspi, A, Clark, LA and Eaton, NR (2017) The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 126, 454477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, RF, Hicks, BM, Patrick, CJ, Carlson, SR, Iacono, WG and McGue, M (2002) Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 411424.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loeber, R, Menting, B, Lynam, DR, Moffitt, TE, Stouthamer-Loeber, M, Stallings, R, Farrington, DP and Pardini, D (2012) Findings from the Pittsburgh youth study: cognitive impulsivity and intelligence as predictors of the age-crime curve. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 51, 11361149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Logan, GD (1994) On the ability to inhibit thought and action: a users’ guide to the stop signal paradigm. In Dagenbach, D and Carr, TH (eds), Inhibitory Processes in Attention, Memory, and Language. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 189239.Google Scholar
Luyten, P and Blatt, SJ (2013) Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in normal and disrupted personality development: retrospect and prospect. American Psychologist 68, 172183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lynam, DR, Smith, GT, Whiteside, SP and Cyders, MA (2006) The UPPS-P: Assessing Five Personality Pathways to Impulsive Behavior. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.Google Scholar
Manuck, SB, Flory, JD, McCaffery, JM, Matthews, KA, Mann, JJ and Muldoon, MF (1998) Aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity in a nonpatient sample. Neuropsychopharmacology 19, 287299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markon, KE, Krueger, RF and Watson, D (2005) Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88, 139157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marsland, AL, Gianaros, PJ, Kuan, DCH, Sheu, LK, Krajina, K and Manuck, SB (2015) Brain morphology links systemic inflammation to cognitive function in midlife adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 48, 195204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCloskey, MS, New, AS, Siever, LJ, Goodman, M, Koenigsberg, HW, Flory, JD and Coccaro, EF (2009) Evaluation of behavioral impulsivity and aggression tasks as endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research 43, 10361048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, SH (1999) Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Psychopharmacology 146, 455464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miyake, A and Friedman, NP (2012) The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science 21, 814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miyake, A, Friedman, NP, Emerson, MJ, Witzki, AH and Howerter, A (2000) The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology 41, 49100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morey, LC, Hopwood, CJ, Markowitz, JC, Gunderson, JG, Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Shea, MT, Yen, S, Sanislow, CA, Ansell, EB and Skodol, AE (2012) Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders, II: 6-, 8- and 10-year follow-up. Psychological Medicine 42, 17051713.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, LK and Muthén, BO (1998–2012) Mplus User's Guide, 7th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
Nigg, JT (2000) On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychological Bulletin 126, 220246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patrick, CJ, Curtin, JJ and Tellegen, A (2002) Development and validation of a brief form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment 14, 150163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patton, JH, Stanford, MS and Barratt, ES (1995) Factor structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology 51, 768774.3.0.CO;2-1>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkins, ER, Yancey, JR, Drislane, LE, Venables, NC, Balsis, S and Patrick, CJ (2017) Methodological issues in the use of individual brain measures to index trait liabilities: the example of noise-probe P3. International Journal of Psychophysiology 111, 145155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pilkonis, PA, Kim, Y, Proietti, JM and Barkham, M (1996) Scales for personality disorders developed from the inventory of interpersonal problems. Journal of Personality Disorders 10, 355369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, B, Ortengren, A, Richards, JB and de Wit, H (2006) Dimensions of impulsive behavior: personality and behavioral measures. Personality and Individual Differences 40, 305315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rose, SA, Feldman, JF and Jankowski, JJ (2011) Modeling a cascade of effects: the role of speed and executive functioning in preterm/full-term differences in academic achievement. Developmental Science 14, 11611175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosselli, M and Ardila, A (1996) Cognitive effects of cocaine and polydrug abuse. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 18, 122135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharma, L, Kohl, K, Morgan, TA and Clark, LA (2013) “Impulsivity”: relations between self-report and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 104, 559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharma, L, Markon, KE and Clark, LA (2014) Toward a theory of distinct types of “impulsive” behaviors: a meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures. Psychological Bulletin 140, 374408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sher, KJ and Trull, TJ (1994) Personality and disinhibitory psychopathology: alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103, 92102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slutske, WS, Heath, AC, Madden, PAF, Bucholz, KK, Statham, DJ and Martin, NG (2002) Personality and the genetic risk for alcohol dependence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 124133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, GT, Fischer, S, Cyders, MA, Annus, AM, Spillane, NS and McCarthy, DM (2007) On the validity and utility of discriminating among impulsivity-like traits. Assessment 14, 155170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spielberger, CD (1988) Manual for the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Sweitzer, MM, Donny, EC, Dierker, LC, Flory, JD and Manuck, SB (2008) Delay discounting and smoking: association with the Fagerström test for Nicotine dependence but not cigarettes smoked per day. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10, 15711575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tellegen, A and Waller, NG (2008) Exploring personality through test construction: development of the multidimensional personality questionnaire. In Boyle, GJ, Matthews, G and Saklofske, DH (eds), Personality Measurement and Testing: The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, pp. 261292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VanderBroek-Stice, L, Stojek, MK, Beach, SR, vanDellen, MR and MacKillop, J (2017) Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in relation to obesity and food addiction. Appetite 112, 5968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaughan, L and Giovanello, K (2010) Executive function in daily life: age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living. Psychology and Aging 25, 343355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Venables, NC, Foell, J, Yancey, JR, Kane, MJ, Engle, RW and Patrick, CJ (2018) Quantifying inhibitory control as externalizing proneness: a cross-domain model. Clinical Psychological Science 6, 561580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verdejo-García, AJ, Perales, JC and Pérez-García, M (2007) Cognitive impulsivity in cocaine and heroin polysubstance abusers. Addictive Behaviors 32, 950966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watson, D and Clark, LA (1993) Behavioral disinhibition versus constraint: a dispositional perspective. In Wegner, DM and Pennebaker, JW (eds), Handbook of Mental Control. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 506527.Google Scholar
White, JL, Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Bartusch, DJ, Needles, DJ and Stouthamer-Loeber, M (1994) Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103, 192205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whiteside, SP and Lynam, DR (2001) The five factor model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences 30, 669689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, AGC and Simms, LJ (2014) On the structure of personality disorder traits: conjoint analyses of the CAT-PD, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3 trait models. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 5, 4354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wright, AGC and Simms, LJ (2015) A metastructural model of mental disorders and pathological personality traits. Psychological Medicine 45, 23092319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, SE, Stallings, MC, Corley, RP, Krauter, KS and Hewitt, JK (2000) Genetic and environmental influences on behavioral disinhibition. American Journal of Medical Genetics 96, 684695.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, SE, Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Willcutt, EG, Corley, RP, Haberstick, BC and Hewitt, JK (2009) Behavioral disinhibition: liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zuckerman, M (1994) Impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: the biological foundations of a basic dimension of personality. In Bates, JE and Wachs, TD (eds), Temperament: Individual Differences at the Interface of Biology and Behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 219255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zuckerman, M, Kolin, EA, Price, L and Zoob, I (1964) Development of a sensation-seeking scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28, 477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Creswell et al. supplementary material

Creswell et al. supplementary material 1

Download Creswell et al. supplementary material(File)
File 56 KB
17
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related measures in relation to externalizing behaviors
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related measures in relation to externalizing behaviors
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related measures in relation to externalizing behaviors
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *