To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Various types of magnetic fields occur in stars: small scale fields, large scale fields, and internal toroidal fields. While the latter may be ubiquitous in stars due to differential rotation, small scale fields (spots) may be associated with envelop convection in all low and high mass stars. The stable large scale fields found in only about 10% of intermediate mass and massive stars may be understood as a consequence of dynamical binary interaction, e.g., the merging of two stars in a binary. We relate these ideas to magnetic fields in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and to their role in core-collapse and thermonuclear supernova explosions.
Stars are born in turbulent, magnetized filamentary molecular clouds, typically as members of star clusters. Several remarkable technical advances enable observations of magnetic structure and field strengths across many physical scales, from galactic scales on which giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are assembled, down to the surfaces of magnetized accreting young stars. These are shedding new light on the role of magnetic fields in star formation. Magnetic fields affect the gravitational fragmentation and formation of filamentary molecular clouds, the formation and fragmentation of magnetized disks, and finally to the shedding of excess angular momentum in jets and outflows from both the disks and young stars. Magnetic fields play a particularly important role in angular momentum transport on all of these scales. Numerical simulations have provided an important tool for tracking the complex process of the collapse and evolution of protostellar gas since several competing physical processes are at play - turbulence, gravity, MHD, and radiation fields. This paper focuses on the role of magnetic fields in three crucial regimes of star formation: the formation of star clusters emphasizing fragmentation, disk formation and the origin of early jets and outflows, to processes that control the spin evolution of young stars.
We performed an observational study of the relation between the interstellar magnetic field alignment and star formation in twenty (20) sky regions containing Bok Globules. The presence of young stellar objects in the globules is verified by a search of infrared sources with spectral energy distribution compatible with a pre main-sequence star. The interstellar magnetic field direction is mapped using optical polarimetry. These maps are used to estimate the dispersion of the interstellar magnetic field direction in each region from a Gaussian fit, σB. In addition to the Gaussian dispersion, we propose a new parameter, η, to measure the magnetic field alignment that does not rely on any function fitting. Statistical tests show that the dispersion of the magnetic field direction is different in star forming globules relative to quiescent globules. Specifically, the less organised magnetic fields occur in regions having young stellar objects.
Strong, kilo-Gauss, magnetic fields are required to explain a range of observational properties in young, accreting pre-main sequence (PMS) systems. We review the techniques used to detect magnetic fields in PMS stars. Key results from a long running campaign aimed at characterising the large scale magnetic fields in accreting T Tauri stars are presented. Maps of surface magnetic flux in these systems can be used to build 3-D models exploring the role of magnetic fields and the efficiency with which magnetic fields can channel accretion from circumstellar disks on to young stars. Long-term variability in T Tauri star magnetic fields strongly point to a dynamo origin of the magnetic fields. Studies are underway to quantify how changes in magnetic fields affect their accretion properties. We also present the first results from a new programme that investigates the evolution of magnetic fields in intermediate mass (1.5–3M⊙) pre-main sequence stars as they evolve from being convective T Tauri stars to fully radiative Herbig AeBe stars.
Magnetic fields (MF) can play an essential role in the evolution of the interstellar medium - especially at the early evolutionary stages. Small scale research related to the interaction of MF and pre-stellar condensations are unresolved issues. In quantitative terms, submissions about forming a full picture of gas-dust fragments evolution are far from complete, considering delay of their collapse caused by MF and the reverse effect of self-gravitating objects on the transformation of force lines and changing the values of local strength. The role of these interrelated processes is very important in the estimation of time of evolution of protostellar structures. In contrast to OH, in methanol molecule (most investigating at the moment) there is no unpaired electron, and the Zeeman splitting of the energy levels in CH3OH regards only the levels caused by the nuclear spin. Therefore, Zeeman spectrum in methanol is certainly not going to be as effective as in OH. However, since many methanol masers - Class I (MMI - formed at the earliest stage of the evolution of gas and dust condensations) and Class II (MMII - the area around very young stars and protoplanetary disks) - are associated with OH masers, then from spectra of OH masers the parameters of MF can be estimated, at least, near different methanol masers classes, i.e. in condensations which are at different evolutionary stages. This report presents the results of polarization observations 7 OH maser sources at the NRT (France). The main goal is comparing similarities and differences in MF strength and orientation in these masers, which essentially different according to the type of methanol masers associated with them, i.e. the evolutionary type.
Spectropolarimetric observations combined with tomographic imaging techniques have revealed that all pre-main sequence (PMS) stars host multipolar magnetic fields, ranging from strong and globally axisymmetric with ≳kilo-Gauss dipole components, to complex and non-axisymmetric with weak dipole components (≲0.1 kG). Many host dominantly octupolar large-scale fields. We argue that the large-scale magnetic properties of a PMS star are related to its location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This conference paper is a synopsis of Gregory et al. (2012), updated to include the latest results from magnetic mapping studies of PMS stars.
We present a preliminary 3D potential field extrapolation model of the joint magnetosphere of the close accreting PMS binary V4046 Sgr. The model is derived from magnetic maps obtained as part of a coordinated optical and X-ray observing program.
We present results of the X-ray monitoring of V4046 Sgr, a close classical T Tauri star binary, with both components accreting material. The 360 ks long XMM observation allowed us to measure the plasma densities at different temperatures, and to check whether and how the density varies with time. We find that plasma at temperatures of 1–4 MK has high densities, and we observe correlated and simultaneous density variations of plasma, probed by O VII and Ne IX triplets. These results strongly indicate that all the inspected He-like triplets are produced by high-density plasma heated in accretion shocks, and located at the base of accretion flows.
In classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) strong shocks are formed where the accretion funnel impacts with the denser stellar chromosphere. Although current models of accretion provide a plausible global picture of this process, some fundamental aspects are still unclear: the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is order of magnitudes lower than predicted; the observed density and temperature structures of the hot post-shock region are puzzling and still unexplained by models.
To address these issues we performed 2D MHD simulations describing an accretion stream impacting onto the chromosphere of a CTTS, exploring different configurations and strengths of the magnetic field. From the model results we then synthesized the X-ray emission emerging from the hot post-shock, taking into account the local absorption due to the pre-shock stream and surrounding atmosphere.
We find that the different configurations and strengths of the magnetic field profoundly affect the hot post-shock properties. Moreover the emerging X-ray emission strongly depends also on the viewing angle under which accretion is observed. Some of the explored configuration are able to reproduce the observed features of X-ray spectra of CTTS.
We present preliminary results of the study of star-disk interaction in the classical T Tauri star V354 Mon, a member of the young stellar cluster NGC 2264. As part of an international campaign of observations of NGC 2264 organized from December 2011 to February 2012, high resolution photometric and spectroscopic data of this object were obtained simultaneously with the Chandra, CoRoT and Spitzer satellites, and ground-based telescopes, such as CFHT and ESO/VLT. The optical and infrared light curves of V354 Mon show periodic brightness minima that vary in depth and width every 5.21 days rotational cycle. We found evidence that the Hα emission line profile changes according to the period of photometric variations, indicating that the same phenomenon causes both modulations. Such correlation was also identified in a previous observational campaign on the same object, where we concluded that material non-uniformly distributed in the inner part of the disk is the main cause of the photometric modulation. This assumption is supported by the fact that the system is seen at high inclination. It is believed that this distortion of the inner part of the disk results from the dynamical interaction between the stellar magnetosphere, inclined with respect to the rotation axis, and the circumstellar disk, as also observed in the classical T Tauri star AA Tau, and predicted by magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. A model of occultation by circumstellar material was applied to the photometric data in order to determine the parameters of the obscuring material during both observational campaigns, thus providing an investigation of its stability on a timescale of a few years. We also studied V422 Mon, a classical T Tauri star with photometric variations similar to those of V354 Mon at optical wavelengths, but with a distinct behavior in the infrared. The mechanism that produces such a difference is investigated, testing the predictions of magnetospheric accretion models.
Recent spectropolarimetric observations suggest that young low-mass stars such as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) possess relatively strong (~kG) magnetic field. This supports a scenario in which the final accretion onto the stellar surface proceeds through a magnetosphere, and the winds are formed in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) processes. We examine recent numerical simulations of magnetospheric accretions via an inclined dipole and a complex magnetic fields. The difference between a stable accretion regime, in which accretion occurs in ordered funnel streams, and an unstable regime, in which gas penetrates through the magnetosphere in several unstable streams due to the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, will be discussed. We describe how MHD simulation results can be used in separate radiative transfer (RT) models to predict observable quantiles such as line profiles and light curves. The plausibility of the accretion flows and outflows predicted by MHD simulations (via RT models) can be tested against observations. We also address the issue of outflows/winds that arise from the innermost part of CTTSs. First, we discuss the line formations in a simple disk wind and a stellar wind models. We then discuss the formation of the conically shaped magnetically driven outflow that arises from the disk-magnetosphere boundary when the magnetosphere is compressed into an X-type configuration.
Including resistive effects in relativistic magnetized plasmas is a challenging task, that a number of authors have recently tackled employing different methods. From the numerical point of view, the difficulty in including non-ideal terms arises from the fact that, in the limit of very high plasma conductivity (i.e., close to the ideal MHD limit), the system of governing equations becomes stiff, and the standard explicit integrating methods produce instabilities that destroy the numerical solution. To deal with such a difficulty, we have extended the relativistic MHD code MR-GENESIS, to include a number of Implicit Explicit Runge-Kutta (IMEX-RK) numerical methods. To validate the implementation of the IMEX-RK schemes, two standard tests are presented in one and two spatial dimensions, covering different conductivity regimes.
The structure and dynamics of young stellar object (YSO) accretion shocks depend strongly on the local magnetic field strength and configuration, as well as on the radiative transfer effects responsible for the energy losses. We present the first 3D YSO shock simulations of the interior of the stream, assuming a uniform background magnetic field, a clumpy infalling gas, and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We study the dynamical evolution and the post-shock structure as a function of the plasma-beta (thermal pressure over magnetic pressure). We find that a strong magnetic field (~hundreds of Gauss) leads to the formation of fibrils in the shocked gas due to the plasma confinement within flux tubes. The corresponding emission is smooth and fully distinguishable from the case of a weak magnetic field (~tenths of Gauss) where the hot slab demonstrates chaotic motion and oscillates periodically.
Over the past decade, significant investigations have been made through the use of high-resolution spectropolarimetry to probe the surface magnetic field characteristics of young higher-mass (M ≳ 1.5 M⊙) stars from pre-main sequence to zero-age main sequence evolutionary phases. The results of these observational campaigns suggest that these young higher-mass stars host similar magnetic properties to their main sequence descendants - strong, stable, globally-ordered fields that are detected in approximately 10 percent of all stars. This strongly contrasts with lower-mass stars, where it is generally accepted that a solar-like dynamo is in operation that generates more complex, globally-weak fields that are ubiquitous. The consensus is magnetic fields in higher-mass stars are fossil remnants of a magnetic field present in the molecular cloud, or generated very early during stellar formation. This review discusses the spectropolarimetric observations of higher-mass stars and how these observations have guided our current understanding of the magnetic characteristics of young higher-mass stars.
In the presently favored picture of star formation, mass is transferred from disk to star via magnetospheric accretion and out of the system via magnetically driven outflows. This magnetically mediated mass flux is a fundamental process upon which the evolution of the star, disk, and forming planetary system depends. Our current understanding of these processes is heavily rooted in young solar analogs, T Tauri Stars (TTS). We have come to understand recently, however, that the higher mass pre-main sequence (PMS) Herbig AeBe (HAeBe) stars have dramatically weaker dipolar fields than their lower mass counterparts. We present our current observational and theoretical efforts to characterize magnetospherically mediated mass transfer within HAeBe star+disk systems. We have gathered a rich spectroscopic and interferometric data set for several dozen HAeBe stars in order to measure accretion and mass loss rates, assess wind and magnetospheric accretion properties, and determine how spectral lines and interferometric visibilities are diagnostic of these processes. For some targets, we have observed spectral line variability and will discuss ongoing time-series spectroscopic efforts.
A limited list of new results of the searches for the new magnetic stars among late B and early A stars is in this work. Continual observations with spectroscopic devices of the 6m Russian telescope BTA led to successful detection of about 10 new magnetic stars that occupy different parts of evolutional tracks for the stars of 2–3 solar masses. Measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field show weak and medium strength magnetic field in all program stars.
In A- and late B-type stars, strong magnetic fields are always associated with Ap and Bp chemical peculiarities. However, it is not clear at what point in a star's evolution those peculiarities develop. Strong magnetic fields have been observed in pre-main sequence A and B stars (Herbig Ae and Be stars), and these objects have been proposed to be the progenitors of Ap and Bp stars. However, the photospheric chemical abundances of these magnetic Herbig stars have not been studied carefully, and furthermore the chemical abundances of 'normal' non-magnetic Herbig stars remain poorly characterized. To investigate this issue, we have studied the photospheric compositions of 23 Herbig stars, four of which have confirmed magnetic fields. Surprisingly, we found that half the non-magnetic stars in our sample show λ Bootis chemical peculiarities to varying degrees. For the stars with detected magnetic fields, we find one chemically normal star, one star with λ Boo peculiarities, one star displaying weak Ap/Bp peculiarities, and one somewhat more evolved star with somewhat stronger Ap/Bp peculiarities. These results suggests that Ap/Bp peculiarities are preceded by magnetic fields, and that these peculiarities develop over the pre-main sequence lives of A and B stars. The incidence of λ Boo stars we find is much higher than that seen on the main sequence. We argue that a selective accretion model for the formation of λ Boo peculiarities is a natural explanation for this remarkably large incidence.
In recent years, rotation periods for large numbers of pre-main-sequence stars have become available, covering a wide range of ages and star forming environments. Simultaneously, theoretical developments in the physics of the star-disc interaction have been carried out, and observational measurements of the magnetic field geometry of both fully convective, and pre-main-sequence stars have become available. This review discusses these recent developments, and the extent to which the observational data fits within the existing theoretical frameworks.
In this project, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the Lithium Depletion Boundary (LDB) to recalibrate the measured ages for star clusters, using the open cluster Blanco 1 as a pilot study. We apply the LDB technique on low-mass Pre-Main-Sequence (PMS) stars to derive an accurate age for Blanco 1, and we consider the effect of magnetic activity on this inferred age. Although observations have shown that magnetic activity directly affects stellar radius and temperature, most PMS models do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. Since the lithium abundance of a star depends on its radius and temperature, we expect that LDB ages are affected by magnetic activity. After empirically accounting for the effects of magnetic activity, we find the age of Blanco 1 to be ~100 Myr, which is ~30 Myr younger than the standard LDB age of ~130 Myr.
We study the rotation-activity relationship for low-mass members of the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster. h Per, thanks to its age, allows us to link the rotation-activity relation observed for main-sequence stars to the still unexplained activity levels of very young clusters.
We constrained the activity levels of h Per members by analyzing a deep Chandra/ACIS-I observation pointed to the central field of h Per. We combined this X-ray catalog with the catalog of h Per members with measured rotational period, presented by Moraux et al. (2013). We obtained a final catalog of 202 h Per members with measured X-ray luminosity and rotational period. We investigate the rotation-activity relation of h Per members considering different mass ranges. We find that stars with 1.3 M⊙ > M 1.4 M⊙ show significant evidence of supersaturation for short periods. This phenomenon is instead not observed for lower mass stars.