Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-cxxrm Total loading time: 0.384 Render date: 2021-12-08T17:23:46.064Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Raising the Red Flag: Democratic Elitism and the Protests in Chile

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 March 2021

Abstract

The recent surge of global populism has led many intellectuals to call for new forms of democratic elitism. Yet research into the sources of support for political organizations and regimes predicts that suppressing opportunities for public participation will likely exacerbate antisystem political tendencies. We cite the recent protests in Chile, a nation that has employed democratic elitism more effectively than perhaps any other, as illustrative of the eventual consequences of suppressing voice. Our research indicates that empowering citizens through vibrant parties and continuous democracy is the best way to avoid populist impulses and waves of contentious politics.

Type
Reflection
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Political Science Association

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Altman, David. 2010. Direct Democracy Worldwide: New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, Barry. 1995. “Electoral Rules, Constituency Pressures, and Pork Barrel: Bases of Voting in the Brazilian Congress.” Journal of Politics 57(2): 324–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atria, Fernando. 2013. La Constitución tramposa. Santiago: LOM.Google Scholar
Barber, Benjamin R. 1984. Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Bassa, Jaime. 2015. “J. El Tribunal Constitucional en la Constitución Chilena Vigente.” In La Constitución Chilena. Una Revisión Crítica a Su Práctica Política, ed. Bassa, Jaime Mercado, Borquez, Juan Carlos Ferrada, and Álvarez, Christian Viera, 253–84. Santiago: LOM.Google Scholar
Bassa, Jaime. 2018. Constituyentes sin poder. Una crítica a los límites epistémicos del Derecho moderno. Valparaíso: Edeval.Google Scholar
Buquet, Daniel, Chasquetti, Daniel, and Moraes, Juan Andrés. 1999. Fragmentación política y gobierno en Uruguay:¿ un enfermo imaginario? Montevideo: Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República.Google Scholar
Tania, Busch Venthur. 2012. “El Concepto de Constitución y la Incomodidad Constitucional en Chile.” Global Jurist 12 (2). https://doi.org/10.1515/1934-2640.1420Google Scholar
Dahl, Robert A. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Dahlberg, Stefan, Linde, Jonas, and Holmberg, Sören. 2015. “Democratic Discontent in Old and New Democracies: Assessing the Importance of Democratic Input and Governmental Output.” Political Studies 63(1): 1837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folger, Robert, and Cropanzano, Russell. 2001. “Fairness Theory: Justice as Accountability.” In Advances in Organizational Justice, ed. Greenberg, Jerald and Cropanzano, Russell, 155. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Hamilton, Alexander, Madison, James, and Jay, John. 2008. The Federalist Papers: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Han, Hahrie. 2014. How Organizations Ddevelop Activists: Civic Associations and Leadership in the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, Hahrie. 2016. “The Organizational Roots of Political Activism: Field Experiments on Creating a Relational Context.” American Political Science Review 110(2): 296307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Held, David. 2007. Models of Democracy. 3d ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Higley, John, and Burton, Michael. 2006. Elite Foundations of Liberal Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Response to Decline in Firms, Organizations and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Huber, Evelyne, Ragin, Charles, and Stephens, John D. 1993. “Social Democracy, Christian Democracy, Constitutional Structure, and the Welfare State.” American Jjournal of Sociology 99(3): 711–49.Google Scholar
Ignazi, Piero. 1992. “The Silent Counter‐Revolution: Hypotheses on the Emergence of Extreme Right‐Wing Parties in Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 22(1): 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joignant, Alfredo. 2011. “Tecnócratas, technopols y dirigentes de partido: tipos de agentes y especies de capital en las elites gubernamentales de la Concertación (1990–2010).” En Notables, tecnócratas y mandarines: Elementos de sociología de las elites en Chile (1990–2010), ed. Joignant, Alfredo and Güell, Pedro. Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Universidad Diego Portales.Google Scholar
Kurtz, Marcus J. 2004a. “The Dilemmas of Democracy in the Open Economy: Lessons from Latin America.” World Politics 56(2): 262302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurtz, Marcus J. 2004b. Free Market Democracy and the Chilean and Mexican Countryside. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven, and Roberts, Kenneth M. 2011. The Resurgence of the Latin American Lleft. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Levitsky, Steven, and Ziblatt, Daniel. 2018. How Democracies Die. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
Locke, John. 2003. Two Treatises of Government, Rethinking the Western Tradition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo, and Altman, David. 2011. “Uprooted but Stable: Chilean Parties and the Concept of Party System Institutionalization.” Latin American Politics and Society 53(2): 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo, Rodríguez, Rafael Piñeiro, Rosenblatt, Fernando, and Vommaro, Gabriel. 2020. “Political Parties, Diminished Subtypes, and Democracy.” Party Politics. doi: 10.1177/1354068820923723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo, and Rosenblatt, Fernando. 2012. “¿ Notas para una autopsia? Los partidos políticos en el Chile actual.” Democracia con partidos. Informe para la reforma de los partidos políticos en Chile: Santiago: CEPLAN.Google Scholar
Lupu, Noam. 2013. “Party Brands and Partisanship: Theory with Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Argentina.” American Journal of Political Science 57(1): 4964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam. 2016. Party Brands in Crisis: Partisanship, Brand Dilution, and the Breakdown of Political Parties in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam, and Riedl, Rachel Beatty. 2012. “Political Parties and Uncertainty in Developing Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11): 1339–65. doi: 10.1177/0010414012453445.Google Scholar
Madsen, Douglass, and Snow, Peter G.. 1991. The Charismatic Bond: Political Behavior in a Time of Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Magalhães, Pedro C. 2016. “Economic Evaluations, Procedural Fairness, and Satisfaction with Democracy.” Political Research Quarterly 69(3): 552–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, and Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal. 2013. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fal. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKenna, Elizabeth, and Han, Hahrie. 2014. Groundbreakers: How Obama’s 2.2 Million Volunteers Transformed Campaigning in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Meléndez, Carlos, and Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira. 2017. “Political Identities: The Missing Link in the Study of Populism.” Party Politics 25(4): 520–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mounk, Yascha. 2018. The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mudde, Cas. 2007. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, Pippa. 2005. Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentancur, Pérez, Verónica, Rafael Piñeiro Rodríguez, and Rosenblatt, Fernando. 2020. “Efficacy and the Reproduction of Political Activism: Evidence from the Broad Front in Uruguay.” Comparative Political Studies 52(6): 838–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piñeiro Rodríguez, Rafael. 2007. “El sueño de la lista propia: Los dilemas de coordinación electoral post-reforma de 1997.” Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política 16(1): 5171.Google Scholar
Piñeiro Rodríguez, Rafael, and Rosenblatt, Fernando. 2020. “Stability and Incorporation: Toward a New Concept of Party System Institutionalization.” Party Politics 26(2): 249–60. doi: 10.1177/1354068818777895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polga-Hecimovich, John, and Siavelis, Peter M.. 2015. “Here’s the Bias! A (Re-) Reassessment of the Chilean Electoral System.” Electoral Studies 40:268–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Przeworski, Adam. 2010. Democracy and the Limits of Self-Government. Vol. 9: New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes-Purdy, Matthew. 2015. “Participatory Populism: Theory and Evidence from Bolivarian Venezuela.” Political Research Quarterly 68(3): 415–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes-Purdy, Matthew. 2017a. “Beyond the Balance Sheet: Performance, Participation and Regime Support in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 49(2): 252–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes-Purdy, Matthew. 2017b. Regime Support beyond the Balance Sheet: Participation and Policy Performance in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes-Purdy, Matthew. 2020. “Procedures Matter: Strong Voice, Evaluations of Policy Performance, and Regime Support.” Political Studies. doi: 10.1177/0032321720903813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riker, William H. 1988. Liberalism against Populism: A Confrontation between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth M. 1998. Deepening Democracy? The Modern Left and Social Movements in Chile and Peru. 1st ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Rosenblatt, Fernando. 2018. Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenbluth, Frances, and Shapiro, Ian. 2018. Responsible Parties: Saving Democracy from Itself, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 2002. “The Social Contract.” In The Social Contract and The First and Second Discourses, ed. Dunn, Susan, 149256. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 2008. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democacy. 3d ed. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.Google Scholar
Siavelis, Peter M. 2010. President and Congress in Postauthoritarian Chile: Institutional Constraints to Democratic Consolidation. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Wampler, Brian. 2015. Actvating Democracy in Brazil: Popular Participation, Social Justice, and Interlocking Institutions. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zucco, Caesar. 2006. “Where’s the Bias? A Reassessment of the Chilean Electoral System.” Electoral Studies 26(2): 303–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Raising the Red Flag: Democratic Elitism and the Protests in Chile
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Raising the Red Flag: Democratic Elitism and the Protests in Chile
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Raising the Red Flag: Democratic Elitism and the Protests in Chile
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *