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The effects of omega-3 fatty acids on neuropsychological functioning and brain morphology in mid-life adults: a randomized clinical trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 October 2019

Regina L. Leckie
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
David E. Lehman
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Peter J. Gianaros
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Kirk I. Erickson
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Susan M. Sereika
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Dora C. H. Kuan
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Stephen B. Manuck
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Christopher M. Ryan
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Jeffrey K. Yao
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Matthew F. Muldoon*
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
*
Author for correspondence: Matthew F. Muldoon, E-mail: mfm10@pitt.edu

Abstract

Background

The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.

Methods

In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.

Results

Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.

Conclusions

In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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Footnotes

*

Drs Leckie and Lehman contributed equally to this manuscript.

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