Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-rq6d8 Total loading time: 0.272 Render date: 2021-09-23T19:17:14.171Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Antarctic tourism: an overview of 1992/1993 season activity, recent developments, and emerging issues

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 October 2009

Debra J. Enzenbacher
Affiliation:
Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1ER

Abstract

Antarctic tourism is evolving at an ever-increasing pace. More than 7000 tourists, a record number, visited the Antarctic aboard cruise ships, yachts, and aircraft during the 1992/1993 season. As annual tourist, tour operator, cruise, and cruise ship totals increase, so do the number of landing sites used for tour visits. Although the Antarctic tourism industry was once characterized by small expedition-sized vessels, 50% of Antarctic cruise passengers travelled aboard ships with a capacity of 250 or more during the 1992/1993 season. These developments present challenges to Antarctic policy makers. There is growing awareness that environmental issues arising from Antarctic tourist activity are increasingly important, but, to date, comprehensive data on Antarctic tourism are not available from a central source. This study compiles data from numerous sources in order to develop a clearer picture of the nature and scale of Antarctic tourist activity. In an effort to present an overview of Antarctic tourism, data from the 1992/1993 season are considered along with important issues in the tourism debate, including significant trends and recent developments in the tourism industry, Antarctic tourism research, tourist landings in Antarctica, industrial self-regulation, emerging issues, Antarctic Treaty negotiations on tourism, and national initiatives to improve dialogue between the industry and Antarctic policy makers. Research is underway to understand better the nature of tourist visits and the effect they have on the Antarctic environment and related ecosystems. The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) plays an important role in disseminating information to tour operators planning visits to the Antarctic, but more could be done by this organization and non-members of IAATO to comply with Treaty provisions. Improved compliance with Treaty provisions and tour operator and visitor guidelines is needed, at least until the environmental effects of tour visits are better understood and the more comprehensive regulation set out in the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is implemented.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abbott, S.B., and Benninghoff, W.S.. 1990. Orientation of environmental change studies to the conservation of Antarctic ecosystems. In: Kerry, K.R., and Hempel, G. (editors). Antarctic θcosystems: ecological changθ and conservation. New York: Springer-Verlag: 394403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anare, . 1993. Yachts brave Antarctic waters. ANARE News 73 (Autumn): 2627.Google Scholar
Angelini, J., and Mansfield, A.. 1993. Implementation of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty into United States law and practice. Berkeley: University of California School of Law.Google Scholar
Antarctica Project. 1993. Protocol legislation update. The Antarctica Project 2 (4): 2, 4.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1986. Final Report of the Thirteenth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, Brussels, 7–18 October 1985. Brussels: Kingdom of Belgium, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, External Trade and Co-operation in Development.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1992a. Tourism in Antarctica. Unpublished information paper (18) submitted by IUCN, at XVIIATCM, 11 November 1992, Venice.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1992b. Provisional list of documents distributed. Unpublished information paper (53, rev.2) submitted by the Secretariat, at XVII ATCM, 18 November 1992, Venice.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1992c. Preliminary draft annex VI to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty: regulation concerning tourism and non-governmental activities. Unpublished working paper (1) submitted by Chile, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, at XVII ATCM, 9 November 1992, Venice.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1992d. The regulation of tourism and non-governmental activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area. Unpublished working paper (2) submitted by the United Kingdom, at XVII ATCM, 9 November 1992, Venice.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1993a. Final Report of the Seventeenth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, Venice, 11–20 November 1992. Venice: Italy.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1993b. Status of ATCM recommendations. In: Final Report of the Seventeenth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, Venice, 11–20November 1992. Venice: Italy: 241245.Google Scholar
