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This study considers the 'three sub-abilities' that constitute the abstraction ability and focuses on drawing as an education for acquiring them. Focusing on the similarity between the process of drawing and the semiotic triangle, elucidating their relationship with the sub-abilities that constitute the abstraction ability, it devises a drawing education programme that focuses on 'observing' rather than 'drawing'. The drawing education programme formulated is implemented on 177 students, and the result is determined using tests that enable objective evaluation to prove the effectiveness of the program in helping students acquire the 'three sub-abilities' that constitute the abstraction ability.
The educational programme proposed in this research, which focuses on the universality of the effects of learning drawing, as well as the quantitative criteria for evaluating it, will contribute to familiarize practical education in the field of art to the general public.
Designing for disability is a very specialised area as it requires interdisciplinary expertise, and designing assistive devices for children with communication disorder, is especially a challenge as these users are incapable of providing adequate and coherent feedback. With the adoption of participatory design approach, in collaboration with experts/professionals/educators, as pivotal stakeholders and a proxy for the end-users; a game-based, multi-sensory learning aid has been developed to train children on the concept of sense organs. Several concepts were generated and evaluated through special educator participation and based on a preliminary survey of external special educators as evaluators, the prototype was found to be suitable for the target user to enhance their communication skills. This paper captures a research through design perspective on the design of customisable solutions for beneficiary user groups, who are unable to offer feedback.
Community-based disaster risk reduction is an effective approach for emergency management to address the needs of communities. This approach focuses on identifying the community-specific needs and context of emergency management in that area to develop technologies that help mitigate effects of disasters. The complex network of community, technology, and user motivation makes it challenging to understand how to encourage users to adopt preparation efforts, as opposed to reactive measures that have been shown to be less effective and can lead to inequitable results. To address this research gap, qualitative interviews were conducted with participants from one medium-sized midwestern city in the United States to understand how community members think about preparation and make decision about adopting preventative technologies. The results of the qualitative analysis reveal that there were 5 main themes that are important to consider when developing technologies for emergency preparedness; Importance of communication during emergencies, the role of technology in emergency management, unequal access to resources, reaction instead of preparation, and motivation to engage in community preparedness and response.
There are innumerable design methods that exist across a wide spectrum of disciplines, ranging from engineering, to marketing, to psychology. However, the organic, multidisciplinary nature of methodological development in design leads to challenges in comparing or combining methods. Disciplinary perspectives can create conceptual 'boundaries' that may not align with the fluidity of the problems that designers may need to address. It is challenging to work between the boundaries of these design methods due to the unclear delimitation of exactly where and how methods may be integrated. Nomenclature is unstandardized and different terminologies may describe similar phenomena. To address this, a boundary object—the Actor-Abstraction matrix—is developed to recontextualize each of these divergent methods onto a common scale so they may be better understood in reference to their peers. A meta-analysis of four established design methods is performed to demonstrate the flexibility of this conceptual device. With this tool, existing design methods may be more easily examined to identify points of compatibility and gaps in their coverage, and could also serve as a powerful platform for the creation of new design methods in the future.
The work introduced two novel multiscale multifunctional tire designs developed using the Domain Integrated Design (DID) method and modelled with the LatticeQuery geometric modelling software. Furthermore, this research validates the meta-level parameter “interaction area” proposed for selecting biological analogy in the DID method. These two use cases were simulated with Abaqus. The concepts covered in this work are an example of multi-functional design. The obtained results validate the meta-level parameter derived from the DID methodology.
Automation and artificial intelligence (AI) are increasingly seen as appealing tools to perform design tasks traditionally accomplished by human designers. In today's digital economy, industries aim to adopt these tools to improve the efficiency of their complex design processes. But how does one decide what parts of their existing design process should be automated and which automation/AI tool to implement? With these questions in mind, we present a case study highlighting a company's decision-making process in converting its existing designer-dependent design process to one supported by automation. In this case study, we observed the company's decisions in selecting and rejecting certain automation and AI methods before finalizing a heuristics-based automation method that proved highly efficient compared to the company's traditional human-driven design program. In addition, we present three key discussion points observed in this case study: (1) the importance of implementing the designer's heuristics in the automation framework, (2) the importance of a uniform and modular design automation framework, and (3) the challenges of implementing AI methods.
Circular product design has been recognised in the academia as a foundational step for companies to make circular business models functional and viable. In this regards, it is vital to have a quick-and-easy practical toolkit providing diagnostics and specific guidelines on product design in terms of circularity performance. The present paper announces a Circular Product Design Toolkit (CPD Toolkit) under development now, which aims at enhancing the circularity potential of an existing product by redesign. The following objectives are addressed. First, a brief review of existing approaches in the field of product-level circularity metrics and also available circular product design tools to clarify their purpose and practical value is conducted. Second, the scientific approach to assess a product circularity performance, previously developed, as a methodological background of the CPD Toolkit is outlined. Third, the basic principles and building blocks of the CPD Toolkit are briefly set out with further discussion in terms of possible presentation of information block as actual product circularity dataset and guideline part dealing with specific instructions for a company on how to progress in the circularity of the product produced.
Due to the increasing importance of advanced systems, whose development calls for interdisciplinary and integrative approaches, and fundamental changes in the work environment, leaders are required to have a wide range of competences. Therefore, the aim of this work is to identify competences of future leaders, that are specifically relevant in Advanced Systems Engineering (ASE). Thus, professional, social, methodological, and self competences developed by a literature review are validated through expert interviews and prioritized by a survey. The insights are then presented in a competence portfolio including 30 areas of competences. The portfolio consists of areas of competence that are either relevant in the context of ASE (e.g. intercultural and interdisciplinary competence), New Work (e.g. competence to empower employees) or are relevant to leaders in general. It was possible to add further aspects that are necessary in ASE to the aspects from the literature review. The experts interviewed emphasized various aspects of interdisciplinary work and made clear that in future, leaders should place their employees at the heart of their activities and empower them according to their strengths and weaknesses.
Mixed Reality (MR) technologies are widely available and applied in a variety of design and engineering applications. MR prototypes capture the respective benefits of physical and digital prototypes by merging these domains saving the time and resources required to create them. This advantage is compelling in the context of design education where tight time and resource constraints exist. However, it is known that new digital prototyping tools can cause problems for students applying appropriate prototyping tools during practice-based studio design projects. Our paper contributes a systematic appraisal of MR prototyping's proposed dimensions value against constraints and issues in design studio education. This highlights MR Visualisation and Knowledge Management dimensions as most readily realised in education. Recommendations are then reflected on via an illustrative case study into the implementation of MR prototyping via these dimensions. Reflections corroborate the value proposition, but also highlight a need for further research exploring activities to scaffold MR prototyping to further support reflective design thinking.
Team composition in Project Based Learning is the first task for the class and has a great impact on the learning experience. Anyway, little space is dedicated in literature about team composition, considering their personal inclinations towards design tasks.
For these reasons we propose a tool that aims to map the design skills of students to optimise team composition. The tool is based on a questionnaire grounded in the design theory and aims at measuring the willingness of students at performing certain design tasks. The results of the questionnaires are analysed using Principal Component Analysis to normalise each students’ answers to the whole class, and to show the distribution of students in the space of engineering design skills.
We present the design process of the tool, and a first experimentation on two classes of master's degree students in Management Engineering and Data Science, testing the tool on a total of 72 students. The results are promising and demonstrate the robusteness of the questionnaire and of the analytical method. Also, we propose next steps for our research activity, calling for other researchers to test our method in different contexts.
The maker movement has garnered interest from many disparate fields, from engineering to business management, to behavioural science, to city planning. The reason for this interest no doubt stems from the promised potential of the maker movement to revolutionize not only product creation and manufacturing, but in extension the economy around it. This paper examines existing literature across disciplines for evidence of what the maker movement has achieved so far, with a focus on implications for the field of Industrial Design.
Additive manufacturing methods present prospects for designed mechanical deformation via the integration of controlled anisotropic lattice structure forms. Their assimilation into a Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) process would create a novel framework for the design of compliant mechanisms (CM). The method uses lattice structures to replace rigid multi-part mechanisms, with integrated and controlled flexibility into a single, compact, and precise component. In recent years, a lot of research has gone into making algorithms that enable users to generate CMs for their designs. But by relying on algorithms to design solutions, are they neglecting to fully understand how these mechanisms work. This work undertakes the design and development of a novel DfAM Framework, that utilises controlled lattice structure deformations to create a standardised method of CM design. The authors have developed a method for this, whilst allowing users to tailor CMs to their design, by using a wide selection of pretested structures. Indicating suitable structures for their design using an integrated novel taxonomy. The framework is tested and developed using a series of case studies.
Digital Twins are one of the most trending topics. However, there are still open issues in the development of Digital Twins. One of these impediments is formulating a clear and valid value proposition of a Digital Twin. Therefore, this paper presents a novel business modelling approach for Digital Twins. Based on a literature review and an academic case study, different business modelling approaches and techniques were systematically compared, selected and adjusted in order to develop a new framework suitable for describing the value of Digital Twins. It consists of 10 steps – (1) describe a basic development concept of the DT, (2) identify the customer segments, needs and pain points, (3) derive a value proposition (4) identify revenue streams and values created, (5) identify key activities, (6) resources needed, and (7) necessary partners. (8) Adapt the organization to fit the business model and (9) evaluate the cost structure of the project. In the end, document and communicate the new business model (10). Each step is supported by auxiliary methods, tools and procedures. The approach was applied to a scientific case study. In an initial evaluation the overall applicability and usefulness of the approach were confirmed.
The Life Cycle Assessment is a well-stated methodology whose application has recently spread over a multitude of sectors. Thus the need for very accurate and reliable analysis. The present work investigates how to achieve reliable and faithful results while still maintaining a micro-systemic approach and how to handle the evolution of the real cases through commercial solutions available. The works present an innovative dynamic approach that aims at filling the discrepancy between the attributional Life Cycle Assessment which is focused on the product at the point to appear short-sighted and isolated from the surrounding evolving system and the consequential, which is willing to include the consequences of the evolution of the surrounding system, with increased complexity. The approach is applied to the case of a domestic refrigerator; the application reveals a discrepancy of 16% between the results of the dynamic and attributional analysis and registered doubled environmental impacts than the consequential, carried out with the support of commercial datasets. The approach respects the 5 main criteria for methods in environmental systems analysis, namely feasibility, accuracy, easiness in communication, inspiration, robustness.
When integrating sensing machine elements for in-situ measurements in technical systems, special attention must be paid to uncertainty to ensure the reliability of the provided information. Therefore, a methodical framework for the identification, analysis and consideration of uncertainty was already developed in prior research, which still offers room for improvement regarding the included methods and tools. Therefore, in this contribution, the initially proposed methods and tools are adapted and extended to enhance their efficiency and applicability and to reduce their error proneness in order to increase the acceptance of the framework in practice. First, the identification of uncertainty is improved by means of an extended effect graph for an automated identification of disturbance factor induced data and model uncertainty. Second, the significance of the subsequent evaluation of uncertainty is enhanced by replacing the initially proposed local sensitivity analysis with a global sensitivity analysis. Finally, a flowchart is proposed that supports the identification of applicable and promising strategies for the development of measures to consider critical disturbance factor induced uncertainty.
Ad-hoc systems are socio-technical systems emerging in response to dynamic problematic situations. These systems form when situation systems interact with respondent systems organized by human agents using elements available in the situation and assets brought in from outside the situation. The immediacy of formation, fast evolution, and short lifecycles of ad-hoc systems intertwine design, implementation, and operation activities in complex ways not addressed by current approaches to Systems Engineering focusing on more sedate environments. The proposed framework presents a language for classifying fundamental building blocks of ad-hoc systems – single-agent intervention, staging, readiness, and development systems. Further classification according to the physical location of agents and assets relative to situations generates 16 system classes on the 4x4 matrix of Ad-hoc Systems Gameboard, which is a helpful tool for managing the evolution of system portfolios. Combining the Gameboard with mapping the systems onto the PSI matrix reveals additional relationships and evolution patterns, opening up promising directions to address the challenge of designing, planning, and implementing interventions in complex situations.
Data about customer experiences would be critical in smart product-service systems. Research is desired on how to establish a framework for Smart Experience Design based on customer experience data so that determining what kinds of customer data are needed and how these data are acquired effectively can be supported. This paper presents a framework and a method to design customer experience personalization services based on customer experience evaluation data obtained in real time and accumulated together with context data. Two illustrative cases are provided to demonstrate the validity of the framework of smart experience design based on customer experience data.
Mental imagery is the experience of perceiving an object within one's own mind and is a subjective experience, leading to difficulties in the research and understanding of the phenomenon. This paper documents the development and verification of a framework for researching the elements of mental imagery. The framework was developed following a review of both psychology and design literature which signified three fundamental conceptual viewpoints of mental imagery: imagery modalities, dimensions of imagery ability, and imagery processes. The aim of this framework is to allow for structured research on mental imagery in any given research field. This is verified through discussion for the product design engineering discipline and provides a base for future work on this topic. The conclusions made in this paper reveal that mental imagery, and particularly visual mental imagery, is largely considered to be integral in design overlooking the different realities of designers and confirming a greater need to understand mental imagery experiences in product design engineering.
Today's global context of mass-produced items has resulted in an increasing ‘distance’, or alienation, between people and the origins of the items they buy and use: an unhealthy human-product relationship.
This observation permits the search for an alternative interpretation of well-being: a transformation that would support resilience and self sufficiency, and a better human product relationship or ‘a new partnership’, as advocated by various scholars.
In this paper, this new partnership is considered through supporting ‘Do-It-Yourself’ (DIY) product design: a scenario in which professional designers facilitate laypersons to design for themselves. Anticipating (1) the designer's responsibility, and (2) the layperson's innate desire to create, this paper introduces a ‘Design for DIY’ framework method to help bridge the knowledge gap between the product designer and the layperson.
The initial starting points of this study, complemented by a range of ‘Design for DIY’ studies, and an exploration of existing design frameworks and design models, resulted in the design of a ‘Design-for-DIY’ framework. This paper concludes with recommendations for the testing and further development of the Design-for-DIY framework.
Our society is built on engineered systems. Engineers are becoming increasingly concerned with the sustainability of systems, particularly their ability to adapt to a changing world. Recently, there has been increased interest in exploring how design margins provide opportunities for a system change. There have been great developments in determining how design margins can absorb change at a system level, but it is still not clear how design margins might provide change opportunities at a decision variable level. In this paper, we show how system-level margins could be deconstructed to explore what change opportunities they may provide at a decision variable level. We also investigate how the coupling of functional requirements limits how system-level margins can be operationalized. Our analysis suggests that design margins can provide meaningful change opportunities at the decision variable level, but the mechanisms that produce these opportunities are complex. These insights lay the groundwork for future research on mapping and representing design margins in the context of system adaptability.