Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-8kt4b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-25T12:21:57.864Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Behaviour disturbance and mental handicap: typology and longitudinal trends

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2009

Ivan Leudar*
Psychology Laboratory, St Andrews University, St Andrews, Gogarburn Hospital, Edinburgh
W. I. Fraser
Psychology Laboratory, St Andrews University, St Andrews, Gogarburn Hospital, Edinburgh
M. A. Jeeves
Psychology Laboratory, St Andrews University, St Andrews, Gogarburn Hospital, Edinburgh
1Address for correspondence: Dr I. Leudar, Psychology Laboratory, St Andrews University, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU.


Behaviour disturbance was investigated in mentally handicapped adults who were living in hospital or at home. The first part of the study describes an empirically derived typology of disturbed behaviour patterns and gives the details of a scale by means of which behaviour disturbance can be quantified along six dimensions: aggression, mood disturbance, communicativeness, antisocial conduct, idiosyncratic mannerisms, and self-injury. The second part of the study used the scale in a longitudinal study of behavioural disturbance. Different forms of disturbed behaviour exhibited different kinds of longitudinal stability, and the long-term changes in one aspect of disturbance depended on subjects' other disturbance scores.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1984

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Balthazar, E. E. (1973). The Balthazar Scale of Adaptive Behaviour. II: The Scales of Social Adaptation. Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
Balthazar, E. E. & Phillips, J. L. (1976). Social adjustment in more severely retarded institutionalised adults: the sum of adjusted behaviour. Journal of Mental Deficiency 80, 454459.Google Scholar
Butler, E. & Bjaanes, A. T. (1976). A typology of community care facilities and differential normalisation outcomes. In Research to Practice in Mental Retardation, Vol. 1 (ed. Mitler, P.), pp. 337347. University Parks Press: Baltimore.Google Scholar
Childs, D. (1970). The Essentials of Factor Analysis. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: London.Google Scholar
Clements, P., Bost, L., DuBois, Y. & Turpin, W. (1980). Adaptive Behaviour Scale: relative severity of maladaptive behaviour. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 84, 465469.Google Scholar
Conners, C. K. (1969). A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children. American Journal of Psychiatry 126, 885888.Google Scholar
Deitz, S. M., Repp, A. C. & Deitz, R. E. (1976). Reducing inappropriate classroom behaviour of retarded students through three procedures of differential reinforcement. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 20, 155170.Google ScholarPubMed
Department of Health and Social Security (1972). Census of Mentally Handicapped Patients in Hospital in England and Wales at the End of 1970. HMSO: London.Google Scholar
Eyman, R. K. & Call, T. (1977). Maladaptive behaviour and community placement of mentally retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 82, 137144.Google ScholarPubMed
Eyman, R. K., Borthwick, S. A. & Miller, C. (1981). Trends in maladaptive behaviour of mentally retarded persons placed in community and institutional settings. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 85, 473477.Google ScholarPubMed
Francis, S. H. (1970). Behaviour of low-grade institutionalised mongoloids: changes with age. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 75, 92101.Google ScholarPubMed
Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., Schroth, P. C., Tonick, I., Guthrie, D. & Wake, L. (1981). Behavioral characterìstics of high- and low-grade autistic children. American Journal of Psychiatry 138, 2529.Google Scholar
Futterman, A. D. & Arndt, S. (1983). The construct and predictive validity of adaptive behaviour. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 84, 546550.Google Scholar
Holmes, C. & Batt, R. (1980). Is choking somebody really equivalent to stamping one's feet? An analysis of Adaptive Behaviour Scale items. Psychological Reports 46, 12771278.Google Scholar
King, T., Soucar, E. & Isett, R. (1980). An attempt to assess and predict adaptive behaviour of institutionalised mentally retarded clients. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 84, 406410.Google Scholar
Kleinberg, J. & Galian, B. (1983). Effects of de-institutionalisation on adaptive behaviour of adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 88, 2127.Google Scholar
Koller, H., Richardson, S. A., Katz, M. & McLaren, J. (1983). Behaviour disturbance since childhood among a 5-year birth cohort of all mentally retarded young adults in a city. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 87, 386395.Google Scholar
Lambert, N. E. & Nicoll, R. (1976). Dimensions of adaptive behaviour of retarded and nonretarded public-school children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 81, 135146.Google Scholar
Leck, I., Gordon, W. L. & McKeown, T. (1967). Medical and social needs of patients in hospitals for mentally subnormal. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 21, 115121.Google ScholarPubMed
Leudar, I. (1981). Strategic communication in mental retardation. In Communicating with Normal and Retarded Children (ed. Fraser, W. I. and Grieve, R.), pp. 113129. John Wright and Sons: Bristol.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leudar, I., Fraser, W. I. & Jeeves, M. A. (1981). Social familiarity and communication in Down Syndrome. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 25, 133142.Google Scholar
Lorr, I. & Jenkins, R. L. (1953). Patterns of maladjustment in children. Journal of Clinical Psychology 9, 1619.Google Scholar
Maddala, G. S. (1983). Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
McDevitt, S. C., McDevitt, S. C. & Rosen, M. (1977). Adaptive Behaviour Scale. II: A cautionary note and suggestions for revisions. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 82, 210212.Google Scholar
Meyers, C. E., Nihira, K. & Zetlin, A. (1980). The measurement of adaptive behaviour. In Handbook of Mental Deficiency (2nd edn) (ed. Ellis, N. R.), pp. 431481. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
Nihira, K. (1969 a). Factorial dimensions of adaptive behaviour in adult retardates. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 73, 868878.Google ScholarPubMed
Nihira, K. (1969 b). Dimensions of adaptive behaviour in institutionalised mentally retarded children and adults: developmental perspective. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 81, 215226.Google Scholar
Nihira, K., Foster, R., Shelhaas, M. & Leland, H. (1974). AAMD Adaptive Behaviour Scale, 1974 Revision. American Association on Mental Deficiency: Washington DC.Google Scholar
Pagel, S. E. & Whitling, C. A. (1978). Readmissions to a state hospital for mentally retarded persons: reasons for community placement failure. Mental Retardation 16, 164166.Google Scholar
Philips, I. & Williams, N. (1975). Psychopathology and mental retardation: a study of 100 mentally retarded children: I. Psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry 132, 12651271.Google Scholar
Primrose, D. A. (1971). A survey of 502 successive admissions to a subnormality hospital from January the 1st to December 31st 1970. British Journal of Mental Subnormality 17, 2528.Google Scholar
Reid, A. H. (1976). Psychiatric disturbance in the mentally handicapped. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 69, 509512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reid, A. H., Ballinger, B. R. & Heather, B. B. (1978). Behavioural syndromes identified by cluster analysis in a sample of 100 severely and profoundly retarded adults. Psychological Medicine 8, 399412.Google Scholar
Russell, A. T. & Tanguay, P. E. (1981). Mental illness and mental retardations: cause or coincidence? American Journal of Mental Deficiency 85, 570574.Google ScholarPubMed
Spirack, G. & Levine, M. (1964). The Devereux Child Behaviour Rating Scales. a study of symptom behaviour in latency age atypical children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 68, 700717.Google Scholar
Spitz, R. (1949). The role of ecological factors in emotional development. Child Development 20, 145156.Google Scholar
Williams, C. E. (1971). A study of patients in a group of mental subnormality hospitals. British Journal of Mental Subnormality 17, 2941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wing, L. (1979). Differentiation of retardation and autism. Child Care, Health and Development 5, 5768.Google ScholarPubMed
Wing, L. (1981 a). Language, social and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11, 3144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wing, L. (1981 b). Treatment of autistic children in the United Kingdom and the role of the National Society. Japanese Journal of Adolescent Psychiatry 22, 307320.Google Scholar
Wing, L. & Gould, J. (1978). Systematic recording of behaviours and skills of retarded and psychotic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 8, 7997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed