Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-r8t2r Total loading time: 0.332 Render date: 2022-07-02T00:08:07.018Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Glandy Cross: A Later Prehistoric Monumental Complex in Carmarthenshire, Wales

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 February 2014

Trevor Kirk
Affiliation:
School of Archaeology, Trinity College, Carmarthen, Wales SA31 3EP
George Williams
Affiliation:
Dyfed Archaeological Trust, The Shire Hall, Carmarthen Street, Llandeilo, Wales SA19 6AF

Abstract

Excavations at the Glandy Cross monumental complex during 1991 and 1992 formed part of an integrated programme of evaluation, rescue, and research by Dyfed Archaeological Trust (DAT). Enclosures, pit circles, standing stones, and cairns were excavated and their environs systematically surveyed. Radiocarbon dates show the monumental complex to have been constructed between c. 2190–1530 cal BC. However, the earliest activity at the site may date to c. 4470–4230 cal BC. A defended enclosure was constructed on the peripheries of the complex c. 830–510 cal BC.

The 1991–92 excavation results are presented along with a summary of survey, salvage, and research spanning the period 1981 to 1992. This new data set is tentatively interpreted in terms of historical process and the social practice of monumental construction. A brief commentary on heritage management at Glandy Cross is also presented.

A note on authorship: one of the authors (George Williams) directed the Glandy Cross excavations during 1991–92 and prepared an initial draft of the project report. Following his retirement from DAT a project editor (Trevor Kirk) was commissioned by Cadw: Welsh Historic Monuments to guide the project towards publication. This paper was largely penned by the project editor, though the excavation and survey data were produced by George Williams and his fieldwork team. The excavation and survey archives are held at the offices of DAT.

Résumé

Les fouilles entreprises sur le site du complexe monumental de Glandy Cross en 1991 et 1992 font partie d'un programme intégral d'évaluation, de sauvetage et de recherches de la Société Archéologique de Dyfed (D.A.T.). On a fouillé des enclos, des cercles de fosses, des pierres dressées et des cairns et on a procédé à des levés de terrain systématiques de leurs environs. Des dates au radiocarbone montrent que le complexe monumental avait été construit entre environ 2190 et 1521 av. J.-C.en années calibrées. Il se peut cependant que le site ait été actif au plus tôt vers 4470–4230 av. J.-C. en années calibrées. Un enclos fortifié a été construit à la périphérie du complexe vers 830-510 av. J.-C.en années calibrées.

On présente les résultats des fouilles de 1991–1992, ainsi qu'un résumé de la prospection, du sauvetage et des recherches couvrant la période allant de 1981 à 1992. On a essayé d'offrir une interprétation de cette nouvelle banque de données en termes de processus historique et de pratiques sociales de la construction de monuments. On présente également un bref commentaire sur la gestion du patrimoine à Glandy Cross.

Zusammenfassung

Die Ausgrabungen im monumentalen Komplex von Glandy Cross während der Jahre 1991 und 1992 waren Bestandteil eines integrierten Programms vom Dyfed Archaeological Trust (DAT), das Auswertung, Rettungsgrabung und Forschung beinhaltete. Darin wurden Grabenanlagen, Grubenkreise, stehende Steine und Cairnsausgegraben, und ihre Umgebung systematisch mit Surveys untersucht. Radiocarbon Daten zeigen, daß der monumentale Komplex zwischen c. 2190–1530 cal BC errichtet wurde. Die früheste Belegung der Fundstelle liegt aber vielleicht schon zwischen c. 4470–4230 cal BC. Eine befestigte Grabenanlage wurde an der Peripherie des Komplexes c. 830–510 cal BC errichtet.

Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen von 1991–1992 werden zusammen mit Survey, Notgrabung und Forschung, die sich über einen Zeitraum von 1981 bis 1992 erstrecken, dargestellt. Dieser neue Datensatz wird in bezug auf den historischen Prozess und den sozialen Brauch monumentaler Konstruktionen versuchsweise interpretiert. Es wird zusätzlich ein kurzer Kommentar zur Denkmalpflege in Glandy Cross präsentiert.

Resúmen

Las excavaciones en el complejo monumental de Glandy Cross durante 1991 y 1992 formaron parte de un programa integral de evaluación, rescate e investigación llevado a cabo por Dyfed Archaeological Trust (DAT). Se excavaron recintos, circuios de pozos, piedras erigidas y mojones de piedras y sus alrededores fueron reconocidos sistemática¬mente. Las dataciones al carbono-14 demuestran que el complejo monumental se construyó entre alrededor de 2.190–1.530 cal a.C. Sin embargo la actividad más temprana en el sitio puede que datarse alrededor de 4.470–4.230 cal a.C. Un recinto protegido se construyó en la periferia del complejo alrededor de 830–510 cal a.C.

Se presentan los resultados de las excavaciones de 1991–1992 junto con un resumen del reconocimiento de superficie, rescate e investigación que abarca desde 1981 a 1992. Esta nueva información se interpreta provisional¬mente en términos del proceso histórico y la práctica social de la construcción monumental. También se presenta un breve comentario sobre la gestión del patrimonio cultural en Glandy Cross.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2000

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aston, M. 1985. Interpreting the Landscape. Landscape Archaeology in Local Studies. London: BatsfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barclay, G. & Maxwell, G. 1991. Excavation of a Neolithic long mortuary enclosure within the Roman legionary fortress at Inchtuthil, Perthshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 121, 2744Google Scholar
Barker, C.T. 1992. The Chambered Tombs of South-West Wales. Oxford: OxbowGoogle Scholar
Barnatt, J. 1989. Stone Circles of Britain. Taxonomic and Distributional Analyses, and a Catalogue of Sites in England, Scotland and Wales. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 215Google Scholar
Barrett, J.C. 1994. Fragments From Antiquity. An Archaeology of Social Life in Britain, 2900–1200 BC. Oxford: BlackwellGoogle Scholar
Bell, C. 1977. Ritual. Perspectives and Dimensions. Oxford: University PressGoogle Scholar
Bender, B. (ed.). 1993. Landscape. Politics and Perspectives. Oxford: BergGoogle Scholar
Benson, D.G., Evans, J.G., Williams, G.H., David, A. & Darvill, T. 1990. Excavations at Stackpole Warren, Dyfed. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56, 179245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloch, M. 1985. From cognition to ideology. In Fardon, R. (ed.), Power and Knowledge: anthropological and sociological approaches, 2148. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic PressGoogle Scholar
Borlase, W. 1769. Antiquities, Historical and Monumental of the County of Cornwall. London (2nd edn)Google Scholar
Borlase, W.C. 1872. Naenia Cornubiae. LondonGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, R. 1993. Altering the Earth, Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph 8Google Scholar
Buckley, D.G., Major, H. & Milton, B. 1988. Excavation of a possible Neolithic long barrow or mortuary enclosure at Rivenhall, Essex, 1986. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 54, 7791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burl, H.A.W. 1969. Henges: internal features and regional groups. Archaeological Journal 126, 128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burl, H.A.W. 1993. From Carnac to Callanish. The Prehistoric Stone Rows and Avenues of Britain, Ireland and Brittany. New Haven & London: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
Burl, A. 1999. Glaciers and the bluestones in Wales. British Archaeology 45, 18Google Scholar
Caseldine, A.E. 1990. The environmental evidence. In Murphy, K., The excavation of a Bronze Age round barrow at Goodwin's Row, Glandy Cross, Llandissilio East, Dyfed. Archaeology in Wales 30, 45Google Scholar
Crossley, D.W. 1963. List of hill-forts and other earthworks in Pembrokeshire. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 20, 171205Google Scholar
Cunliffe, B. 1991. Iron Age Communities in Britain: an account of England, Scotland and Wales from the Seventh Century BC until the Roman Conquest. London: Routledge (3rd edn)Google Scholar
Darvill, T. & Lapuente, P. 1996. A note on the petrology of a Bronze Age urn from a barrow at Goodwin's Row, Glandy Cross, Llandissilio East. Archaeology in Wales 36, 109Google Scholar
David, A. & Williams, G. 1995. Stone axe manufacture: new evidence from the Preseli Hills, west Wales. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 61, 433–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dimbleby, G. 1962. The Development of British Heathlands and Their Soils. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford Forestry Memoir 23Google Scholar
Evans, T. 1893. Ancient remains in the parish of Llandyssilio, Carmarthenshire. Archaeologia Cambrensis (5th ser.) 10, 186–7Google Scholar
Fenton, J. 1860. On the ancient modes of burial of the Cymry or Celtic Britons. Arcbaeologia Cambrensis (3rd ser.) 6, 2533Google Scholar
Ford, S. 1991. An Early Bronze Age pit circle from Charnham Lane, Hungerford, Berkshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57(2), 179–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, A. 1994. Excavations at the Sarn-y-bryn-caled cursus complex, Welshpool, Powys, and the timber circles of Great Britain and Ireland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60, 143223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giddens, A. 1979. Central Problems in Social Theory. London: MacmillanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimes, W.F. 1936. Map of South Wales Showing the Distribution of Long Barrows and Megaliths. Southampton: Ordnance SurveyGoogle Scholar
Grimes, W.F. 1938. Excavations at Meini Gwyr, Carmarthen. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 4, 324–5Google Scholar
Grimes, W.F. 1939. Meini Gwyr, Carmarthenshire. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 9, 373–4Google Scholar
Grimes, W.F. 1963. The stone circles and related monuments of Wales. In Foster, I. & Alcock, L. (eds), Culture and Environment. Essays in Honour of Sir Cyril Fox, 93152. LondonGoogle Scholar
Guilbert, G. 1973. Moel-y-Gaer. Archaeology in Wales 13, 23Google Scholar
Guilbert, G. 1983. Stakeholes: bogus and pukka – in reponse to Watkins. Scottish Archaeological Review 2(2), 168–70Google Scholar
Harding, A. with Lee, G. 1987. Henge Monuments and Related Sites of Great Britain. Air Photographic Eviden and Catalogue. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 175Google Scholar
Hedges, J. & Buckley, D. 1981. Springfield Cursus and the Cursus Problem. Chelmsford: Essex County Council Occasional Paper 1Google Scholar
Hoskins, W. 1955. The Making of the English Landscape. London: Hodder & StoughtonGoogle Scholar
Kinnes, I.A. 1975. Monumental function in British Neolithic burial practices. World Archaeology 7, 1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lévi-Strauss, C. 1986. The Raw and the Cooked. Harmondsworth: PenguinGoogle Scholar
Lewis, J.M. 1974. Excavations at Rhos-y-Clegyrn prehistoric site, St. Nicholas, Pembrokeshire. Archaeologia Cambrensis 123, 1342Google Scholar
Lewis, S. 1833. Topographical Dictionary of Wales. London: Lewis & CoGoogle Scholar
Lhuyd, E. 1695. ‘Additions’ to the entries for Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire in Camden's Britannia (Gibson Edition)Google Scholar
Longworth, I. 1984. Collared Urns of the Bronze Age in Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: University PressGoogle Scholar
Loveday, R. 1985. Cursuses and Related Monuments of the British Neolithic. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of LeicesterGoogle Scholar
Loveday, R. & Petchey, M. 1982. Oblong ditches: a discussion and some new evidence. Aerial Archaeology 8, 1724Google Scholar
Lynch, F.M. 1979. Ring cairns in Britain and Ireland: their design and purpose. Ulster Journal of Archaeology 42, 119Google Scholar
Lynch, F.M. 1984. Moel Goedog Circle 1: a complex ring cairn near Harlech. Archaeologia Cambrensis 133, 850Google Scholar
Murphy, K. 1990. The excavation of a Bronze Age round barrow at Goodwin's Row, Glandy Cross, Llandissilio East, Dyfed. Archaeology in Wales 30, 16Google Scholar
Pader, E.J. 1982. Symbolism, Social Relations and the Interpretation of Mortuary Remains. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S130Google Scholar
Pitts, L & St Joseph, J. 1985. Inchtuthil. The Roman Legionary Fortress, Excavations 1952–1965. London: Britannia Monograph 6Google Scholar
RCAHM. 1917. An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Carmarthenshire. London: Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments in WalesGoogle Scholar
Richards, C. & Thomas, J. 1984. Ritual activity and structured deposition in later Neolithic Wessex. In Bradley, R. and Gardiner, J. (eds), Neolithic Studies. A Review of Some Current Research, 189218. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 133Google Scholar
Savory, H. 1980. Guide Catalogue of the Bronze Age Collections. Cardiff: National Museum of WalesGoogle Scholar
Smith, A. & Cloutman, E. 1988. Reconstruction of Holocene vegetation history in three dimensions at Waun-Fignen-Felen, an upland in south Wales. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences 322, 159219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stukeley, W. 1776. Iterarium Curiosum. LondonGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M. & Reimer, P. 1993. Extended 14C database and revised CALIB radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 35, 215–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, H.H. 1923. The source of the Stonehenge bluestones. Antiquaries Journal 3, 239–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, J. 1996. Time, Culture and Identity. An Interpretive Archaeology. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
Thorpe, R.S., Williams-Thorpe, O., Jenkins, D.G. & Watson, J.S. 1991. The geological sources and transport of the bluestones of Stonehenge, Wiltshire, UK. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57(2),103–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilley, C. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape. Places, Paths and Monuments. Oxford: BergGoogle Scholar
Ward, A.H. 1983. Excavations around two standing stones on Mynydd Llangendeyrn, Dyfed. Archaeologia Cambrensis 132, 3048Google Scholar
Ward, P.A., Williams, G.H., Marshall, E.C. & Darke, I.M. 1987. The Glandy Cross complex. Archaeology in Wales 27, 913Google Scholar
Watkins, T. 1983. Beware of the Bogus Stakehole. Scottish Archaeological Review 2(2),164–8Google Scholar
Watson, J. & Rawski, E. 1988. Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
Whittle, A., Atkinson, R.J.C., Chambers, R. & Thomas, N. 1992. Excavations in the Neolithic and Bronze Age complex at Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, 1947–1952 and 1981. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 58, 143201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, G.H. 1984. A henge monument at Ffynnon Newydd, Nantgaredig. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 31, 177–90Google Scholar
Williams, G.H. 1986. Recent work on Bronze Age sites in south-west Wales. Archaeology in Wales 26, 1114Google Scholar
Williams, G.H. 1988a. The Standing Stones of Wales and South-West England. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 197Google Scholar
Williams, G.H. 1988b. Recent work on rural settlement in later prehistoric and early historic Dyfed. Antiquaries Journal 68, 3054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, G.H. 1989. Excavations in Longstone Field, St. Ishmaels, Pembrokeshire. Archaeologia Cambrensis 138, 2045Google Scholar
Windell, D. 1989. A Late Neolithic ‘ritual focus’ at West Cotton, Northamptonshire. In Gibson, A. (ed.), Midlands Prehistory. Some Recent and Current Researches into the Prehistory of Central England, 8594. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 204Google Scholar
Windell, D., Chapman, A. & Woodiwiss, J. 1990. From Barrows to Bypass. Excavations at West Cotton, Raunds, Northamptonshire, 1985–1989, Northamptonshire County CouncilGoogle Scholar
6
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Glandy Cross: A Later Prehistoric Monumental Complex in Carmarthenshire, Wales
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Glandy Cross: A Later Prehistoric Monumental Complex in Carmarthenshire, Wales
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Glandy Cross: A Later Prehistoric Monumental Complex in Carmarthenshire, Wales
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *