Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-45s75 Total loading time: 0.351 Render date: 2021-12-05T06:20:13.997Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Burn Disasters—An Audit of the Literature

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 June 2012

Carsten L. Broeze*
Affiliation:
McComb Foundation and Telstra Burns Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Western, Australia
Sian Falder
Affiliation:
McComb Foundation and Telstra Burns Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Western, Australia
Suzanne Rea
Affiliation:
McComb Foundation and Telstra Burns Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Western, Australia
Fiona Wood
Affiliation:
McComb Foundation and Telstra Burns Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Western, Australia
*
Telstra Burns Unit, South Block, Level 11, Royal Perth Hospital Wellington Street, Perth, Western Australia 6000, E-mail: carsten.broeze@gmail.com

Abstract

All events that result in disasters are unique, and it is impossible to become fully prepared. However, through thorough planning and preparedness, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the typical injury patterns and problems that arise from a variety of hazards. Such events have the potential to claim many lives and overwhelm local medical resources. Burn disasters vary in scope of injury and procedures required, and are much more labor and resource intensive than non-burn disasters.

This review of the literature should help determine whether, despite each event having its own unique features, there still are common problems disaster responders face in the prehospital and hospital phases, what recommendations were made from these disasters, and whether these recommendations have been implemented into practice and the current disaster planning processes.

The objective of this review was to assess: (1) prehospital and hospital responses used during past burn disasters; (2) problems faced during those disaster responses; (3) recommendations made following those disasters; (4) whether these recommendations were integrated into practice; and (5) the key characteristics of burn disasters and how they differ from other disasters. This review is important to determine why, despite having disaster plans, things still go wrong.

Type
Comprehensive Review
Copyright
Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Bradt, DA, Abraham, K, Franks, R: A strategic plan for disaster medicine in Australasia. Emerg Med (Fremantle) 2003;15(3):271282.Google Scholar
2.Ahuja, RB, Bhattacharya, S: Burns in the developing world and burn disasters. BMJ 2004;329(7463):447449.Google Scholar
3.Gunn SWA: The Scientific Basis of Disaster Medicine. In: Masellis, M, Gunn, SWA, (eds): The Management of Mass Burn Casualties and Fire Disasters: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Burns and Fire Disasters. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1992: pp 1318.Google Scholar
4.Quenemoen, LE, Davis, YM, Malilay, J, Sinks, T, Noji, EK, Klitzman, S: The World Trade Center bombing: Injury prevention strategies for high-rise building fires. Disasters 1996;20(2):125132.Google Scholar
5.Forgione, T, Owens, PJ, Lopes, Briggs SM: New horizons for OR nurses— Lessons learned from the World Trade Center attack. AORN J 2003;78(2):240245.Google Scholar
6.Suner, S: On-site medical care during the September 11th WTC terrorist attack rescue and recovery effort and the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). Med Health R I 2003;86(11):354356.Google Scholar
7.Gutman, D, Biffl, WL, Suner, S, Cioffi, WG: The station nightclub fire and disaster preparedness in Rhode Island. Med Health R I 2003;86(11):344346.Google Scholar
8.Tarnow, PF, Gewalli, F, Cassuto, J: Fire disaster in Gothenburg 1998— Surgical treatment of burns. Burns 2003;29(5):417421.Google Scholar
9.Tucker, K, Lettin, A: The Tower of London bomb explosion. Br Med J 1975;3(5978):287290.Google Scholar
10.Brismar, B, Bergenwald, L: The terrorist bomb explosion in Bologna, Italy, 1980: An analysis of the effects and injuries sustained. J Trauma 1982;22(3):216220.Google Scholar
11.Gomez Morell, PA, Escudero Naif, F, Palao Domenech, R, Sospedra Carol, E, Bañuelos Roda, JA: Burns caused by the terrorist bombing of the department store Hipercor in Barcelona. Part I. Burns 1990;16(6):423425.Google Scholar
12.Teague, DC: Mass casualties in the Oklahoma City bombing. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004;(422):7781.Google Scholar
13.Anteau, CM, Williams, LA: What we learned from the Oklahoma City bombing. Nursing 1998;28(3):5255.Google Scholar
14.Dellinger, AM, Waxweiler, RJ, Mallonee, S: Injuries to rescue workers following the Oklahoma City bombing. Am J Ind Med 1997;31(6):727732.Google Scholar
15.Tucker, P, Pfefferbaum, B, Vincent, R, Boehler, SD, Nixon, SJ: Oklahoma City: Disaster challenges mental health and medical administrators. J Behav Health Serv Res 1998;25(1):9399.Google Scholar
16.McLain SR: The Oklahoma City Bombing: Lessons Learned by Hospitals, online article. American Hospital Association.Google Scholar
17.Ray, S: Coping with terrorism: Lessons of Oklahoma City. Health Trends 2001;14(2):912.Google Scholar
18.Glass, RT: The Oklahoma City bombing: The roles of the dental teams… and the lessons learned. J Okla Dent Assoc 1998;89(2):2021,25-32,34-36.Google Scholar
19.Hollander, D: Nairobi bomb blast—Trauma and recovery. Trop Doct 2000;30(1):4748.Google Scholar
20.Carter, GE: The Omagh bombing—A medical perspective. JR Army Med Corps 2000;146:1821.Google Scholar
21.Miller, IS, McGahey, D, Law, K: The otologic consequences of the Omagh bomb disaster. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;126(2):127128.Google Scholar
22.Kennedy, PJ, Haertsch, PA, Maitz, PK: The Bali burn disaster: Implications and lessons learned. J Burn Care Rehabil 2005;26(2):125131.Google Scholar
23.Hampson, GV, Cook, SP, Frederiksen, SR: Operation Bali assist. Med J Aust 2002;177(11-12):620623.Google Scholar
24.Lain, RC, Griffiths, C, Hilton, JM: Forensic dental and medical response to the Bali bombing. A personal perspective. Med J Aust 2003;179(7):362365.Google Scholar
25.Read, D, Ashford, B: Surgical aspects of Operation Bali Assist: Initial wound surgery on the tarmac and in flight. ANZ J Surg 2004;74(11):986991.Google Scholar
26.Southwick, GJ, Pethick, AJ, Thalayasingam, P, Vijayasekaran, VS, Higg, JJ: Australian doctors in Bali: The initial medical response to the Bali bombing. Med J Aust 2002;177(11-12):624626.Google Scholar
27.Stephens, DP, De Keulenaer, BL, Collins, S, Harbison, PW, Weidmann, G, Potter, AW: Operation Bali assist—The Royal Darwin Hospital Intensive Care Unit. Anaesth Intensive Care 2003;31(3):300305.Google Scholar
28.Spain, BT, Blum, PG, Hams, SC: The role of anaesthetists in the Darwin response to the Bali bombing. Anaesth Intensive Care 2003;31(3):306308.Google Scholar
29.Palmer, DJ, Stephens, D, Fisher, DA, Spain, B, Read, DJ, Notaras, L: The Bali bombing: The Royal Darwin Hospital response. Med J Aust 2003;179(7):358361.Google Scholar
30.Fisher, D, Burrow, J: The Bali bombings of 12 October, 2002: Lessons in disaster management for physicians. Intern Med J 2003;33(3):125126.Google Scholar
31.Taylor, RM, O'Connor, B, St. Leone, M, Halpern, JS: The voice of experience: Australian nurses caring for victims of Bali bombing. Disaster Manag Response 2003;1(1):27.Google Scholar
32.Heath, C, Orrell, T, Lee, R, et al: A review of the Royal Perth Hospital Bali experience: An infection control perspective. Aust Inf Control 2003;8(2):4354.Google Scholar
33.McCullough, C, Christiansen, K, Coombs, G, et al: Bali Bugs. Australian Society for Antimicrobials Newsletter 2003;No 13.Google Scholar
34.Silla, RC, Fong, J, Wright, J, Wood, F: Infection in acute burn wounds following the Bali bombings: A comparative prospective audit. Burns 2006;32(2):139144.Google Scholar
35.Tran, MD, Garner, AA, Morrison, I, Sharley, PH, Griggs, WM, Xavier, C: The Bali bombing: Civilian aeromedical evacuation. Med J Aust 2003;179(7):353356.Google Scholar
36.Edgar, D, Wood, F, Goodwin-Walters, A: Maintaining physical therapy standards in an emergency situation: Solutions after the Bali bombing disaster. Burns 2005;31(5):555557.Google Scholar
37.McGuire, D: Terror in paradise. Emerg Med Serv 2003;32(3):5559.Google Scholar
38.Watts, J: Bali bombing offers lessons for disaster relief. Lancet 2002;360(9343):1401.Google Scholar
39.Bosch, X: Horror as Madrid death toll climbs to over 200. Lancet 2004;363(9413):955.Google Scholar
40.Gutierrez de Ceballos, JP, Turégano Fuentes, F, Perez Diaz, D, Sanz Sanchez, M, Martin Llorente, C, Guerrero Sans, JE: Casualties treated at the closest hospital in the Madrid, March 11, terrorist bombings. Crit Care Med 2005;33(1):s107112.Google Scholar
41.de Ceballos, JP, Turégano-Fuentes, F, Perez-Diaz, D, Sanz-Sanchez, M, Martin-Llorente, C, Guerrero-Sanz, JE: 11 March 2004: The terrorist bomb explosions in Madrid, Spain—An analysis of the logistics, injuries sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closest hospital. Crit Care 2005;9(1):104111.Google Scholar
42.Frykberg, ER: Terrorist bombings in Madrid. Crit Care 2005;9(1):2022.Google Scholar
43.Dolan, B: London 2005, bruised but not broken. Disaster Manag Response 2005;3(4):9495.Google Scholar
44.Arnold, JL: The 2005 London bombings and the Haddon matrix. Prehospital Disast Med 2005;20(5):278281.Google Scholar
45.Hines, S, Payne, A, Edmondson, J, Heightman, AJ: Bombs under London. The EMS response plan that worked. JEMS 2005;30(8):5860,62,64-67.Google Scholar
46.Redhead, J, Ward, P, Batrick, N: The London attacks—Response: Prehospital and hospital care. N Engl J Med 2005;353(6):546547.Google Scholar
47.Wong, JM, Marsh, D, Abu-Sitta, G, Lau, S, Mann, HA, Nawabi, DH, Patel, H: Biological foreign body implantation in victims of the London July 7th suicide bombings. J Trauma 2006;60(2):402404.Google Scholar
48.Parish, C: The London bombings: How EDs and nurses responded to the terrorist attacks of July 7. Am J Nurs 2005;105(9):102103.Google Scholar
49.Harding, ML: Comms failure hampered London bombing response. Health Serv J 2006;116(6009):9.Google Scholar
50.Lockey, DJ, Mackenzie, R, Redhead, J, Wise, D, Harris, T, Weaver, A, Hines, K, Davies, GE: London bombings July 2005: The immediate pre-hospital medical response. Resuscitation 2005;66(2):ix–xii.Google Scholar
51.Ryan, J, Montgomery, H: The London attacks—Preparedness: Terrorism and the medical response. N Engl J Med 2005;353(6):543545.Google Scholar
52.Saffle, JR: The 1942 fire at Boston's Cocoanut Grove nightclub. Am J Surg 1993;166(6):581591.Google Scholar
53.Finland, M, Davidson, CS, Levenson, SM: Clinical and therapeutic aspects of the conflagration injuries to the respiratory Tract sustained by victims of the Cocoanut Grove Disaster. Medicine 1946;25(3):215283.Google Scholar
54.Davidson, CS: The Cocoanut Grove disaster. J Infect Dis 1972;125:s58–s59.Google Scholar
55.Hart, RJ, Lee, JO, Boyles, DJ, Batey, NR: The Summerland disaster. Br Med J 1975;1(5952):256259.Google Scholar
56.Eisentrout, TH: Story of the Beverly Hills fire: Minister's role in a major disaster. Bull Am Protestant Hosp Assoc 1978;42(2):105108.Google Scholar
57.Birky, M, Malek, D, Paabo, M: Study of biological samples obtained from victims of MGM Grand Hotel fire. J Anal Toxicol 1983;7(6):265271.Google Scholar
58.Buerk, CA, Batdorf, JW, Cammack, KV, et al: The MGM Grand Hotel fire:: essons learned from a major disaster. Arch Surg 1982;117(5):641644.Google Scholar
59.Woolley, WD, Smith, PG, Fardell, PJ, et al: The Stardust Disco fire, Dublin 1981: Studies of combustion products during simulation experiments. Fire Safety Journal 1984;7:267–83.Google Scholar
60.Duignan, JP, McEntee, GP, Scully, B, Corrigan, TP: Report of a fire disaster— Management of burns and complications. Ir Med J 1984;77(1):810.Google Scholar
61.Sadler, C: Accident and emergency: The St Valentine's day disaster. Nurs Mirror 1982;154(20):1416.Google Scholar
62.Tarnow, P, Gewalli, F, Cassuto, J: Fire disaster in Gothenburg 1998—Surgical treatment of burns. Burns 2003;29(5):417421.Google Scholar
63.Gewalli, F, Fogdestam, I: Triage and initial treatment of burns in the Gothenburg fire disaster 1998. On-call plastic surgeons' experiences and lessons learned. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 2003;37(3):134139.Google Scholar
64.Brandsjo, KA, Hedelin, A, Lundin, T, Lundälv, J, Swedish Disaster Medicine Study Organization: KAMEDO Report No. 75: Fire catastrophe in Gothenburg 29-30 October 1998. Prehosp Disaster Med 2005;20(4):258261.Google Scholar
65.Cassuto, J, Tarnow, P: The discotheque fire in Gothenburg 1998. A tragedy among teenagers. Burns 2003;29(5):405416.Google Scholar
66.Dyregrov, A, Frykholm, AM, Lilled, L, Broberg, AG, Holmberg, I: The Goteborg discotheque fire, 1998. Scand J Psychol 2003;44(5):449457.Google Scholar
67.Pirson, J, Degrave, E: Aeromedical transfer to Belgium of severely burned patients during the initial days following the Volendam fire. Mil Med 2003;168(5):360363.Google Scholar
68.Welling, L, van Harten, SM, Patka, P, Bierens, JJ, Boers, M, Luitse, JS, Mackie, DP, Trouwborst, A, Gouma, DJ, Kreis, RW: The cafe fire on New Year's Eve in Volendam, the Netherlands: Description of events. Burns 2005;31(5):548554.Google Scholar
69.Welling, L, Perez, RS, van Harten, SM, Patka, P, Mackie, DP, Kreis, RW, Bierens, JJ: Analysis of the pre-incident education and subsequent performance of emergency medical responders to the Volendam cafe fire. Eur J Emerg Med 2005;12(6):265269.Google Scholar
70.van Harten, S, Welling, ML, Perez, RS, Patka, P, Kreis, RW: Management of multiple burn casualties from the Volendam disaster in the emergency departments of general hospitals. Eur J Emerg Med 2005;12(6):270274.Google Scholar
71.Mahoney, EJ, Harrington, DT, Biffl, WL, et al: Lessons learned from a nightclub fire: Institutional disaster preparedness. J Trauma 2005;58(3):487491.Google Scholar
72.Dunbar, JA: The Rhode Island nightclub fire: The story from the perspective of an on-duty ED nurse. J Emerg Nurs 2004;30(5):464466.Google Scholar
73.Gutman, D, Biffl, WL, Suner, S, Cioffi, WG: The station nightclub fire and disaster preparedness in Rhode Island. Med Health R I 2003;86(11):344346.Google Scholar
