Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-5zgkz Total loading time: 0.342 Render date: 2021-09-19T00:07:25.187Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Latent structure of cognition in schizophrenia: a confirmatory factor analysis of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 April 2015

A. McCleery*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
M. F. Green
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 22 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
G. S. Hellemann
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
L. E. Baade
Affiliation:
University of Kansas School of Medicine at Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA
J. M. Gold
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland Baltimore, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
R. S. E. Keefe
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
R. S. Kern
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 22 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
R. I. Mesholam-Gately
Affiliation:
Public Psychiatry Division of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
L. J. Seidman
Affiliation:
Public Psychiatry Division of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
K. L. Subotnik
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
J. Ventura
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
K. H. Nuechterlein
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA UCLA Department of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA, USA
*Corresponding
* Address for correspondence: A. McCleery, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, 300 Medical Plaza, Room 2213, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. (Email: amccleery@mednet.ucla.edu)

Abstract

Background

The number of separable cognitive dimensions in schizophrenia has been debated. Guided by the extant factor analytic literature, the NIMH Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative selected seven cognitive domains relevant to treatment studies in schizophrenia: speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. These domains are assessed in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The aim of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the beta battery of the MCCB to compare the fit of the MATRICS consensus seven-domain model to other models in the current literature on cognition in schizophrenia.

Method

Using data from 281 schizophrenia outpatients, we compared the seven correlated factors model with alternative models. Specifically, we compared the 7-factor model to (a) a single-factor model, (b) a three correlated factors model including speed of processing, working memory, and general cognition, and (c) a hierarchical model in which seven first-order factors loaded onto a second-order general cognitive factor.

Results

Multiple fit indices indicated the seven correlated factors model was the best fit for the data and provided significant improvement in model fit beyond the comparison models.

Conclusions

These results support the assessment of these seven cognitive dimensions in clinical trials of interventions to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Because these cognitive factors are separable to some degree, it is plausible that specific interventions may have differential effects on the domains.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, DN, Strauss, GP, Donohue, B, van Kammen, DP (2007). Factor analytic support for social cognition as a separable cognitive domain in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 93, 325333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
APA (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) . American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.Google ScholarPubMed
Arnau, RC, Thompson, B (2000). Second-order confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-III. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Assessment 7, 237246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
August, SM, Kiwanuka, JN, McMahon, RP, Gold, JM (2012). The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): clinical and cognitive correlates. Schizophrenia Research 134, 7682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barch, DM, Ceaser, A (2012). Cognition in schizophrenia: core psychological and neural mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16, 2734.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, M, Tsang, HWH, Greig, TC, Bryson, GJ (2009). Neurocognition, social cognition, perceived social discomfort, and vocational outcomes in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 738747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benedict, RHB (1997). Brief Visuospatial Memory Test – Revised: Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.: Odessa.Google Scholar
Bentler, PM, Bonett, DG (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin 88, 588606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentler, PM, Wu, EJ (2005). EQS 6.1 for Windows. Multivariate Software: Encino, CA.Google Scholar
Bollen, KA (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. John Wiley & Sons: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brandt, J, Benedict, RHB (2001). The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised: Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.: Odessa, FL.Google Scholar
Braver, TS, Barch, DM, Cohen, JD (1999). Cognition and control in schizophrenia: a computational model of dopamine and prefrontal function. Biological Psychiatry 46, 312328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burton, CZ, Vella, L, Harvey, PD, Patterson, TL, Heaton, RK, Twamley, EW (2013). Factor structure of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 146, 244248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, JB (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities: a Survey of Factor-Analytic Studies. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornblatt, BA, Risch, NJ, Faris, G, Friedman, D, Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L (1988). The Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP): I. New findings about sustained attention in normal families. Psychiatric Research 26, 223238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czobor, P, Jaeger, J, Berns, SM, Gonzalez, C, Loftus, S (2007). Neuropsychological symptom dimensions in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disorders 9, 7192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, D, Goldberg, TE, Gold, JM, Elvevag, B, Weinberger, DR (2011). Cognitive factor structure and invariance in people with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings, and controls. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 11571167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dickinson, D, Harvey, PD (2008). Systemic hypotheses for generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a new take on an old problem. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 403414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dickinson, D, Ragland, JD, Calkins, ME, Gold, JM, Gur, RC (2006). A comparison of cognitive structure in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls using confirmatory factor analysis. Schizophrenia Research 85, 2029.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
First, M, Spitzer, R, Gibbon, M, Williams, J (2001). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders – Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) . Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute: New York.Google Scholar
Genderson, MR, Dickinson, D, Diaz-Asper, CM, Egan, MF, Weinberger, DR, Goldberg, TE (2007). Factor analysis of neurocognitive tests in a large sample of schizophrenic probands, their siblings, and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research 84, 231239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gladsjo, JA, McAdams, LA, Palmer, BW, Moore, DJ, Jeste, DV, Heaton, RK (2004). A six-factor model of cognition in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders: relationships with clinical symptoms and functional capacity. Schizophrenia Bulletin 30, 739754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gold, JM, Carpenter, C, Randolph, C, Goldberg, TE, Weinberger, DR (1997). Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 54, 159165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinrichs, RW, Zakzanis, KK (1998). Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12, 426445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoe, M, Nakagami, E, Green, MF, Brekke, JS (2012). The causal relationships between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome over time in schizophrenia: a latent difference score approach. Psychological Medicine 42, 22872299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hooper, D, Coughlan, J, Mullen, MR (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 6, 5360.Google Scholar
Hu, LT, Bentler, PM (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 6, 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IBM (2012). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. IBM Corp.: Armonk, NY.Google Scholar
Keefe, RS, Bilder, RM, Harvey, PD, Davis, SM, Palmer, BW, Gold, JM, Meltzer, HY, Green, MF, Miller del, D, Canive, JM, Adler, LW, Manschreck, TC, Swartz, M, Rosenheck, R, Perkins, DO, Walker, TM, Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, Lieberman, JA (2006). Baseline neurocognitive deficits in the CATIE schizophrenia trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 20332046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keefe, RS, Seidman, LJ, Christensen, BK, Hamer, RM, Sharma, T, Sitskoorn, MM, Lewine, RR, Yurgelun-Todd, DA, Gur, RC, Tohen, M, Tollefson, GD, Sanger, TM, Lieberman, JA (2004). Comparative effect of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus low doses of haloperidol. Americal Journal of Psychiatry 161, 985995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keefe, RSE (1999). Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) Manual – A: Version 2.1. Duke University Medical Center: Durham, NC.Google Scholar
Kern, RS, Gold, JM, Dickinson, D, Green, MF, Nuechterlein, KH, Baade, LE, Keefe, RS, Mesholam-Gately, RI, Seidman, LJ, Lee, C, Sugar, CA, Marder, SR (2011). The MCCB impairment profile for schizophrenia outpatients: results from the MATRICS psychometric and standardization study. Schizophrenia Research 126, 124131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayer, JD, Salovey, P, Caruso, DR (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) User's Manual. Multi-Health System Publishers: Toronto.Google Scholar
Mesholam-Gately, RI, Giuliano, AJ, Goff, KP, Faraone, SV, Seidman, LJ (2009). Neurocognition in first-episode schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology 23, 315336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nuechterlein, KH, Barch, DM, Gold, JM, Goldberg, TE, Green, MF, Heaton, RK (2004). Identification of separable cognitive factors in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 72, 2939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nuechterlein, KH, Edell, WS, Norris, M, Dawson, ME (1986). Attentional vulnerability indicators, thought disorder, and negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12, 408426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nuechterlein, KH, Green, MF, Kern, RS, Baade, LE, Barch, DM, Cohen, JD, Essock, S, Fenton, WS, Frese, FJ III, Gold, JM, Goldberg, T, Heaton, RK, Keefe, RS, Kraemer, H, Mesholam-Gately, R, Seidman, LJ, Stover, E, Weinberger, DR, Young, AS, Zalcman, S, Marder, SR (2008). The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, part 1: test selection, reliability, and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 203213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ojeda, N, Pena, J, Schretlen, DJ, Sanchez, P, Aretouli, E, Elizagarate, E, Ezcurra, J, Gutierrez, M (2012). Hierarchical structure of the cognitive processes in schizophrenia: the fundamental role of processing speed. Schizophrenia Research 135, 7278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schretlen, DJ, Peña, J, Aretouli, E, Orue, I, Cascella, NG, Pearlson, GD, Ojeda, N (2013). Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a latent cognitive structure common to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and normal controls. Bipolar Disorders 15, 422433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sergi, MJ, Rassovsky, Y, Widmark, C, Reist, C, Erhart, S, Braff, DL, Marder, SR, Green, MF (2007). Social cognition in schizophrenia: relationships with neurocognition and negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 90, 316324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spreen, O, Strauss, E (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
Subotnik, KL, Casaus, LR, Ventura, J, Luo, JS, Hellemann, GS, Gretchen-Doorly, D, Marder, S, Nuechterlein, KH (in press). Risperidone long-acting injection for relapse prevention and control of breakthrough symptoms after a recent first episode of schizophrenia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Tulsky, DS, Price, LR (2003). The joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure: development and cross-validation of a six-factor model of cognitive functioning. Psychological Assessment 15, 149162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
US Army (1944). Army Individual Test Battery: Manual of Directions and Scoring. Adjutant General's Office, War Department: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Van Hooren, S, Versmissen, D, Janssen, I, Myin-Germeys, I (2008). Social cognition and neurocognition as independent domains in psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 103, 257265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wechsler, D (1987). Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised, manual. Psychological Corporation: New York.Google Scholar
Wechsler, D (1995). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. The Psychological Corporation: New York.Google Scholar
White, T, Stern, RA (2003). Neuropsychological Assessment Battery: Psychometric and technical manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.: Lutz, FL.Google Scholar
Williams, LM, Whitford, TJ, Flynn, G, Wong, W, Liddell, BJ, Silverstein, S, Galletly, C, Harris, AW, Gordon, E (2008). General and social cognition in first episode schizophrenia: identification of separable factors and prediction of functional outcome using the IntegNeuro test battery. Schizophrenia Research 99, 182191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

McCleery supplementary material

Tables S1 and S2

Download McCleery supplementary material(File)
File 18 KB
21
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Latent structure of cognition in schizophrenia: a confirmatory factor analysis of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Latent structure of cognition in schizophrenia: a confirmatory factor analysis of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Latent structure of cognition in schizophrenia: a confirmatory factor analysis of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *