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Do young adolescents with first-episode psychosis or ADHD show sensorimotor gating deficits?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 March 2019

Jacob Rydkjaer*
Affiliation:
Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS) and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR), Mental Health Center Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Jens Richardt Moellegaard Jepsen
Affiliation:
Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS) and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR), Mental Health Center Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Anne Katrine Pagsberg
Affiliation:
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Birgitte Fagerlund
Affiliation:
Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS) and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR), Mental Health Center Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Birte Yding Glenthoej
Affiliation:
Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS) and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR), Mental Health Center Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Bob Oranje
Affiliation:
Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS) and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR), Mental Health Center Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
*
Author for correspondence: Jacob Rydkjaer, E-mail: jacob.rydkjaer@regionh.dk

Abstract

Background

Early identification is important for patients with early-onset schizophrenia (SZ). Assessment of (candidate) endophenotypic markers for SZ, such as prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), may help distinguish between the early-onset SZ and other psychiatric disorders. We explored whether PPI deficits usually seen in adult-onset SZ are present in young adolescents with either early-onset psychosis or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods

Twenty-five adolescents with first-episode, non-affective psychosis (FEP), 28 adolescents with ADHD and 43 healthy controls (HC), aged 12–17 years, were assessed with an auditory PPI paradigm.

Results

No significant group differences were found in PPI. However, when the FEP group was divided into those already diagnosed with SZ (n = 13) and those without (N-SZ) (n = 12), and all four groups (SZ, N-SZ, ADHD and HC) were compared on percentage PPI in the 85/60 trials, significantly less PPI was found in patients with SZ than in the HC as well as the ADHD group. No significant group differences were found in explorative analyses on the other trial types. Additionally, startle magnitude was significantly higher in SZ than in N-SZ patients.

Conclusion

Young adolescents with SZ showed sensorimotor gating deficits similar to those usually found in adults with SZ and had larger startle magnitude than patients with other types of non-affective early-onset psychosis. No sensorimotor gating deficits were found in adolescents with ADHD. Our findings support the theory that deficient PPI is endophenotypic for SZ.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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