74.Biffl, WL, Cioffi, WG: Medical disasters: are we really prepared? An analysis of the station fire. Med Health R I 2003;86(11):342343.Google Scholar
75.Dacey, MJ: Tragedy and response—The Rhode Island nightclub fire. N Engl J Med 2003;349(21):19901992.Google Scholar
76.Blocker, V, Blocker, TG: The Texas City disaster; A survey of 3,000 casualties. Am J Surg 1949;78(5):756771.Google Scholar
77.Ishida, T, Ohta, M, Sugimoto, T: The breakdown of an emergency system following a gas explosion in Osaka and the subsequent resolution of problems. J Emerg Med 1985;2(3):183189.Google Scholar
78.Aburel, V, Visa, L, Grigorescu, D: The 1979 fire disaster (93 casualties) in Brasov (Romania)—The importance of rapid transport and unitary treatment in a hospital. Ann Medit Burns Club 1994;VII(1).Google Scholar
79.Allister, C, Hamilton, GM: Cardowan coal mine explosion: Experience of a mass burns incident. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983;287(6389):403405.Google Scholar
80.Arturson, G: The tragedy of San Juanico—The most severe LPG disaster in history. Burns Incl Therm Inj 1987;13(2): 87102.Google Scholar
81.Olley, D: Piper alpha—A personal experience. J R Soc Health 1991;111(5):193195.Google Scholar
82.Clark, DH: Dental identification in the Piper Alpha oil rig disaster. J Forensic Odontostomatol 1991;9(2):3746.Google Scholar
83.Alexander, DA: Psychiatric intervention after the Piper Alpha disaster. J R Soc Med 1991;84(1):811.Google Scholar
84.Fraser, DE: Occupational health management of police officers involved in the Piper Alpha disaster. J Soc Occup Med 1991;41(4):174175.Google Scholar
85.Kulyapin, AV, Sakhautdinov, VG, Temerbulatov, VM, Becker, WK, Waymack, JP: Bashkiria train-gas pipeline disaster: A history of the joint USSR/USA collaboration. Burns 1990;16(5):339342.Google Scholar
86.Masellis, M: Thermal Agent Disaster and Fire Disaster; Definition, Damage, Assessment, and Relief Operations, Chapter 1. In: Masellis, M, Gunn, SWA, (eds.): The Management of Mass Burn Casualties and Fire Disasters: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Burns and Fire Disasters. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1992, pp 712.Google Scholar
87.Cairns, BA, Stiffler, A, Price, F, Peck, MD, Meyer, AA: Managing a combined burn trauma disaster in the post-9/11 world: Lessons learned from the 2003 West Pharmaceutical plant explosion. J Burn Care Rehabil 2005;26(2):144150.Google Scholar
88.Polk, HC Jr, Tessler, R: The Yarmouth Castle disaster. Further experience in the treatment of large human burns with aqueous silver nitrate (0.5 per cent). J Fla Med Assoc 1966;53(11):10591062.Google Scholar
89.Carswell, JW, Rambo, WA: A fire at Nakivubo, Kampala: A case report. Burns 1976;2:178183.Google Scholar
90.Baux, S, Saizy, R, Porte, A, Zumer, L, Mayer, G, Mole, B, Monsaingeon, I: [The Los Alfaques disaster]. Ann Chir Plast 1981;26(2):185187. (in French).Google Scholar
91.Brough, MD: The King's Cross fire. Part 1: The physical injuries. Burns 1991;17(1):69.Google Scholar
92.Sturgeon, D, Rosser, R, Shoenberg, P: The King's Cross fire. Part 2: The psychological injuries. Burns 1991;17(1):1013.Google Scholar
93.Deahl, MP, Bisson, JI: Dealing with disasters: Does psychological debriefing work? J Accid Emerg Med 1995;12(4):255258.Google Scholar
94.Masellis, M, Laia, A, Sperrazza, G, et al: Fire disaster in a motorway tunnel. Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters 1997;X(4).Google Scholar
95.O'Hickey, SP, Pickering, CA, Jones, PE, Evans, JD: Manchester air disaster. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;294(6588):16631667.Google Scholar
96.Samuels, A: The Manchester airport disaster. Med Sci Law 1987;27(2):118120.Google Scholar
97.Kossmann, T, Wittling, I, Buhren, V, et al: Transferred triage to a level I trauma center in a mass catastrophe of patients; many of them with burns. Acta Chir Plast 1991;33(3):145150.Google Scholar
98.Martin, TE: The Ramstein airshow disaster. J R Army Med Corps 1990;136(1):1926.Google Scholar
99.Seletz, JM: Flugtag-88 (Ramstein Air Show Disaster): An Army response to a MASCAL. Mil Med 1990;155(4):152155.Google Scholar
100.Lee, WH, Chiu, TF, et al: Emergency medical preparedness and response to a Singapore airliner crash. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9(3):194198.Google Scholar
101.Cyganik, KA: Disaster preparedness in Virginia Hospital Center—Arlington after Sept 11, 2001. Disaster Manag Response 2003;1(3):8086.Google Scholar
102.Waage, A, Hamberger, B, Lundin, T, Suserud, BO, Riddez, L, Swedish Disaster Medicine Study Organization: KAMEDO report no. 84: Terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center, 11 September 2001. Prehosp Disaster Med 2006;21(2):129131.Google Scholar
103.Havlak, R, Gorman, SE, Adams, SA: Challenges associated with creating a pharmaceutical stockpile to respond to a terrorist event. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8(8):529533.Google Scholar
104.Gottlieb, S: The casualties that never arrived. BMJ 2001;323(7314):654.Google Scholar
105.Ward, MJ: Attack on the Pentagon. The initial fire & EMS response. JEMS 2002;27(4):2230,32,34.Google Scholar
106.Jordan, MH, Hollowed, KA, Turner, DG, Wang, DS, Jeng, JC: The Pentagon attack of September 11, 2001: A burn center's experience. J Burn Care Rehabil 2005;26(2):109116.Google Scholar
107.Banauch, GI, Dhala, A, Prezant, DJ: Pulmonary disease in rescue workers at the World Trade Center site. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2005;11(2):160168.Google Scholar
108.Nemery, B: Reactive fallout of World Trade Center dust. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168(1):23.Google Scholar
109.Pesola, GR, Dujar, A, Wilson, S: Emergency preparedness: The World Trade Center and Singapore airline disasters. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9(3):220222.Google Scholar
110.Roche, M: Eyewitness to terror: EMS responds to the attack on the Pentagon. Air Med J 2001;20(6):45.Google Scholar
111.Wang, D, Sava, J, Sample, G, Jordan, M: The Pentagon and 9/11. Crit Care Med 2005;33(1 Suppl):s42-s7.Google Scholar
112.Das RAP: 1981 Circus fire disaster in Bangalore, India: Causes, management of burn patients and possible presentation. Burns 1982;10:1729.Google Scholar
113.Sharpe, DT: Management of burns in major disasters. Natnews 1989;26(12): 910.Google Scholar
114.Sivaloganathan, S, Green, MA: The Bradford Fire Disaster. Part 1. The initial investigations: Who died, where and how? Med Sci Law 1989;29(4):279283.Google Scholar
115.Sivaloganathan, S, Green, MA: The Bradford Fire Disaster. Part 2. Accident reconstruction: Who died, when and why. Med Sci Law 1989;29(4):284–6.Google Scholar
116.Al-Hoqail, R: A fire disaster at a wedding in a village in the eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters 2004;XVII(3).Google Scholar
11
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Burn Disasters—An Audit of the Literature
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Burn Disasters—An Audit of the Literature
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Burn Disasters—An Audit of the Literature
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *