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Cool and hot executive functions in medication-naive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2011

B.-R. Yang
Affiliation:
Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China
R. C. K. Chan*
Affiliation:
Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
N. Gracia
Affiliation:
School of Psychology and Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
X.-Y. Cao
Affiliation:
Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China
X.-B. Zou
Affiliation:
Child Developmental Behavior Center, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
J. Jing
Affiliation:
School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
J.-N. Mai
Affiliation:
Guangzhou Children's Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
J. Li
Affiliation:
Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Zhuhai, People's Republic of China
D. Shum*
Affiliation:
School of Psychology and Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
*
*Address for correspondence: R. C. K. Chan, Ph.D., Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China. (Email: rckchan@psych.ac.cn) [R. C. K. Chan]
(Email: d.shum@griffith.edu.au) [D. Shum]

Abstract

Background

This study aimed to compare ‘cool’ [working memory (WM) and response inhibition] and ‘hot’ (delay aversion) executive functions (EFs) in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method

A total of 100 ADHD children (45 with family history of ADHD and 55 with no family history) and 100 healthy controls, all medication free, were tested on tasks related to the ‘hot’ (i.e. two choice-delay tasks) and ‘cool’ domains of EF (i.e. Digits backward, Corsi Block Task backward, Go/No-Go Task, Stop-Signal Task, and the Stroop).

Results

Compared with the controls, children with ADHD were found to perform significantly worse on one or more measures of response inhibition, WM, and delay aversion after controlling for co-morbidities and estimated IQ. In addition, comparisons between ADHD children with family history of ADHD and those with no family history found significant differences on measures of response inhibition and WM but not delay aversion. These results are largely supported by results of two logistic regressions.

Conclusions

ADHD was found to be associated with deficits on both cool and hot EFs. There is also evidence to suggest that cool EFs impairment is related to a family history of ADHD. Findings of this study have helped to elucidate the nature and extent of EF deficits in children with ADHD.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

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