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Combinational creativity is a significant element of design in supporting designers to generate creative ideas during the early phases of design. There exists three driven approaches to combinational creativity: problem-, similarity- and inspiration-driven. This study provides further insights into the three combinational creativity driven approaches, exploring which approach could lead to ideas that are more creative in the context of practical product design. The results from a case study reveal that the problem- driven approach could lead to more creative and novel ideas or products compared with the similarity- and inspiration-driven approach. Products originating from the similarity- and inspiration-driven approach are at comparable levels. This study provides better understanding of combinational creativity in practical design. It also delivers benefits to designers in improving creative idea generation, and supports design researchers in exploring future ideation methods and design support tools employing the concept of 'combination'.
In this paper, we present the results of a survey of new product development practitioners regarding their design review experiences. We surveyed 128 product development professionals on their experience and preferences in design reviews. We found that the goals and type (location / synchronicity) of design reviews change over the course of a product development project. We found that the majority of design review meetings continue to be held as co-located, live, in-person meetings. For reviewing 3D models, we found that a native CAD package (rather than a viewer, or fixed views, or a physical prototype) is the most commonly used tool. We found a difference between Designers (more likely to be product engineers) and Non-Designers and their access to CAD software, as well as their preference for which tool to use at the design review for 3D model evaluation. We hope that our findings spark future work related to better understanding design reviews and design reviewers in context. Design reviews are an important part of industrial product development processes, so we believe future studies have a large potential to improve these design activities
Experiments that study engineering behavior in design often rely on participants responding to a given design prompt or a problem statement. Moreover, researchers often find themselves testing multiple variables with a relatively small participant pool. In such situations multiple design prompts may be used to boost replication by giving each participant an equivalent problem with a different experimental condition. This paper presents a systematic approach to compare given design prompts using a two-step process that allows an initial comparison of the prompts and a post-experiment verification of the similarity of the given prompts. Comparison metrics are provided which can be used to evaluate a level of similarity of existing prompts as well as develop similar problems. These metrics include complexity (size, coupling, and solvability), familiarity, and prompt structure. Statistical methods are discussed for post-experiment verification. Guidelines are provided for a post-experiment survey which may be used for an additional perspective of prompt similarity. The proposed approach is demonstrated using an experiment where two design prompts were used for within-subject replication.
The Engineering Design field is growing fast and so is growing the number of sub-fields that are bringing value to researchers that are working in this context. From psychology to neurosciences, from mathematics to machine learning, everyday scholars and practitioners produce new knowledge of potential interest for designers.
This leads to complications in the researchers’ aims who want to quickly and easily find literature on a specific topic among a large number of scientific publications or want to effectively position a new research.
In the present paper, we address this problem by using state of the art text mining techniques on a large corpus of Engineering Design related documents. In particular, a topic modelling technique is applied to all the papers published in the ICED proceedings from 2003 to 2017 (3,129 documents) in order to find the main subtopics of Engineering Design. Finally, we analyzed the trends of these topics over time, to give a bird-eye view of how the Engineering Design field is evolving.
The results offer a clear and bottom-up picture of what Engineering design is and how the interest of researchers in different topics has changed over time.
Insufficient design often causes challenges to users on a cognitive level, hindering them from interacting with products smoothly. There is a lack of effective design tools and supporting materials that can help designers to understand human cognition and how it affects the way that users experience and use products and services. This paper aims to identify current approaches that can be applied to address this issue, and to examine their strengths and weaknesses. This helps to identify future directions for developing and improving cognitive design supports. A literature review was conducted of research publications in the fields of both design and cognition. Four key approaches are identified: cognitive design principles/guidelines, the demand-capability approach, cognitive walkthrough and cognitive modelling. Their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed from a design standpoint. The paper also analyses the underlying causes of the insufficient uptake of cognitive design approaches by designers.
Strategic Research Agendas (SRA) bring to the research community a prospective and collective vision of a sector and are intended to provide directions for future research efforts. However, some promising innovative areas are not always foreseen in those documents, which raises the question of the relevance and adequacy of their coverage. While engineering design is often considered to translate SRA guidelines into product development, we believe it can also be of great help regarding the design of an SRA. In this paper, we will first address how to assess the scope of an SRA through a framework based on C-K theory, before exploring how to extend it, if need be. To answer those questions, we will examine a high-quality roadmap: the Electronic Components and Systems Strategic Research Agenda (ECS SRA). Our resulting method will provide us the means to assess SRA coverage and to ensure that interesting research areas are not forgotten unintentionally, in order to allow to a further enrichment of the document if needed.
In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), diagnostics are not always available in remote areas. Hospitals and healthcare centres are often too far from the community, and waiting times are up to a few hours even for relatively simple procedures. Moreover, travelling to the healthcare centre and taking the diagnostic test is frequently unaffordable. Point of Care Tests (POCTs) can improve the availability, accessibility and affordability of the diagnostics by providing the test at the time and place of patient care. Although many POCTs have been developed already, there remain challenges to enable the healthcare workers (HCW) and the patients to use the device in practice. In this paper, we aim to provide a systemic overview of the barriers and opportunities for the adoption of use and acceptance of the results of POCTs based on the literature. The barriers and opportunities were clustered into six themes and used to draw out recommendations for the future design.
Science and technology generated by Universities has many challenges in reaching commercial product applications, as has been explored in a range of literature. Product design has been identified to add value through various types of contributions in addressing these challenges; however, there remains a gap in literature to explore how and when product development activities can practically be applied to technology development.
This paper furthers the idea that the product development process can help bridge the gap between the laboratory and commercial applications by proposing a framework for how Ulrich and Eppinger's product development process can integrate with the STAM technology development model. This is a significant step towards understanding how in practice these disciplines can work together to bring science and technology from the laboratory to products in the marketplace.