Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-7hjq6 Total loading time: 0.269 Render date: 2021-06-12T15:43:28.313Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Article contents

Energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem: 30 years on

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 July 2008

Valdon R. Smith
Affiliation:
Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa

Abstract

This article is a sequel to a word-model description of the ecosystem of sub-Antarctic Marion Island, published in this journal 30 years ago (Smith 1977). It expands on the qualitative considerations of patterns of energy flow and nutrient cycling presented in that paper, by providing quantitative information from subsequent research at the island. Primary production of the island's lowland plant communities is high on an annual basis, because the vegetation has a long growing season due to the lack of severely cold winters or drought. Daily productivity is actually low due to low radiation levels and a cool growing season. The vegetation is particularly efficient regarding its use of nutrients for its growth, but still requires substantial amounts of nutrients to support the high annual production. Seabirds and seals import large quantities of nutrients from the ocean when they breed and moult on the island. They markedly enhance soil and plant nutrient status in the areas in which they occur, and also in adjacent areas. However, by far the greater part of the island's inland vegetation is not directly influenced by birds or seals and most of the nutrients required for plant growth are provided by decomposition of plant litter and peat. Soil invertebrates are crucial facilitators of decomposition processes, which are otherwise restricted by low soil temperatures and high soil moisture contents. Introduced house mice have invaded almost all parts of the island and predate heavily on the invertebrates, thus affecting nutrient mineralisation. This threatens not only the functioning (lowered nutrient availability leading to slower plant growth and the production of a lower quality, more decomposition-recalcitrant plant litter), but also the structure (an altered balance between production and decomposition leads to a change in the relation between peat formation and degradation, which is an important determinant of vegetation succession) of the island's ecosystem. It is suggested that mice may also affect the island's ecology by predating on seabird chicks.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Allanson, B.R., Hart, R.C., and Lutjeharms, J.R.E.. 1981. Observations on the nutrients, chlorophyll and primary production of the Southern Ocean south of Africa. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 10/11: 314.Google Scholar
Allanson, B.R., Boden, B.P., Parker, L., and Duncombe, C. Rae. 1985. A contribution to the oceanology of the Prince Edward Islands. In: Siegfied, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (editors). Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Heidelberg: Springer: 3845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berendse, F., and Jonasson, S.. 1992. Nutrient use and nutrient cycling in northern ecosystems. In: Chapin, F.S. III, Jefferies, R.L., Reynolds, J.F., Shaver, G.R., and Svoboda, J. (editors). Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate: an ecological perspective. San Diego: Academic Press: 337356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernard, J.M., and Gorham, E.. 1978. Life history aspects of primary production in sedge wetlands. In: Good, R.E., Whigham, D.F., and Simpson, R.L. (editors). Freshwater wetlands. Ecological processes and management potential. New York: Academic Press: 3951.Google Scholar
Bester, M.N., Bloomer, J.P., Bartlett, P.A., Muller, D.D., Van Rooyen, M., and Buchner, H.. 2000. Final eradication of feral cats from sub-Antarctic Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 30: 5357.Google Scholar
Brown, C.R. 1985. Energetic cost of moult in macaroni penguins (Eudyptes crysolophus) and rockhopper penguins (E. chrysocome). Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 155: 515520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J., and Veum, A.K.. 1974. Soil propeties of the International Tundra Biome sites. In: Holding, A.J., MacLean, S.F., and Flanagan, P.W. (editors). Soil organisms and decomposition in tundra. Stockholm: Tundra Biome Steering Committee: 2748.Google Scholar
Burger, A.E., Lindeboom, H.J., and Williams, A.J.. 1978. The mineral and energy contributions of guano of selected species of birds to the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 8: 5970.Google Scholar
Chastain, A. 1958. La flora et la végétation des Iles de Kerguelen. Polymorphisme des espèces australes. Mémoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Série B, Botanique XI: 1136.Google Scholar
Clarke, G.C.S., Greene, S.W., and Green, D.M.. 1971. Productivity of bryophytes in polar regions. Annals of Botany 35: 99108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, J., Marais, A.V.N., Bloomer, J.P., and Bester, M.N.. 1995. A success story: breeding of burrowing petrels (Procellariidae) before and after the extinction of feral cats Felis catus at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Marine Ornithology 23: 3337.Google Scholar
Crafford, J.E. 1990. The role of feral house mice in ecosystem functioning on Marion Island. In: Kerry, K.R., and Hempel, G. (editors). Antarctic ecosystems: ecological change and conservation. Berlin: Springer: 359364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cragg, J.B. 1981. Preface. In: Bliss, L.C., Heal, O.W., and Moore, J.J. (editors). Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: xxiiixxv.Google Scholar
Crawford, R.J.M., Cooper, J., Dyer, B.M., Greyling, M.D., Klages, N.T.W., Ryan, P.G., Petersen, S.L., Underhill, L.G., Upfold, L., Wilkinson, W., deVilliers, M., Plessis, S., Toit, M., Leshoro, T.M, Makhado, A.B., Meson, M.S., Merkle, D., Tshingana, D., and Ward, V.L.. 2003. Populations of surface nesting seabirds at Marion Island, 1994/95–2002/03. African Journal of Marine Science 25: 427440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dowding, P., Chapin III, F.S., Wielgolaski, F.E., and Kilfeather, P.. 1981. Nutrients in tundra ecosystems. In: Bliss, L.C., Heal, O.W., and Moore, J.J. (editors). Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 647683.Google Scholar
Doyle, G.J. 1973. Primary production estimates of native blanket bog and meadow vegetation growing on reclaimed peat at Glenamoy, Ireland. In: Bliss, L.C., and Wielgolaski, F.E. (editors). Primary production and production processes, Tundra Biome. Edmonton and Oslo: IBP Tundra Biome Steering Committee: 141151.Google Scholar
Everett, K.R., Vassiljevskaya, V.D., Brown, J., and Walker, B.D.. 1981. Tundra and analogous soils. In: Bliss, L.C., Heal, O.W., and Moore, J.J. (editors). Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 139179.Google Scholar
Ferreira, S.M., Van Aarde, R.J., and Wassenaar, T.D.. 2006. Demographic responses of house mice to density and temperature on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 30: 8394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forrest, G.I., and Smith, R.A.H.. 1975. The productivity of a range of blanket bog vegetation types in the northern Pennines. Journal of Ecology 63: 173202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, D.D., and Smith, V.R.. 1986. Bacterial populations in soils of a sub-Antarctic Island. Polar Biology 6: 7582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fugler, S.R. 1985. Chemical composition of guano of burrowing petrel chicks (Procellariidae) at Marion Island. In: Siegfied, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (editors). Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Heidelberg: Springer: 169172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fugler, S.R., Hunter, S., Newton, I.P., and Steele, W.K.. 1987. Breeding biology of blue petrels Halobaena caerulea at the Prince Edward Islands. Emu 87: 103110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gersper, P.L., Alexander, V., Barkley, S.A., Barsdate, R.J., and Flint, P.S.. 1980. The soils and their nutrients. In: Brown, J., Miller, P.C., Tieszen, L.L., and Bunnel, F.L. (editors). An Arctic ecosystem. The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska. Stroudsberg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross. US/IBP Synthesis Series 12: 219254.Google Scholar
Gillham, M.E. 1961. Modifications of sub-Antarctic flora on Macquarie Island by seabirds and sea elephants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 74: 112.Google Scholar
Gleeson, J.P., and Van Rensburg, P.J.J., 1982. Feeding ecology of the house mouse Mus musculus on Marion Island. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 12: 3439.Google Scholar
Gremmen, N.J.M., and Smith, V.R.. 2008. Terrestrial vegetation and dynamics. In: Chown, S.L., and Froneman, P.W. (editors). The Prince Edward Islands: land–sea interactions in a changing ecosystem. Stellenbosch: African SunMedia: 215–244.Google Scholar
Grobbelaar, J.U. 1974. A contribution to the limnology of the sub-Antarctic island Marion. Unpublished D.Sc. Thesis, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.Google Scholar
Grobbelaar, J.U. 1978. Mechanisms controlling the composition of freshwaters on the sub-Antarctic island Marion. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 83: 145157.Google Scholar
Grobler, D.C., Toerien, D.F., and Smith, V.R.. 1987. Bacterial activity in soils of a sub-Antarctic Island. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19: 485490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hänel, C. 1998. The distribution and abundance of macro–invertebrates in the major vegetation communities of Marion Island and the impact of alien species. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
Hänel, C., and Chown, S.L.. 1999. The impact of a small, alien invertebrate on a sub-Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem: Limnophyes minimus (Diptera, Chironomidae) at Marion Island. Polar Biology 20: 99106.Google Scholar
Heal, O.W. 1981. Introduction. In: Bliss, L.C., Heal, O.W., and Moore, J.J. (editors). Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: xxviixxxvii.Google Scholar
Heal, O.W., Flanagan, P.W., French, D.D., and MacLean, S.F.. 1981. Decomposition and accumulation of organic matter. In: Bliss, L.C., Heal, O.W., and Moore, J.J. (editors). Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 587633.Google Scholar
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Makhado, A.B., and Pistorius, P.A.. 2006. Population changes in Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36: 5568.Google Scholar
Huntley, B.J. 1970. Altitudinal distribution and phenology of Marion Island vascular plants. Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskappe 10: 255262.Google Scholar
Huntley, B.J. 1972. Aerial standing crop of Marion Island plant communities. Journal of South African Botany 38: 115119.Google Scholar
Jenkin, J.F. 1972. Studies on plant growth in a subantarctic environment. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
Jenkin, J.F. 1975. Macquarie Island, Subantarctic. In: Rosswall, T., and Heal, O.W. (editors). Structure and function of tundra ecosystems. Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Research Council (Ecological Bulletins 20): 375397.Google Scholar
Jenkin, J.J., and Ashton, D.H.. 1970. Productivity studies on Maquarie Island vegetation. In: Holdgate, M.W. (editor). Antarctic ecology. Vol. 2. London: Academic Press: 851863.Google Scholar
Lawson, G.J. 1985. Decomposition and nutrient cycling in Rostkovia magellanica from two contrasting bogs on South Georgia. In: Siegfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (editors). Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag: 186191.Google Scholar
Lewis Smith, R.I. 1984. Terrestrial plant biology of the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic. In: Laws, R.M. (editor): Antarctic ecology. Vol. 1. London: Academic Press: 61162.Google Scholar
Lewis Smith, R.I., and Walton, D.W.H.. 1975. South Georgia, Subantarctic. In: Rosswall, T., and Heal, O.W. (editors). Structure and function of tundra ecosystems. Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Research Council (Ecological Bulletins 20): 399423.Google Scholar
Lindeboom, H.J. 1979. Chemical and microbial aspects of the nitrogen cycle on Marion Island. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.Google Scholar
Lindeboom, H.J. 1984. The nitrogen pathway in a penguin rookery. Ecology 65: 269–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moseley, H.N. 1892. Notes by a naturalist. An account of observations made during the voyage of H.M.S. ‘Challenger’ round the world in the years 1872–1976 under the command of Capt. Sir G.S. Nares, R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S., and Capt. F.T. Thomson, R.N. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Nel, D.C., Ryan, P.G., Crawford, R.J.M., Cooper, J., and Huyser, O.A.W.. 2002. Population trends of albatrosses and petrels breeding at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 25: 8189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pakhomov, E.A., and Froneman, P.W. 1999. The Prince Edward Islands pelagic ecosystem: a review of achievements 1976–1990. Journal of Marine Systems 18: 297310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Panagis, K. 1984. The influence of southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) on the coastal terrestrial ecology of Marion Island. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
Perkins, D.F., Jones, V., Millar, R.O., and Neep, P.. 1978. Primary production, mineral nutrients and litter decomposition in the grassalnd osystem. In: Heal, O.W., and Perkins, D.F. (editors). Production Ecology of British Moors and Montane Grasslands. Berlin: Springer–Verlag (Ecological Studies 27): 304331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pratt, R.M., and Lewis Smith, R.I.. 1982. Seasonal trends in chemical composition of reindeer forage plants on South Georgia. Polar Biology 1: 13–31.Google Scholar
Reader, R.J. 1978: Primary production in northern bog marshes. In: Good, R.E., Whigham, D.F., and Simpson, R.L. (editors). Freshwater wetlands. Ecological processes and management potential. New York: Academic Press: 5362.Google Scholar
Rosswall, T., and Granhall, U.. 1980. Nitrogen cycling in a subarctic ombrotrophic mire. In: Sonesson, M. (editor). Ecology of a subarctic mire. Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Research Council (Ecological Bulletins 30): 209234.Google Scholar
Rosswall, T., and Heal, O.W. (editors). 1975. Structure and function of tundra ecosystems. Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Research Council (Ecological Bulletins 20).Google Scholar
Rowe–Rowe, D.T., Green, B., and Crafford, J.E.. 1989. Estimated impact of feral house mice on sub-Antarctic invertebrates at Marion Island. Polar Biology 9: 457460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, S. 1987. Water relations and nutrient status of bryophyte communities at Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Symposia Biologica Hungarica 35: 3957.Google Scholar
Ryan, P.G., and Bester, M.N.. 2008. Pelagic predators. In: Chown, S.L., and Froneman, P.W. (editors). The Prince Edward Islands. Land–sea interactions in a changing ecosystem. Stellenbosch: African SunMedia: 121–164.Google Scholar
Sims, P.L., and Singh, J.S.. 1978. The structure and function of ten western North American grasslands. III. Net primary production, turnover and efficiencies of energy capture and water use. Journal of Ecology 66: 573597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slabber, S., and Chown, S.L., 2002. The first record of a terrestrial crustacean, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Porcellionidae), from sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 25: 855858.Google Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1976. The effect of burrowing species of Procellariidae on the nutrient status of inland tussock grasslands on Marion Island. South African Journal of Botany 42: 265272.Google Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1977. A qualitative description of energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem. Polar Record 18 (115): 361370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1978. Animal–plant–soil nutrient relationships on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Oecologia 32: 239253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1979. The influence of seabird manuring on the phosphorus status of Marion Island (sub-Antarctic) soils. Oecologia 41: 123126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1985. Heterotrophic acetylene reduction in soils at Marion Island. In: Siegfied, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (editors). Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Heidelberg: Springer: 186191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1987a. Chemical composition of precipitation at Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Atmospheric Environment 21: 11591165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1987b. Production and nutrient dynamics of plant communities on a sub-Antarctic Island. 1. Standing crop and primary production of mire–grasslands. Polar Biology 7: 5775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1987c. Production and nutrient dynamics of plant communities on a sub-Antarctic Island. 2. Standing crop and primary production of fjaeldmark and fernbrakes. Polar Biology 7: 125144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1987d. Seasonal changes in plant and soil chemical composition at Marion Island (sub-Antarctic): I Mire grasslands. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 17: 117132.Google Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1987e. Seasonal changes in plant and soil chemical composition at Marion Island (sub-Antarctic): II Fjaeldmark and fernbrakes. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 17: 133154.Google Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1987f. Production and nutrient dynamics of plant communities on a sub-Antarctic Island. 3. Standing stocks, uptake and loss of nutrients in mire–grasslands. Polar Biology 8: 135–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1988a. Production and nutrient dynamics of plant communities on a sub-Antarctic Island. 4. Standing stocks, uptake and loss of nutrients in fjaeldmark and fernbrakes. Polar Biology 8: 191211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 1988b. Production and nutrient dynamics of plant communities on a sub-Antarctic Island. 5. Nutrient budgets and turnover times for mire–grasslands, fjaeldmark and fernbrakes. Polar Biology 8: 255269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 2002. Climate change in the sub-Antarctic: an illustration from Marion Island. Climatic Change 52: 345357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 2003. Soil respiration and its determinants on a sub-Antarctic island. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35: 7791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 2005. Moisture, carbon and inorganic nutrient controls of soil respiration at a sub-Antarctic island. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 8191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 2007. Introduced slugs and indigenous caterpillars as facilitators of carbon and nutrient mineralisation on a sub-Antarctic island. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 709713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R. 2008. Terrestrial and freshwater primary production and nutrient cycling. In: Chown, S.L., and Froneman, P.W. (editors). The Prince Edward Islands: land–sea interactions in a changing ecosystem. Stellenbosch: African SunMedia: 181–214.Google Scholar
Smith, V.R., Avenant, N.L., and Chown, S.L.. 2002. The diet and impact of house mice on a sub-Antarctic island. Polar Biology 25: 703715.Google Scholar
Smith, V.R., and Froneman, P.W.. 2007. Nutrient dynamics in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands. In: Chown, S.L., and Froneman, P.W. (editors). The Prince Edward Islands: land–sea interactions in a changing ecosystem. Stellenbosch: African SunMedia (in press).Google Scholar
Smith, V.R., and Russell, S.. 1982. Acetylene reduction by bryophyte–cyanobacteria associations on a sub-Antarctic Island. Polar Biology 1: 153157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R., and Steenkamp, M.. 1992a. Soil nitrogen transformations on a sub-Antarctic island. Antarctic Science 4: 4150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R., and Steenkamp, M.. 1992b. Macroinvertebrates and litter nutrient release on a sub-Antarctic island. South African Journal of Botany 58: 105116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R., and Steenkamp, M.. 1992c. Soil macrofauna and nitrogen on a sub-Antarctic island. Oecologia 92: 201206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, V.R., and Steenkamp, M.. 1993. Macroinvertebrates and peat nutrient mineralization on a sub-Antarctic island. South African Journal of Botany 59: 106108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R., Steenkamp, M., and French, D.D.. 1993. Soil decomposition potential in relation to environmental factors on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 16191633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R., Steenkamp, M., and Gremmen, N.J.M.. 2001. Terrestrial habitats on sub-Antarctic Marion Island: their vegetation, edaphic attributes, distribution and response to climate change. South African Journal of Botany 67: 641654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, V.R., and Steyn, M.G.. 1982. Soil microbial counts in relation to site characteristics at a sub-Antarctic Island. Microbial Ecology 8: 253266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swift, M.J., Heal, O.W., and Anderson, J.M.. 1979. Decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications (Studies in Ecology 5).Google Scholar
Taylor, B.W. 1955. The flora, vegetation and soils of Macquarie Island. Melbourne: Australian Antarctic Division (A.N.A.R.E. Reports Series).Google Scholar
Van Aarde, R.J. 1980. The diet and feeding behaviour of feral cats, Felis catus at Marion Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 10: 123128Google Scholar
Van Aarde, R.J., and Jackson, T.P.. 2007. Food, reproduction and survival in mice on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 30: 503511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Cleve, K., and Alexander, V.. 1981. Nitrogen cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. In: Clark, F.E., and Rosswall, T. (editors). Terrestrial nitrogen cycles. Processes, ecosystem strategies and management impacts. Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Research Council (Ecological Bulletins 33): 375404.Google Scholar
Van Zinderen Bakker, E.M. Sr. 1967. Marion and Prince Edward Islands – Biological studies. Nature 213 (5073): 230231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Zinderen Bakker, E.M. Sr. 1973. The second South African biological expedition to Marion Island 1971–72. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 13: 6063.Google Scholar
Van Zinderen BakkerE.M., Sr. E.M., Sr. 1978. Geoecology of the Marion and Prince Edward islands. In: Troll, C., and Lauer, W. (editors). Geoecological relations between the southern temperate zone and the tropical mountains. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner (Erdwissenschaftliche Forschung XI): 495515.Google Scholar
Walton, D.W.H. 1973. Changes in standing crop and dry matter production in an Acaena community on South Georgia. In: Bliss, L.C., and Wielgolaski, F.E. (editors). Primary production and production processes, Tundra Biome. Edmonton and Oslo: IBP Tundra Biome Steering Committee: 185190.Google Scholar
Walton, D.W.H., Greene, D.M., and Callaghan, T.V.. 1974. An assessment of primary production in a sub-Antarctic grassland on South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 41/42: 151160.Google Scholar
Walton, D.W.H., and Lewis, R.I. Smith 1980. Chemical composition of South Georgian vegetation. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 49: 117135.Google Scholar
Wanless, R.M., and Angel, A.. 2007. Invaders of the last ark – Gough Island. Africa – Birds and Birding 12 (4): 5559.Google Scholar
Wanless, R.M., Angel, A., Cuthbert, R.J., Hilton, G.M., and Ryan, P.G.. 2007. Can predation by mice drive seabird extinctions? Biology Letters 3: 241244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werth, E. 1906. Die vegetation der subantarktischen Inseln Kerguelen, Possession- und Heard-Eiland. Deutsche Südpolar-Expedition 1901–1903. VIII. Band Botanik Heft 1: 125176.Google Scholar
Whigham, D.F., McCormick, J., Good, R.E., and Simpson, R.L.. 1978. Biomass and primary production in freshwater tidal wetlands of the Middle Atlantic coast. In: Good, R.E., Whigham, D.F., and Simpson, R.L. (editors). Freshwater wetlands. Ecological processes and management potential. New York: Academic Press: 320.Google Scholar
Wielgolaski, F.E., Bliss, L.C., Svoboda, J., and Doyle, G.. 1981. Primary production of tundra. In: Bliss, L.C., Heal, O.W., and Moore, J.J. (editors). Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 187225.Google Scholar
Wielgolaski, F.E., Kjelvik, S., and Kallio, P.. 1975. Mineral content of tundra and forest tundra plants in Fennoscandia. In: Wielgolaski, F.E. (editor). Fennoscandian tundra ecosystems. Part 1. Plants and Microorganisms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (Ecological Studies 16): 316–332.Google Scholar
Williams, A.J. 1978. Mineral and energy contributions of petrels (Procellariiformes) killed by cats, to the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 8: 4953.Google Scholar
Williams, A.J., and Berruti, A.. 1978. Mineral and energy contributions of feathers moulted by penguins, gulls and cormorants to the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 8: 7174.Google Scholar
16
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem: 30 years on
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem: 30 years on
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem: 30 years on
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *