Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-l2zqg Total loading time: 0.544 Render date: 2021-09-23T07:13:25.646Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Do documented records and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment similarly predict chronic inflammation?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 September 2019

Meg Osborn
Affiliation:
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York City, New York, USA Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York City, New York, USA
Cathy Spatz Widom*
Affiliation:
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York City, New York, USA Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York City, New York, USA
*Corresponding
Author for correspondence: Cathy Spatz Widom, E-mail: cwidom@jjay.cuny.edu

Abstract

Background

Childhood adversities have been associated with chronic inflammation and risk for cardiovascular disease. With some exceptions, existing knowledge of this relationship is based on retrospective self-reports, potentially subject to recall bias or memory problems. We seek to determine whether childhood maltreatment is associated with higher C-reactive protein (CRP) later in life and whether individuals with official and retrospective self-reports of maltreatment and men and women show similar increases in risk.

Methods

Data are from in-person interviews in 2009–2010 with 443 offspring (mean age = 23.4) of parents in a longitudinal study of the consequences of childhood maltreatment. Official reports of maltreatment were abstracted from 2011–2013 Child Protective Services records. Eleven measures were used to assess self-reported maltreatment retrospectively. Seventeen percent of offspring had official reports, whereas self-reported prevalence rates ranged from 5.4% to 64.8%. CRP was assessed through blood spot samples. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of maltreatment on inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, race, parent occupational status, current depression, smoking, and heavy drinking.

Results

Individuals with official reports of child maltreatment and, specifically, physical abuse, had significantly higher levels of CRP than non-maltreated individuals. Maltreated females showed elevated CRP, independent of control variables, whereas no significant association was observed in males. Retrospective self-report measures of child maltreatment did not predict elevated CRP.

Conclusions

Individuals with documented histories of childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for chronic inflammation and may benefit from targeted interventions. The results strengthen inferences about the effects of childhood maltreatment on inflammation in females.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aas, M, Dieset, I, Hope, S, Hoseth, E, Morch, R, Reponen, E, Steen, NE, Laskemoen, JF, Ueland, T, Aukrust, P, Agartz, I, Andreassen, OA and Melle, I (2017) Childhood maltreatment severity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein and body mass index in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 65, 324349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baldwin, J, Arseneault, L and Danese, A (2016) Childhood violence victimisation predicts elevated inflammation levels in young women independent of latent genetic influences. Psychoneuroendocrinology 71, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, JR, Arseneault, L, Caspi, A, Fisher, HL, Moffitt, TE, Odgers, CL, Pariante, C, Ambler, A, Dove, R, Kepa, A, Matthews, T, Menard, A, Sugden, K, Williams, B and Danese, A (2018) Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: a genetically sensitive cohort study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 67, 211217.10.1016/j.bbi.2017.08.025CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baldwin, JR, Reuben, A, Newbury, JB and Danese, A (2019) Agreement between prospective and retrospective measures of childhood victimization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 76, 584593.10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, D, Akhtar, R, Ciufolini, S, Pariante, CM and Mondelli, V (2016) Childhood trauma and adulthood inflammation: a meta-analysis of peripheral C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 642649.10.1038/mp.2015.67CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Broyles, ST, Staiano, AE, Drazba, KT, Gupta, AK, Sothern, M and Katzmarzyk, PT (2012) Elevated C-reactive protein in children from risky neighborhoods: evidence for a stress pathway linking neighborhoods and inflammation in children. PLOS One 7, e45419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, LL, Gawuga, CE, Tyrka, AR and Price, LH (2012) C-reactive protein, early life stress, and wellbeing in healthy adults. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 126, 402410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chartier, MJ, Walker, JR and Naimark, B (2010) Separate and cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences in predicting adult health and health care utilization. Child Abuse and Neglect 34, 454464.10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.09.020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D, Handley, ED and Rogosch, FA (2015) Child maltreatment, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms: investigating the roles of C-reactive protein, gene variation and neuroendocrine regulation. Development and Psychopathology 27, 553566.10.1017/S0954579415000152CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coelho, R, Viola, TW, Walss-Bass, C, Brietzke, E and Grassi-Oliveira, R (2014) Childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 129, 180192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Copeland, WE, Wolke, D, Lereya, ST, Shanahan, L, Worthman, C and Costello, EJ (2014) Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, 75707575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danese, A, Pariante, CM, Caspi, A, Taylor, A and Poulton, R (2007) Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 13191324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danese, A, Moffitt, TE, Pariante, CM, Ambler, A, Poulton, R and Caspi, A (2008) Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 409415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danese, A, Moffitt, TE, Harrington, H, Milne, BJ, Polanczyk, G, Pariante, CM, Poulton, R and Caspi, A (2009) Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: Depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163, 11351143.10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.214CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danese, A, Caspi, A, Williams, B, Ambler, A, Sugden, K, Mika, J, Werts, H, Freeman, J, Pariante, CM, Moffitt, TE and Arseneault, L (2011) Biological embedding of stress through inflammation processes in childhood. Molecular Psychiatry 16, 244246.10.1038/mp.2010.5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Punder, K, Overfeld, J, Dorr, P, Dittrich, K, Winter, SM, Kubiak, N, Karaboycheva, G and Heim, C (2017) Maltreatment is associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in 3 to 5 year-old children. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 66, e17e18.Google Scholar
Dong, MX, Giles, WH, Felitti, VJ, Dube, SR, Williams, JE, Chapman, DP and Anda, RF (2004) Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: adverse childhood experiences study. Circulation 110, 17611766.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dowd, JB, Palermo, T, Chyu, L, Adam, E and Mcdade, TW (2014) Race/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in stress and immune function in The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Social Science and Medicine 115, 4955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Du Clos, TW and Mold, C (2004) C-reactive protein: an activator of innate immunity and a modulator of adaptive immunity. Immunologic Research 30, 261277.10.1385/IR:30:3:261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagundes, CP, Glaser, R, Malarkey, WB and Kiecolt-Glaser, JK (2013) Childhood adversity and herpesvirus latency in breast cancer survivors. Health Psychology 32, 337344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finkelhor, D (2017) Screening for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs): Cautions and suggestions. Child Abuse and Neglect 85, 174179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ford, ES, Giles, WH, Myers, GL, Rifai, N, Ridker, PM and Mannino, DM (2003) C-reactive protein concentration distribution among US children and young adults: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2000. Clinical Chemistry 49, 13531357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, ES, Giles, WH, Mokdad, AH and Myers, GL (2004) Distribution and correlates of C-reactive protein concentrations among adult US women. Clinical Chemistry 50, 574581.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frohlich, M, Doring, A, Imhof, A, Hutchinson, WL, Pepys, MB and Koenig, W (1999) Oral contraceptive use is associated with a systemic acute phase response. Fibrinolysis & Proteolysis 13, 239244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frohlich, M, Sund, M, Thorand, B, Hutchinson, WL, Pepys, MB and Koenig, W (2002) Lack of seasonal variation in C-reactive protein. Clinical Chemistry 48, 575577.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuligni, AJ, Telzer, EH, Bower, J, Cole, SW, Kiang, L and Irwin, MR (2009) A preliminary study of daily interpersonal stress and C-reactive protein levels among adolescents from Latin American and European backgrounds. Psychosomatic Medicine 71, 329333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ghetti, S, Alexander, KW and Goodman, GS (2002) Legal involvement in child sexual abuse cases: Consequences and interventions. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 25, 235251.10.1016/S0160-2527(02)00104-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Groeneveld, LP and Giovannoni, JM (1977) Disposition of child abuse and neglect cases. Social Work Research and Abstracts 13, 2430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardt, J and Rutter, M (2004) Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: Review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 45, 260273.10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00218.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, KM (2011) Design Features of Add Health. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
Heim, C (2017) Immediate biological embedding of maltreatment in children: Berlin Longitudinal Children Study (BerlinLCS). Psychoneuroendocrinology 83, 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heller, E, Essex, A and Teigen, A (2017) State Strategies for Preventing Child and Adolescent Injuries and Violence. Washington, DC: National Conference of State Legislatures.Google Scholar
Henry, J (1997) System intervention trauma to child sexual abuse victims following disclosure. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12, 499512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, B, Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Langley, J and Silva, PA (1994) On the “remembrance of things past”: a longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method. Psychological Assessment 6, 92101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollingshead, AB (1975) Four-Factor Index of Social Status. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
Imhof, A, Froehlich, M, Brenner, H, Boeing, H, Pepys, MB and Koenig, W (2001) Effect of alcohol consumption on systemic markers of inflammation. Lancet 357, 763767.10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04170-2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isasi, CR, Deckelbaum, RJ, Tracy, RP, Starc, TJ, Berglund, L and Shea, S (2003) Physical fitness and C-reactive protein level in children and young adults: the Columbia University BioMarkers Study. Pediatrics 111, 332338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kasapis, C and Thompson, PD (2005) The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 45, 15631569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khera, A, Mcguire, DK, Murphy, SA, Stanek, HG, Das, SR, Vongpatanasin, W, Wians, FH, Grundy, SM and De Lemos, JA (2005) Race and gender differences in C-reactive protein levels. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 46, 464469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kovacs, M (2003). Children's Depression Inventory: Technical Manual Update. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
Lakoski, SG, Cushman, M, Criqui, M, Rundek, T, Blumenthal, RS, D'agostino, RB and Herrington, DM (2006) Gender and C-reactive protein: Data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. American Heart Journal 152, 593598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lande, MB, Pearson, TA, Vermilion, RP, Auinger, P and Fernandez, ID (2008) Elevated blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and C-reactive protein in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 122, 12521257.10.1542/peds.2007-3162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, JE, Neylan, TC, Epel, E and O'donovan, A (2016) Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: a cross-sectional population-based study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 53, 105112.10.1016/j.bbi.2015.11.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macy, EM, Hayes, TE and Tracy, RP (1997) Variability in the measurement of C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: implications for reference intervals and epidemiological applications. Clinical Chemistry 43, 5258.10.1093/clinchem/43.1.52CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mcdade, TW, Stallings, JF, Angold, A, Costello, EJ, Burleson, M, Cacioppo, JT, Glaser, R and Worthman, CM (2000) Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in whole blood spots: a minimally invasive method for assessing an aspect of cell-mediated immunity. Psychosomatic Medicine 62, 560568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mcdade, TW, Burhop, J and Dohnal, J (2004) High-sensitivity enzyme immunoassay for C-reactive protein in dried blood spots. Clinical Chemistry 50, 652654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mcdade, TW, Williams, S and Snodgrass, JJ (2007) What a drop can do: dried blood spots as a minimally invasive method for integrating biomarkers into population-based research. Demography 44, 899925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meier-Ewert, HK, Ridker, PM, Rifai, N, Price, N, Dinges, DF and Mullington, JM (2001) Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein levels in healthy human subjects. Clinical Chemistry 47, 426430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mendall, MA, Patel, P, Ballam, L, Strachan, DP and Northfield, TC (1996) C reactive protein and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors: a population based cross sectional study. BMJ 312, 10611065.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mozaffarian, D, Benjamin, EJ, Go, AS, Arnett, DK, Blaha, MJ, Cushman, M, Das, SR, De Ferranti, S, Despres, JP, Fullerton, HJ, Howard, VJ, Huffman, MD, Isasi, CR, Jimenez, MC, Judd, SE, Kissela, BM, Lichtman, JH, Lisabeth, LD, Liu, S, Mackey, RH, Magid, DJ, Mcguire, DK, Mohler, ER, Moy, CS, Muntner, P, Mussolino, ME, Nasir, K, Neumar, RW, Nichol, G, Palaniappan, L, Pandey, DK, Reeves, MJ, Rodriguez, CJ, Rosamond, W, Sorlie, PD, Stein, J, Towfighi, A, Turan, TN, Virani, SS, Woo, D, Yeh, RW, Turner, MB and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommitteee (2016) Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 133, e38e360.Google ScholarPubMed
Newbury, JB, Arseneault, L, Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Danese, A, Baldwin, JR and Fisher, HL (2018) Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports. Journal of Psychiatric Research 96, 5764.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikulina, V and Widom, CS (2013) Child maltreatment and executive functioning in middle adulthood: a prospective examination. Neuropsychology 27, 417427.10.1037/a0032811CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ockene, IS, Matthews, CE, Rifai, N, Ridker, PM and Reed, GMSE (2001) Variability and classification accuracy of serial high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements in healthy adults. Clinical Chemistry 47, 444450.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Offer, D, Kaiz, M, Howard, KI and Bennett, ES (2000) The altering of reported experiences. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39, 735742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pardee, M, Kuzma, E, Dahlem, CWY, Boucher, N and Darling-Fisher, CS (2017) Current state of screening high-ACE youth and emerging adults in primary care. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners 29, 716724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, TA, Mensah, GA, Alexander, RW, Anderson, JL, Cannon, ROR, Criqui, M, Fadl, YY, Fortmann, SP, Hong, Y, Myers, GL, Rifai, N, Smith, SC, Taubert, K, Tracy, RP, Vinicor, F and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Heart Association (2003) Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 107, 499511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pepys, MB and Hirschfield, GM (2003) C-reactive protein: a critical update. Journal of Clinical Investigation 111, 18051812.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pollitt, RA, Kaufman, JS, Rose, KM, Diez-Roux, AV, Zeng, D and Heiss, G (2007) Early-life and adult socioeconomic status and inflammatory risk markers in adulthood. European Journal of Epidemiology 22, 5566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radloff, LS (1991) The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 20, 149166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radloff, LS (1977) The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1, 385401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reuben, A, Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Belsky, DW, Harrington, H, Schroeder, F, Hogan, S, Ramrakha, S, Poulton, R and Danese, A (2016) Lest we forget: comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 57, 11031112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rohde, LEP, Hennekens, CH and Ridker, PM (1999) Survey of C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy men. The American Journal of Cardiology 84, 10181022.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Runyan, DK, Curtis, PA, Hunter, WM, Black, MM, Kotch, JB, Bangdiwala, S, Dubowitz, H, English, D, Everson, MD and Landsverk, J (1998) LONGSCAN: a consortium for longitudinal studies of maltreatment and the life course of children. Aggression and Violent Behavior 3, 275285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Straus, MA, Hamby, SL, Finkelhor, D, Moore, DW and Runyan, D (1998) Identification of child maltreatment with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse and Neglect 22, 249270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, SE, Lehman, BJ, Kiefe, CI and Seeman, TE (2006) Relationship of early life stress and psychological functioning to adult C-reactive protein in the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Biological Psychiatry 60, 819824.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Ockenburg, SL, Tak, LM, Bakker, SJL, Gans, ROB, De Jonge, P and Rosmalen, JGM (2015) Effects of adverse life events on heart rate variability, cortisol, and C-reactive protein. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 131, 4050.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weissman, MM, Sholomskas, D, Pottenger, M, Prusoff, BA and Locke, BZ (1977) Assessing depressive symptoms in five psychiatric populations: a validation study. American Journal of Epidemiology 106, 203214.10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112455CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, CS (1989) Child abuse, neglect and adult behavior: Research design and findings on criminality, violence, and child abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 59, 355367.10.1111/j.1939-0025.1989.tb01671.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, CS (2019) Are retrospective self-reports accurate representations or existential recollections? JAMA Psychiatry 76, 567568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, CS, Dutton, MA, Czaja, SJ and Dumont, KA (2005) Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history. Journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 519531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, CS, Czaja, SJ, Bentley, T and Johnson, MS (2012) A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: New findings from a 30-year follow-up. American Journal of Public Health 102, 11351144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, CS, Czaja, S and Dumont, KA (2015 a) Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Real or detection bias? [Supplementary Materials]. Science 347, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widom, CS, Czaja, SJ and Dumont, KA (2015 b) Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Real or detection bias? Science 347, 14801485.10.1126/science.1259917CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Worthman, CM and Stallings, JF (1997) Hormone measures in finger-prick blood spot samples: New field methods for reproductive endocrinology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 104, 121.3.0.CO;2-V>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Osborn and Widom supplementary material

Tables S1-S2

Download Osborn and Widom supplementary material(File)
File 29 KB
3
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Do documented records and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment similarly predict chronic inflammation?
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Do documented records and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment similarly predict chronic inflammation?
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Do documented records and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment similarly predict chronic inflammation?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *