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Deviations from a typical development of the cerebellum in youth are associated with psychopathology, executive functions and educational outcomes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 October 2022

Marina S. Borges*
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil
Maurício S. Hoffmann
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil Section on Negative Affect and Social Processes, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Department of Neuropsychiatry, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Avenida Roraima 1000, Santa Maria, 97105-900, Brazil
André Simioni
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil Section on Negative Affect and Social Processes, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Luiza K. Axelrud
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil Section on Negative Affect and Social Processes, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Danielle S. Teixeira
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil Section on Negative Affect and Social Processes, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
André Zugman
Affiliation:
National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Integrativas (LiNC), Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil
Andrea Jackowski
Affiliation:
Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Integrativas (LiNC), Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil
Pedro M. Pan
Affiliation:
Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Integrativas (LiNC), Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil
Rodrigo A. Bressan
Affiliation:
Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Integrativas (LiNC), Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil
Nadine Parker
Affiliation:
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Jurgen Germann
Affiliation:
University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Patrícia P. Bado
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil Section on Negative Affect and Social Processes, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Theodore D. Satterthwaite
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
Michael P. Milham
Affiliation:
Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA Center for the Developing Brain, Child Mind Institute, New York, NY 10022, USA
M. Mallar Chakravarty
Affiliation:
Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Department of Biological and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Luis Augusto Paim Rohde
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Eurípedes Constantino Miguel
Affiliation:
National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq), São Paulo, SP, Brazil Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil
Tomas Paus
Affiliation:
Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Giovanni A. Salum
Affiliation:
Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil Section on Negative Affect and Social Processes, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq), São Paulo, SP, Brazil Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil
*
Author for correspondence: Marina S. Borges, E-mail: marinaspierborges@gmail.com

Abstract

Background

Understanding deviations from typical brain development is a promising approach to comprehend pathophysiology in childhood and adolescence. We investigated if cerebellar volumes different than expected for age and sex could predict psychopathology, executive functions and academic achievement.

Methods

Children and adolescents aged 6–17 years from the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort Study for Mental Conditions had their cerebellar volume estimated using Multiple Automatically Generated Templates from T1-weighted images at baseline (n = 677) and at 3-year follow-up (n = 447). Outcomes were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and standardized measures of executive functions and school achievement. Models of typically developing cerebellum were based on a subsample not exposed to risk factors and without mental-health conditions (n = 216). Deviations from this model were constructed for the remaining individuals (n = 461) and standardized variation from age and sex trajectory model was used to predict outcomes in cross-sectional, longitudinal and mediation analyses.

Results

Cerebellar volumes higher than expected for age and sex were associated with lower externalizing specific factor and higher executive functions. In a longitudinal analysis, deviations from typical development at baseline predicted inhibitory control at follow-up, and cerebellar deviation changes from baseline to follow-up predicted changes in reading and writing abilities. The association between deviations in cerebellar volume and academic achievement was mediated by inhibitory control.

Conclusions

Deviations in the cerebellar typical development are associated with outcomes in youth that have long-lasting consequences. This study highlights both the potential of typical developing models and the important role of the cerebellum in mental health, cognition and education.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Footnotes

*

equally contributed.

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