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Abnormal dynamic functional connectivity of hippocampal subregions associated with working memory impairment in melancholic depression

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 December 2021

Lai Shunkai
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Ting Su
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Shuming Zhong
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Guangmao Chen
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Yiliang Zhang
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Hui Zhao
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Pan Chen
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Guixian Tang
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Zhangzhang Qi
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Jiali He
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Yunxia Zhu
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Sihui Lv
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Zijin Song
School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510316, China
Haofei Miao
Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Yilei Hu
School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510316, China
Yanbin Jia*
Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Ying Wang*
Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China Institute of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Author for correspondence: Ying Wang, E-mail:; Yanbin Jia, E-mail:
Author for correspondence: Ying Wang, E-mail:; Yanbin Jia, E-mail:



Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional changes of the hippocampus in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of hippocampal subregions in melancholic MDD. We aimed to reveal the patterns for dFC variability in hippocampus subregions – including the bilateral rostral and caudal areas and its associations with cognitive impairment in melancholic MDD.


Forty-two treatment-naive MDD patients with melancholic features and 55 demographically matched healthy controls were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each hippocampal subregions seed. We assessed between-group differences in the dFC variability values of each hippocampal subregion in the whole brain and cognitive performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Finally, association analysis was conducted to investigate their relationships.


Patients with melancholic MDD showed decreased dFC variability between the left rostral hippocampus and left anterior lobe of cerebellum compared with healthy controls (voxel p < 0.005, cluster p < 0.0125, GRF corrected), and poorer cognitive scores in working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, and social cognition (all p < 0.05). Association analysis showed that working memory was positively correlated with the dFC variability values of the left rostral hippocampus-left anterior lobe of the cerebellum (r = 0.338, p = 0.029) in melancholic MDD.


These findings confirmed the distinct dynamic functional pathway of hippocampal subregions in patients with melancholic MDD, and suggested that the dysfunction of hippocampus-cerebellum connectivity may be underlying the neural substrate of working memory impairment in melancholic MDD.

Original Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Lai Shunkai and Ting Su contributed equally to this work.


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