ATCPs. 1994. Antarctic Treaty: report of a joint inspection under Article VII of the Antarctic Treaty, by United Kingdom, Italian and Korean observers January-February 1993. London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Rome: Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Seoul: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
Auburn, F.M. 1982. Antarctic law & politics. London: C. Hurst& Company.Google Scholar
Beck, P.J. 1990. Regulating one of the last tourism frontiers: Antarctica. Applied Geography 10 (4): 343356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burgess, J. 1990. Comprehensive environmental protection of the Antarctic: new approaches for new times. In: Cook, G. (editor). The future of Antarctica: exploitation versus preservation. Manchester: Manchester University Press: 5367.Google Scholar
Burton, R. 1993. Go with the floes in a pristine land. Weekend Telegraph (London) 29 05 1993, travel section: 28.Google Scholar
Butler, R.W. 1991. Tourism, environment, and sustainable development. Environmental Conservation 18 (3): 201209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Central Intelligence Agency. 1992. The world factbook 1992. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Champ, M.A., Flemer, D.A., Landers, D.H., Ribic, C., and DeLaca, T.. 1992. The roles of monitoring and research in polar environments: a perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 25 (9–12): 220226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, G. (editor). 1990. The future of Antarctica: exploitation versus preservation. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Council of Adult Education. 1992. Proposed Antarcticflight, February 1993. Melbourne: Council of Adult Education Center.Google Scholar
Enzenbacher, D.J. 1991. A policy for Antarctic tourism: conflict or cooperation? Unpublished MPhil thesis. University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
Enzenbacher, D.J. 1992. Antarctic tourism and environmental concerns. Marine Pollution Bulletin 25 (9–12): 258265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enzenbacher, D.J. 1993a. Antarctic tourism: 1991/1992 season activity. Polar Record 29 (170): 240242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enzenbacher, D.J. 1993b. Tourists in Antarctica: numbers and trends. Tourism Management 14 (2): 142146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galimberti, D. 1993a. Establishment of the Antarctic Unit in the Tourism Board of Tierra del Fuego. Unpublished paper presented at the SCAR/IUCN Workshop on Environmental Education and Training in the Antarctic Region, Gorizia, Italy, 262904 1993.Google Scholar
Galimberti, D. 1993b. Proposal for the organization of an international data base on Antarctic tourism. Unpublished paper presented at the SCAR/IUCN Workshop on Environmental Education and Training in the Antarctic Region, Gorizia, Italy, 262904 1993.Google Scholar
Galimberti, D. and Bugnest, P. 1993. Antarctic tourism trend through Ushuaia in 1992–1993. Unpublished paper presented at the SCAR/IUCN Workshop on Environmental Education and Training in the Antarctic Region, Gorizia, Italy, 262904 1993.Google Scholar
Hall, C.M. 1992. Tourism in Antarctica: activities, impacts, and management. Journal of Travel Research 30 (4): 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, C.M. 1993. Ecotourism in Antarctica and adjacent sub-Antarctic islands: development, impacts, management and prospects for the future. Tourism Management 14 (2): 117122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hay, L. 1993. Tourism issues unresolved by Antarctic Treaty Meeting. ANARE News 73 (Autumn): 4.Google Scholar
Heap, J. (editor). 1990. Handbook of the Antarctic Treaty System. Seventh edition. Cambridge: Polar Publications.Google Scholar
IAATO. 1993a. IAATO letterhead. Kent, WA: International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators Office of the Secretariat.Google Scholar
IAATO. 1993b. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators By-laws, as of July 1993. Kent, WA: International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators Office of the Secretariat.Google Scholar
IUCN. 1991. A strategy for Antarctic conservation. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
Keage, P.L., and Dingwall, P.R.. 1993. A conservation strategy for the Australian Antarctic Territory. Polar Record 29 (170): 242244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiernan, V. 1993. Antarctica welcomes careful visitors. New Scientist 139 (1882): 7.Google Scholar
Madden, R. 1993. Lure of the planet's loneliest spot. The Sunday Telegraph (London) 18 07 1993, travel section: 19.Google Scholar
Manheim, B.S. Jr 1990. Paradise lost? The need for environmental regulation of tourism in Antarctica. Washington, DC: Environmental Defense Fund.Google Scholar
Manheim, B.S. Jr 1992a. The failure of the National Science Foundation to protect Antarctica. Marine Pollution Bulletin 25 (9–12): 253254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manheim, B.S. Jr 1992b. Gaps in management of Antarctic seaborne tourism under the Protocol. Unpublished paper distributed at the Antarctic Treaty Meeting on Tourism, 9–10 November 1992, Venice.Google Scholar
National Research Council. 1993. Science and stewardship in the Antarctic. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
NSF. 1992a. Tourism. In: United States Antarctic activities: part B, plans for activities for 1992–1993. Information exchange under Articles III and VI 1(5) of the Antarctic Treaty. Washington, DC: US National Science Foundation: 115134.Google Scholar
NSF. 1992b. Sites visited 1991–1992 season. Unpublished handout from 8 July 1992 NSF/Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
NSF. 1993a. 1992–1993 Antarctic end-of-season tourist estimates (ship/aircraft). Unpublished handout from 8 July 1993 NSF/Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting, Washington, DC, prepared by NSF from information supplied by US operators (IAATO members).Google Scholar
NSF. 1993b. 1992–1993 sites visited-Peninsula. Unpublished handout from 8 July 1993 NSF/Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
NSF. 1993c. Peninsula sites visited over the last 4 seasons. Unpublished handout from 8 July 1993 NSF/ Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
NSF. 1993d. Preliminary estimate of 1993/1994 season tourist cruises (as of June 1993). Unpublished handout from 8 July 1993 NSF/Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
NSF. 1993e. USAP Observer Program summary 1992–1993. Unpublished handout from 8 July 1993 NSF/ Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
NSF. 1993f. Tourism. In: United States Antarctic activities: part A, modifications of plans for 1992–1993. Information exchange under Articles III and VI 1(5) of the Antarctb Treaty. Arlington, VA: US National Science Foundation: 2246.Google Scholar
Nicholson, I.E. 1986. Antarctic tourism-the need for a legal regime? In: Wolfrum, Rudiger (editor). Antarctic challenge II. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot: 191203.Google Scholar
Pineschi, L. 1992. Tourist activities and the protection of the Antarcticenvironment: current obligations and possible future developments. ln: Francioni, F. (editor). International environmental law for Antarctica. Milan: Giuffrè Publishing: 175–202.Google Scholar
Reich, R.J. 1980. The development of Antarctic tourism. Polar Record 20 (126): 203214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SCAR. 1993. Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Polar Record 29 (170): 256275; SCAR Bulletin 110, July 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sitwell, N. 1992. Getting to the bottom of the world. Travel & Leisure December 1992.Google Scholar
Stonehouse, B. 1993. Shipborne tourism in Antarctica: Project Antarctic Conservation studies 1992/1993. Polar Record 29 (171): 330332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suter, K. 1991. Antarctica: private property or public heritage? London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Swithinbank, C. 1993a. Airborne tourism in the Antarctic. Polar Record 29 (169): 103110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swithinbank, C. 1993b. Non-government aircraft in the Antarctic 1992/1993. Polar Record 29 (170): 244245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United States. Department of State. 1993a. Planned itineraries for non-governmental expeditions to Antarctica austral summer, 1993/1994. 3 November 1993. Unpublished document from the US Department of State, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
United States. Department of State. 1993b. Signatures and ratifications of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. June 1993. SEOSPB-229. Unpublished document from the US Department of State, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Verhoeven, J., Sands, P., and Bruce, M. (editors). 1992. The Antarctic environment and international law. London: Graham & Trolman: 189217, 220–225.Google Scholar
Vidas, D. 1992. Antarctic tourism: a challenge to the legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System? International Antarctic Regime Project Publication Series 6. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute.Google Scholar
World Travel & Tourism Environment Review. 1992. Travel & tourism: environment and development. Oxford: World Travel & Tourism Environment Research Centre.Google Scholar
17
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Antarctic tourism: an overview of 1992/1993 season activity, recent developments, and emerging issues
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Antarctic tourism: an overview of 1992/1993 season activity, recent developments, and emerging issues
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Antarctic tourism: an overview of 1992/1993 season activity, recent developments, and emerging issues
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *