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High-fidelity Human Patient Simulators Compared with Human Actors in an Unannounced Mass-Casualty Exercise

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 March 2014

Christian M. Schulz
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Matthias Skrzypczak
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Stefan Raith
Affiliation:
Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Dominik Hinzmann
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Veronika Krautheim
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Fabian Heuser
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Valentin Mayer
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Christoph Kreuzer
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Meike Himsl
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Michael Holl
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Christina Lipp
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Eberhard F. Kochs
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Klaus J. Wagner
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

High-fidelity simulators (HFSs) have been shown to prompt critical actions at a level equal to that of trained human actors (HAs) and increase perceived realism in intrahospital mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises. For unannounced prehospital MCI exercises, however, no data are available about the feasibility of incorporating HFSs. This case report describes the integration of HFSs in such an unannounced prehospital MCI drill with HAs and provides data about the differences concerning triage, treatment, and transport of HFSs and HAs with identical injury patterns. For this purpose, 75 actors and four high-fidelity simulators were subdivided into nine groups defined by a specific injury pattern. Four HFSs and six HAs comprised a group suffering from traumatic brain injury and blunt abdominal trauma. Triage results, times for transport, and number of diagnostic and therapeutic tasks were recorded. Means were compared by t test or one-way ANOVA.

Triage times and results did not differ between actors and simulators. The number of diagnostic (1.25, SD = 0.5 in simulators vs 3.5, SD = 1.05 in HAs; P = .010) and therapeutic tasks (2.0, SD = 1.6 in simulators vs 4.8, SD = 0.4 in HAs; P = .019) were significantly lower in simulators. Due to difficulties in treating and evacuating the casualties from the site of the accident in a timely manner, all simulators died. Possible causal factors and strategies are discussed, with the aim of increasing the utility of simulators in emergency medicine training.

Schulz CM , Skrzypczak M , Raith S , Hinzmann D , Krautheim V , Heuser F , Mayer V , Kreuzer C , Himsl M , Holl M , Lipp C , Kochs EF , Wagner KJ . High-fidelity Human Patient Simulators Compared with Human Actors in an Unannounced Mass-Casualty Exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(2):1-7 .

Type
Case Report
Copyright
Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2014 

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Footnotes

*

These authors contributed equally to this work.

References

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