Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-ktfbs Total loading time: 0.594 Render date: 2023-01-28T20:57:41.437Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Exotic ancient plant introductions: part of Indian ‘Ayurveda’ medicinal system

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 November 2016

Anurudh K. Singh*
International Society for Noni Science, 2924, Sector-23, Gurgaon, Haryana 122 017, India
*Corresponding author. E-mail:


India is home to some of the oldest civilizations, during which period the local communities domesticated indigenous plant species for food and agriculture and medicinal uses. In this process, they also bio-prospected and/or absorbed potentially valuable exotic plant species, making them integral part of Indian culture, including the traditional medicinal system, the Ayurveda. The present paper discusses the absorption of 26 plant species of exotic origin, before 8th century, as evidenced by archaeological sculptural or botanical remains and documentation of such plants in Sanskrit, the Vedic language. Occurrence and/or introduction of such plants at such distant places in ancient times is visualized as a result of geographical continental fragmentation followed by drift, natural or man-made transoceanic movement, and cultural and trade exchange of plant material over time and space.

Research Article
Copyright © NIAB 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aiyegoro, OA, Akinpelu, DA, Afolayan, AJ and Okoh, AI (2008) Antibacterial activities of crude stem bark extracts of Distemonanthus benthamianus Baill. Journal of Biological Sciences 8: 356361.Google Scholar
Albuquerque, TG, Santos, F, Sanches-Silva, A, Oliveira, MB, Bento, AC and Costa, HS (2016) Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: potential health benefits. Food Chemistry 193: 187195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amarsimha (2001) Namlinganusasana or Amarkosha. Shastri Hargovinda (ed.). Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan.Google Scholar
Ashraf, J (1985) The antiquity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in India. Indica 22: 91101.Google Scholar
Balfour Edward, G (1871–1873) Cyclopedia of India, 2nd edn. Calcutta, India: Five vols.Google Scholar
Bergamaschi, MM, Queiroz, RH, Zuardi, AW and Crippa, JA (2011) Safety and side effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent. Current Drug Safety 6: 237249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhakuni, DS, Tewari, S and Dhar, MM (1972) Aporpine alkaloids of Annona squamosa L. Phytochemstry 11: 18191822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhattacharjee, I, Chatterjee, SK, Chatterjee, S and Chandra, G (2006) Antibacterial potentiality of Argemone mexicana solvent extract against some pathogenic bacteria. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101: 645648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhava Mishra (ca.1600 AD) (1995) (X edition in Hindi) Bhavapraksh Nighantu (Indian Materia Medica) . Commentry by Chunekar, KC; Pandey, GS (ed.). Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharti Academy.Google Scholar
Bhishagratna, KK (transl) (1907) The Sushruta Samhita, vol. 3. India: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series XXX.Google Scholar
Binorkar, SV and Jani, DK (2012) Traditional medicinal usage of tobacco- a review. Spatula DD 2: 127134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bordia, A, Bansal, HC (1973) Essential oil of garlic in prevention of atherosclerosis. Lancet 2: 14911492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bordia, A, Bansal, HC, Arcra, SK, Rathore, AS, Ranawat, RVS and Singh, SV (1974) Effect of the essential oil (Active principle) of garlic on serum cholesterol, plasma fibrinogen, whole blood coagulation time and fibrinolytic activity. Journal of Associated Physicians of India 22: 267270.Google Scholar
Bose, BC, Vijayvargiya, R, Saifi, AQ and Sharma, SK (1963) Chemical and pharmacological studies on Argemone mexicana . Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 52: 11721175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bose, BC, Saifi, AQ and Bhagwat, AW (1964) Observation on the pharmacological action of Cannabis indica II. Archives Internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie 147: 285290.Google Scholar
Broekaert, WF, Allen, AK and Peunes, WJ (1987) Separation and characterization of isolectins with different subunits components from Datura stramonium . Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 220: 116120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, WS (1982) Studies on Active Principles of Hypoglycemic Effect from Psidium guajava (I). Master Thesis, The Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan.Google Scholar
Charaka Samhita (1949) Edited with English, Hindi and Gujarati Translations, vol. 6. Gulab Kunverba Ayurvedic Society, Jamnagar, India, 26, pp. 1219.Google Scholar
Chattopadhyay, P, Chatterjee, S and Sen, SK (2008) Biotechnological potential of natural food grade biocolorants. African Journal of Biotechnology 7: 29722985.Google Scholar
Chen, Z, Zhang, J and Chen, G (2008) Simultaneous determination of flavones and phenolic acids in the leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Journal of Chromatography B 63: 101106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, KC, Peng, CC, Chiu, WT, Cheng, YT, Huang, GT and Hsieh, CL (2010) Action mechanism and signal pathways of Psidium guajava L. aqueous extract in killing prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Nutrition and Cancer 62: 260270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chopra, RN, Nayar, SL and Chopra, IC (1956) Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: New Delhi, India, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, p. 330 Google Scholar
Chopra, RN, Chopra, IC, Handa, KL and Kapur, LD (1958) Indigenous Drugs of India, 2nd edn, Calcutta and New Delhi: Academic Publishers (reprinted 1982).Google Scholar
Chopra, RN, Chopra, LC and Verma, BS (1969) Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi, India: Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR.Google Scholar
Chopra, RN, Chopra, LC, Handa, KL and Kapoor, LD (1982) Indigenous Drugs of India, 2nd edn. Calcutta, India: Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
Cunningham, A (1879) The Stupa of Bharhut: A Buddhist Monument Ornamented with Numerous Sculptures Illustrative of Buddhist Legend and History in the Third Century BC. London (Reprinted 1962) Varanasi, India: Indological Book House.Google Scholar
Damodaran, M and Ramaswamy, R (1937) Isolation of 1–3:4 –dihydroxyphenylalanine from seed of Mucuna pruriens . Biochemical Journal 31: 21492152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dash, B and Kashyap, L (1991) Five Specialized Therapies of Ayurveda, Panchakarma: Based on Ayurveda. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, p. 165.Google Scholar
De Candolle, AP (1882) Origin of Cultivated Species. London: Hafner Publishing Co, (Reprint 1967).Google Scholar
Divyavadan (200 AD) (1959) Viadya, PL (ed.), Mithila Institute of PG Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning. Darbhanga, Bihar, India.Google Scholar
Dwarkanath, C (1965) Use of opium and cannabis in the traditional systems of medicine in India. Bulletins of Narcotics 17: 15–19.Google Scholar
Farooqi, AA, Sreeramu, BS and Srinivasappa, KN (2005) Cultivation of Spice Crops. Hyderabad: University Press (India) Private Limited, p. 457.Google Scholar
Ferraz, AC, Angelucci, MEM, Da Costa, ML, Batista, IR, De Oliveira, BH and Da Cunha, C (1999) Pharmacological evaluation of ricinine, a central nervous system stimulant isolated from Ricinus communis . Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 63: 367375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garg, SK, Saxena, SK and Chaudhary, RR (1970) Antifertility screening of plants VI. Effect of five indigenous plants in early pregnancy of albino rats. Indian Journal of Medical Research 58: 12851289.Google ScholarPubMed
Garga, D (1969) Dhak. Vijayagarh, Aligarh: Dhanwantri Vanaushidhi Visheshank. pp. 287298.Google Scholar
Grlie, LA (1976) Comparative study on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samples of cannabis resin. Bulletins of Narcotics 14: 3746.Google Scholar
Gupta, K (1972) Aloe Compound (a herbal drug) in Functional Sterility. New Delhi, India: XVI Indian Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology.Google Scholar
Gupta, SM (1996) Plants in Indian Temple Art. Delhi: BR Publishing.Google Scholar
Hirst, RA, Lambert, DG and Notcutt, WG (1998) Pharmacology and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis. British Journal of Anaesthesia 81: 7784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hymowitz, T (1972) The trans-domestication concept as applied to guar. Economic Botany 26: 4960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (2004) Review on Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 1, pp. 362374; 2:1–89; 101–115.Google Scholar
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (2007) Review on Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 5, p. 300; 813–859.Google Scholar
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (2009) Review on Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 9, pp. 84152.Google Scholar
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (2012) Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice. Indian Journal of Medical Research 135: 4955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (2015) Review on Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 14, pp. 2350.Google Scholar
Jain, RC, Vyas, CR and Mahatma, OP (1973) Hypoglycemic action of onion and garlic. Lancet 2: 1491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johannessen, CL and Wang, S (1998) American crop plants in Asia before A.D.1500. Pre-Columbiana: A Journal of Long-distance Contacts 1: 936.Google Scholar
Joseph, B and Mini Priya, R (2011) Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.). International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2: 5369.Google Scholar
Joseph, B, George, J and Mohan, J (2013) Pharmacology and traditional uses of Mimosa pudica . International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 5: 4144.Google Scholar
Kadam, PV, Yadav, KN, Deoda, RS, Narappanawar, NS, Shivatare, RS and Patil, MJ (2012) Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on roots of Agave americana (Agavaceae). International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 4: 9296.Google Scholar
Kang, SS, Cordell, A, Soejarto, DD and Fong, HHS (1985) Alkaloids and flavonoids from Ricinus communis . Journal of Natural Products 48: 155156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapoor, LD (2001) Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p. 424.Google Scholar
Kensa, VM and Yasmin, SS (2011) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity on Ricinus communis L. Plant Sciences Feed 1: 167173.Google Scholar
Khafagy, SM, Mahmoud, ZF and Salam, NAE (1979) Coumarins and flavonoids of Ricinus communis growing in Egypt. Planta Medica 37: 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, AM, Saxena, SK and Siddiqui, ZA (1971) Efficacy of Tagetes erecta in reducing root infestating nematodes of tomato and Okra. Indian Phytopathology 24: 166169.Google Scholar
Kishore, K (2014) Monograph of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Indian Journal of Drugs 2: 523.Google Scholar
Knowles, PF (1969) Center of plant diversity and conservation of germplasm, Safflower. Economic Botany 23: 324329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kulkarni, RN, Baskaran, K and Jhang, T (2016) Breeding medicinal plant, periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don]: a review. Plant Genetic Resources 14: 283302. doi: 10.1017/S1479262116000150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumari, N, Shetty, G and Chaturvedi, A (2013) Psidium guajava a fruit or medicine – an overview. Pharma Innovation – Journal 2: 6367.Google Scholar
Kurz, WGW, Chatson, KB, Constabel, F, Kutney, JP, Choi, LSL, Kolodziejczyk, P, Sleigh, SK, Stuart, KL and Worth, BR (1981) Alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus Cell Cultures VIII[1]. Planta Medica: Journal of Medical Plant Research 42: 2231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lancaster, SP (1965) The Sacred Plants of the Hindus. Bulletin No.113, Lucknow, India: National Botanical Garden, pp. 156.Google Scholar
Leizer, C, Ribnicky, D, Poulev, A, Dushenkov, S and Raskin, I (2000) The composition of hemp seed oil and its potential as an important source of nutrition. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods 2: 3553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, D and Mundel, HH (1996) Safflower. Carthamus tinctorius L. Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops. 7. Rome: Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, p. 83.Google Scholar
Liu, L, Guanb, L-L and Yang, Y-X (2016) A review of fatty acids and genetic characterization of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed oil. World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2: 4852. DOI: 10.15806/j.issn.2311–8571.2016.0006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maab, HI and Klaas, M (1995) Intraspecific differentiation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by isozyme and RAPD markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 91: 8997.Google Scholar
Maheshwari, NO, Khan, A and Chopade, BA (2013) Rediscovering the medicinal properties of Datura sp.: a review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 7: 28852897.Google Scholar
McLaughlin, J (2008) Paw Paw and cancer: annonaceous acetogenins from discovery to commercial products. Journal of Natural Products 71: 13111321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milind, P and Kaur, S (2011) Is bottle gourd a natural guard? International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2: 1317.Google Scholar
Mishra, T, Goyal, AK, Middha, SK and Sen, A (2011) Antioxidative properties of Canna edulis Ker-Gawl. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 2: 315321.Google Scholar
Morton, JF (1977) Major Medicinal Plants, Culture and Uses. USA: CC Thomas Publishers.Google Scholar
Nadkarni, KM (ed.) (1914) Indian Plants and Drugs with Their Medical Properties and Uses. Madras: Norton and Company (Reprinted 1998).Google Scholar
Nagaraj, G (1993) Safflower Seed Composition and Oil Quality-a Review. Beijing: Third International Safflower Conference, pp. 5871.Google Scholar
Nath, C, Gupta, GP, Bhragava, KP, Lakshmi, V, Singh, S and Popli, SP (1981) Study of anti-parkinsonian activity of seed of Mucuna pruriens Hook. In: Proc. 13th Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society, Jammu, 1980. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 13: 94.Google Scholar
Neralla, S, Weaver, RW, Varvel, TW and Lesikar, BJ (1999) Phytoremediation and on-site treatment of septic effluents in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. Environmental Technology 20: 11391146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noble, RL (1990) The discovery of the Vinca alkaloids-chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. Biochemistry and Cell Biology 68: 13441351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandey, DS (2000) Exotics – introduced and natural immigrants, weeds, cultivated, etc., In: Singh, NP, Singh, DK, Hajra, PK and Sharma, BD (eds) Flora of India. Introductory Volume (Part II), Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India, pp. 266301.Google Scholar
Peng, RY and Hsieh, CL (2006) Review on the medicinal uses of Psidium guajava L. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants 20: 215248.Google Scholar
Perez Gutierrez, RM, Luha, HH and Garrido, SH (2006) Antioxidant activity of Tagetes erecta essential oil. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society 51: 883–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pokharia, AK and Saraswat, KS (1999) Plant economy during Kushana period (100–300 AD) at ancient Sanghol, Punjab. Pragdhara [Journal of the Uttar Pradesh State Archaeology Department] 9: 75104.Google Scholar
Prajapati, RP, Kalariya, M, Parmar, SK and Sheth, NR (2010) Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria . Journal of Ayurveda Integrative Medicine 1: 266272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pullaiah, T (2002) Medicinal Plants in India, vol. 2, New Delhi: Regency Publications.Google Scholar
Purseglove, JW (1972) Alliaceae. In: Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons-1. London, UK: Longman Group Ltd., pp. 3757.Google Scholar
Radhika, B, Begum, N, Srisailam, K and Reddy, VM (2010) Diuretic activity of Bixa orellana Linn. leaf extracts. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 1: 353355.Google Scholar
Rana, M, Dhamija, H, Prashar, B and Sharma, S (2012) Ricinus communis L. – a review. International Journal of PharmTech Research 4: 17061711.Google Scholar
Robson, P (1997) Cannabis . Archives of Diseases in Childhood 77: 164166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saraswat, KS (1986) Ancient crop economy of Harappans from Rohira, Punjab (ca. 2000–1700 BC). Palaeobotanist 35: 3238.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS (1992) Archaeobotanical remains in ancient culture and socio-economical dynamics of the Indian subcontinent. Palaeobotanist 40: 514545.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS (1993) Plant economy of late Harappan at Hulas. Purattatva 23: 112.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS (1997) Plant economy of Barans at ancient Sanghal (ca. 1900–1400 BC), Punjab. Pragdhara 7: 97114.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS (2004) Plant economy of early farming communities. In: Singh, BP (ed.) Early Farming Communities of the Kaimur. Jaipur: Publication Scheme, pp. 416435.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS (2005) Agricultural background of the early farming communities in the Middle Gangetic Plain. Pragdhara 15: 145177.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS and Pokharia, AK (2002) Harappan plant economy at ancient Balu, Haryana. Pragdhara 12: 153172.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS and Pokharia, AK (2003) Palaeoethnobotanical investigations at early Harappan Kunal. Pragdhara 13: 105139.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS, Sharma, NK and Saini, DC (1994) Plant economy at ancient Narhan (ca. 1300 BC-300/400 AD). In: Singh, P (ed.) Excavations at Narhan (1984–1989). Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University, pp. 255346.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS, Srivastava, C and Pokharia, AK (2000) Palaeobotanical and pollen analytical investigations. In: Manjhi H, Dorje C, Banerji A (eds.) Indian Archaeology (1994–95) – A Review, New Delhi: ASI, pp. 9697.Google Scholar
Saraswat, KS, Rajagopalan, G and Prasad, R (2008) A pivotal evidence of custard apple: evocative of some pre-Columbian network contact between Asia and America. Pragdhara 18: 283308.Google Scholar
Sathyanarayana, N, Mahesh, S, Leelambika, M, Jaheer, M, Chopra, R and Rashmi, KV (2016) Role of genetic resources and molecular markers in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC improvement. Plant Genetic Resources 14: 13 pages. doi: 10.1017/S1479262116000071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seshadri, TR, Varshney, JP and Sood, AR (1973) Study of glycosides from Trigonells foenum-graecum Linn. Seeds. Current Science 42: 421.Google Scholar
Shilpi, JA, Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, Md, Uddin, SJ, Alam, MS, Sadhu, SK and Seidel, V (2006) Preliminary pharmacological screening of Bixa orellana L. leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108: 264271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shishir, MN, Laxman, JR, Vinayak, PN, Jacky, DR and Bhimrao, GS (2008) Use of Mirabilis jalapa L flower extract as a natural indicator in acid base titration. Journal of Pharmacy Research 1: 159162.Google Scholar
Shukla, S, Singh, SP, Yadav, HK and Chatterjee, A (2006) Alkaloid spectrum of different germplasm lines in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 533540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, M, Sharma, JN, Arora, RB and Kocher, BR (1973) Beneficial effect of Aloe vera in the healing of thermal burns and radiation injury in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 5: 258.Google Scholar
Singh, J, Lavania, UC and Singh, S (2012) Chapter 3. Indian Traditional and Ethno Medicines from Antiquity to Modern Drug Development. In: Singh, RJ (ed.) Genetics Resources and Chromosome Engineering of Medicinal Plants, vol. 6. USA: Medicinal Plants: CRC Press, pp. 5386.Google Scholar
Singh Anurudh, K, Peter, PI and Singh, K (2011) Revisiting the origin of the domestication of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.). Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 9: 549556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorenson, JL and Johannessen, CL (2004) Scientific Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages, Sino-Platonic Papers, Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations. Philadelphia, USA: University of Pennsylvania, p. 273.Google Scholar
Toppo, FA, Akhand, R and Pathak, AK (2009) Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Trigonella foenum-graecum: a review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2: 2938.Google Scholar
Torkelson, AR (1999) Plants in Indian Medicine A-Z. The Cross Name Index to Medicinal Plants, vol. IV. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Vavilov, NI (1935) Theoretical basis for plant breeding, Moscow. origin and geography of cultivated plants. In: Love, D (transl). The Phytogeographical Basis for Plant Breeding, vol. 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 316366.Google Scholar
Vitale, AA, Acher, A and Pomilio, AB (1995) Alkaloids of Datura ferox from Argentina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 49: 8189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watson, JF (1868) Index to the Native and Scientific Names of Indian and other Eastern Economic Plants. London: India Museum.Google Scholar
Watt, G (1889) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, vol. 6. Calcutta, India: Superintendent of Government Printing.Google Scholar
Willaman, JJ and Li, H-L (1970) Alkaloid bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. Journal of Natural Products (Lloydia) 33(Suppl. 3A): 1286.Google Scholar
Yadav, M, Jain, S, Bhardwaj, A, Nagpal, R, Puniya, M, Tomar, R, Singh, V, Parkash, Om, Prasad, GBKS, Marotta, F and Yadav, H (2009) Biological and medicinal properties of grapes and their bioactive constituents: an update. Journal of Medicinal Food 12: 473484.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Exotic ancient plant introductions: part of Indian ‘Ayurveda’ medicinal system
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Exotic ancient plant introductions: part of Indian ‘Ayurveda’ medicinal system
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Exotic ancient plant introductions: part of Indian ‘Ayurveda’ medicinal system
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *