Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-78bd46657c-gwmzn Total loading time: 0.271 Render date: 2021-05-06T07:05:07.706Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

Estimating effective population size for a cestode parasite infecting three-spined sticklebacks

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 February 2019

Hannah M. Strobel
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, Lindy Boggs Building, Room 400, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Sara J. Hays
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, Lindy Boggs Building, Room 400, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA School of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Kristine N. Moody
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA The ByWater Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Michael J. Blum
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, Lindy Boggs Building, Room 400, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA The ByWater Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
David C. Heins
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, Lindy Boggs Building, Room 400, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
E-mail address:


Remarkably few attempts have been made to estimate contemporary effective population size (Ne) for parasitic species, despite the valuable perspectives it can offer on the tempo and pace of parasite evolution as well as coevolutionary dynamics of host–parasite interactions. In this study, we utilized multi-locus microsatellite data to derive single-sample and temporal estimates of contemporary Ne for a cestode parasite (Schistocephalus solidus) as well as three-spined stickleback hosts (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lakes across Alaska. Consistent with prior studies, both approaches recovered small and highly variable estimates of parasite and host Ne. We also found that estimates of host Ne and parasite Ne were sensitive to assumptions about population genetic structure and connectivity. And, while prior work on the stickleback–cestode system indicates that physiographic factors external to stickleback hosts largely govern genetic variation in S. solidus, our findings indicate that stickleback host attributes and factors internal to the host – namely body length, genetic diversity and infection – shape contemporary Ne of cestode parasites.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Aeschlimann, PB, Häberli, MA, Reusch, TBH, Boehm, T and Milinski, M (2003) Female stickelbacks Gasterosteus aculeatus use self-reference to optimize MHC allele number during mate selection. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 54, 119126.Google Scholar
Anderson, TJC, Hauhold, B, Williams, JT, Estrada-Franco, JG, Richardson, L., Mollinedo, R, Brockarie, M, Mokili, J, Mharakurwa, S, French, N, Whitworth, J, Velez, ID, Brockman, AH, Nosten, F, Ferreira, MU and Day, KP (2000) Microsatellite markers reveal a spectrum of population structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17, 14671482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Araguas, RM, Vidal, O, Pla, C and Sanz, N (2012) High genetic diversity of the endangered Iberian three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) at the Mediterranean edge of its range. Freshwater Biology 57, 143154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baalsrud, HT, Sæther, B-K, Hagen, IJ, Myhre, AM, Ringsby, TH, Pärn, H and Jensen, H (2014) Effects of population characteristics and structure on estimates of effective population size in a house sparrow metapopulation. Molecular Ecology 23, 26532668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bagamian, KH, Heins, DC and Baker, JA (2004) Body condition and reproductive capacity of three-spined stickleback infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Journal of Fish Biology 64, 15681576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, JA, Heins, DC, Foster, SA and King, RW (2008) An overview of life-history variation in female three-spined stickleback. Behaviour 145, 579602.Google Scholar
Barber, I (2013) Sticklebacks as model hosts in ecological and evolutionary parasitology. Trends in Parasitology 29, 556566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barber, I and Huntingford, FA (1995) The effect of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) on the foraging and shoaling behavior of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Behaviour 132, 12231240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blouin, MS, Dame, JB, Tarrant, CA and Courtney, CH (1992) Unusual population genetics of a parasite nematode: mtDNA variation within and among populations. Evolution 46, 470476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boulinier, T, Ives, AR and Danchin, E (1996) Measuring aggregation of parasites at different host population levels. Parasitology 112, 581587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caldera, EJ and Bolnick, DI (2008) Effects of colonization and landscape structure on genetic variation within and among three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations in a single watershed. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10, 575598.Google Scholar
Crellen, T, Allan, F, David, S, Durrant, C, Huckvale, T, Holroyd, N, Emery, AM, Rollinson, D, Aanensen, DM, Berriman, M, Webster, JP and Cotton, JA (2016) Whole genome resequencing of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni reveals population history and effects of selection. Scientific Reports 6, 20954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Criscione, CD (2013) Genetic epidemiology of Ascaris: cross-transmission between humans and pigs, focal transmission, and effective population size. In Holland, CV (ed), Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite. London, UK: Academic Press, pp. 203230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Criscione, CD (2016) History of microevolutionary thought in parasitology: the integration of molecular population genetics. In Janovy, J and Esch, GW (eds), A Century of Parasitology: Discoveries, Ideas and Lessons Learned by Scientists who Have Published in the Journal of Parasitology, 1914–2014. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 93109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Criscione, CD and Blouin, MS (2005) Effective sizes of macroparasite populations: a conceptual model. TRENDS in Parasitology 21, 212217.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Criscione, CD, Poulin, R and Blouin, MS (2005) Molecular ecology of parasites: elucidating ecological and microevolutionary processes. Molecular Ecology 14, 22472257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeWoody, JA and Avise, JC (2000) Microsatellite variation in marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes compared with other animals. Journal of Fish Biology 56, 461473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dieringer, D and Schlštterer (2003) Microsatellite analyser (MSA): a platform independent analysis tool for large microsatellite data sets. Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 167169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Do, C, Waples, RS, Peel, D, Macbeth, GM, Tillett, BJ and Ovenden, JR (2014) Neestimator V2: re-implementation of software for the estimation of contemporary effective population size (N e) from genetic data. Molecular Ecology Resources 14, 209214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doña, J, Moreno-Garcia, M, Criscione, CD, Serrano, D and Jovani, R (2015) Species mtDNA genetic diversity explained by infrapopulation size in a host-symbiont system. Ecology and Evolution 5, 58015809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Excoffier, L and Lischer, HEL (2010) Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular Ecology Resources 10, 564567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frommen, JG, Luz, C, Mazzi, D and Bakker, TCM (2008) Inbreeding depression affects fertilization success and survival but not breeding coloration in three-spined sticklebacks. Behaviour 145, 425441.Google Scholar
Gagne, RB, Hogan, DJ, Pracheil, BM, McIntyre, PB, Hain, EF, Gilliam, JF and Blum, MJ (2015) Spread of an introduced parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago independent of its introduced host. Freshwater Biology 60, 311322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gagne, RB, Tinker, TM, Gustafson, KD, Ralls, K, Larson, S, Tarjan, LM, Miller, MA and Ernest, HB (2018) Measures of effective population size in sea otters reveal special considerations for wide-ranging species. Evolutionary Applications 11, 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gower, CM, Gouvras, AN, Lamberton, PHL, Deol, A, Shrivastava, J, Mutombo, PN, Mbuh, JV, Norton, AJ, Webster, BL, Stothard, JR, Garba, A, Lamine, MS, Kariuki, C, Lange, CN, Mkoji, GM, Kabatereine, NB, Gabrielli, AF, Rudge, JW, Fenwick, A, Sacko, M, Dembelé, R, Lwambo, NJS, Tchuem Tchuenté, L-A, Rollinson, D and Webster, JP (2013) Population genetic structure of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium from across six sub-Saharan African countries: implications for epidemiology, evolution and control. Acta Tropica 128, 261274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenbank, J and Nelson, PR (1959) Life history of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus in Karluk Lake and Bare Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service 59, 537559.Google Scholar
Hare, MP, Nunney, L, Schwartz, MK, Ruzzante, DE, Burford, M, Waples, RS, Ruegg, K and Palstra, F (2011) Understanding and estimating effective population size for practical application in marine species management. Conservation Biology 25, 438449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harmon, L. and Braude, S (2010) Conservation of small populations: effective population sizes, inbreeding, and the 50/500 rule. In Braude, S and Low, SB (eds). An Introduction to Methods and Models in Ecology and Conservation Biology. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press, pp. 125138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatcher, MJ, Dick, JTA and Dunn, AM (2012) Diverse effects of parasites in ecosystems: linking interdependent processes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10, 186194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hedrick, P (2011) Genetics of Populations, 4th Edn. Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning Press.Google Scholar
Heins, DC and Baker, JA (2008) The stickleback–Schistocephalus host–parasite system as a model for understanding the effect of a macroparasite on host reproduction. Behaviour 145, 625645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heins, DC, Singer, SS and Baker, JA (1999) Virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus and reproduction in infected three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77, 19671974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heins, DC, Baker, JA and Martin, HC (2002) The ‘crowding effect’ in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus: density-dependent effects on plerocercoid size and infectivity. Journal of Parasitology 88, 302307.Google Scholar
Heins, DC, Birden, EL and Baker, JA (2010) Host mortality and variability in epizootics of Schistocephalus solidus infecting the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Parasitology 137, 16811686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heins, DC, Eidam, DM and Baker, JA (2016) Timing of infections in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by Schistocephalus solidus in Alaska. Journal of Parasitology 102, 286289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, WG (1981) Estimation of effective population size from data on linkage disequilibrium. Genetics Research 38, 209216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, AL and Verra, F (2001) Very large long-term effective population size in the virulent human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 268, 18551860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huyse, T, Poulin, R and Théron, A (2005) Speciation in parasites: a population genetics approach. Trends in Parasitology 21, 469475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jan, P-L, Cracianne, C, Fournet, S, Olivier, E, Arnaud, J-F, Porte, C, Bardou-Valette, S, Denis, M-C and Petit, EJ (2016) Temporal sampling helps unravel the genetic structure of naturally occurring populations of a phytoparasitic nematode. 1. Insights from the estimation of effective population sizes. Evolutionary applications 9, 489501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, JD and Bachtrog, D (2011) Characterizing the influence of effective population size on the rate of adaptation: Gillespie's Darwin domain. Genome biology and evolution 3, 687701.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joy, DA, Feng, X, Mu, J, Furuya, T, Chotivanich, K, Krettli, AU, Ho, M, Wang, A, White, NJ, Suh, E, Beerli, P and Su, X (2003) Early origin and recent expansion of Plasmodium falciparum. Science 300, 318321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalbe, M, Eizaguirre, C, Scharsack, JP and Jakobsen, PJ (2016) Reciprocal cross infection of sticklebacks with the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reveals consistent population differences in parasite growth and host resistance. Parasites & Vectors 9, 130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaunisto, KM, Viitaniemi, HM, Leder, EH and Suhonen, J (2013) Association between host's genetic diversity and parasite burden in damselflies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26, 17841789.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koffi, M, de Meeûs, T, Bucheton, B, Solano, P, Camara, M, Kaba, D, Cuny, G, Ayala, FJ and Jamonneau, V (2009) Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the agent of sleeping sickness in Western Africa. PNAS 106, 209214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kurtz, J, Kalbe, M, Aeschlimann, PB, Häberli, MA, Wegner, KM, Reusch, TB and Milinski, M (2004) Major histocompatibility complex diversity influences parasite resistance and innate immunity in sticklebacks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 271, 197204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Legendre, P (2008) Studying beta diversity: ecological variation partitioning by multiple regression and canonical analysis. Journal of Plant Ecology 1, 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mäkinen, HS, Cano, JM and Merilä, J (2006) Genetic relationships among marine and freshwater populations of the European three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed by microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 15, 15191534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marcogliese, DJ (2004) Parasites: small players with crucial roles in the ecological theater. EcoHealth 1, 151164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McPhail, JD and Peacock, SD (1983) Some effects of the cestode (Schistocephalus solidus) on reproduction in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): evolutionary aspects of a host–parasite interaction. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61, 901908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morand, S, Pointier, J, Borel, G and Theron, A (1993) Pairing probability of schistosomes related to their distribution among the host population. Ecology 74, 24442449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ness, JH and Foster, SA (1999) Parasite-associated phenotype modifications in three-spined stickleback. Oikos 85, 127134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nishimura, N, Heins, DC, Andersen, RO, Barber, I and Cresco, WA (2011) Distinct lineages of Schistocephalus solidus parasites in three-spined and ninespine stickleback hosts revealed by DNA sequence analysis. PLoS ONE 6, e22505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nkhoma, SC, Nair, S, Al-Saai, S, Ashley, E, McGready, R, Phyo, AP, Nosten, F and Anderson, TJC (2013) Population genetic correlates of declining transmission in a human pathogen. Molecular Ecology 22, 273285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oksanen, J, Blanchet, FG, Friendly, M, Kindt, R, Legendre, P, McGlinn, D, Minchin, PR, O'Hara, RB, Simpson, GL, Solymos, P, Stevens, MHH, Szoecs, E and Wagner, H (2016) vegan: Community ecology package. R package version 2.4-1. Available at Scholar
Papkou, A, Gokhale, CS, Traulsen, A and Schulenburg, H (2016) Host–parasite coevolution: why changing population size matters. Zoology 119, 330338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pascoe, D and Mattey, D (1977) Dietary stress in parasitized and non-parasitized Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 51, 179186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penczykowski, RM, Laine, A-L and Koskella, B (2016) Understanding the ecology and evolution of host–parasite interactions across scales. Evolutionary Applications 9, 3752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peres-Neto, PR and Legendre, P (2010) Estimating and controlling or spatial structure in the study of ecological communities. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19, 174184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poulin, R (2007) Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Poulin, R (2013) Explaining variability in parasite aggregation levels among host samples. Parasitology 140, 541546.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poulin, R and Morand, S (2000) The diversity of parasites. The Quarterly Review of Biology 75, 277293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prugnolle, F, Liu, H, de Meeûs, T and Balloux, F (2005) Population genetics of complex life-cycle parasites: an illustration with trematodes. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 255263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rao, CR (1964) The use and interpretation of principal component analysis in applied research. Sankhyā: The Indian Journal of Statistics, Series A 26, 329358.Google Scholar
R Core Team (2016) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at Scholar
Read, CP (1951) The ‘crowding effect’ in tapeworm infections. The Journal of Parasitology 37, 174178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reusch, TBH, Wegner, KM and Kalbe, M (2001) Rapid genetic divergence in postglacial populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): the role of habitat type, drainage and geographical proximity. Molecular Ecology 10, 24352445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, JD and Moyer, GR (2013) Linkage disequilibrium and effective population size when generations overlap. Evolutionary Applications 6, 290302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saito, T and Nakano, S (1999) Reproductive-timing-dependent alternation of offspring life histories in female three-spined sticklebacks. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77, 13141321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sisya, TJ, Kamn'gona, RM, Vareta, JA, Fulakeza, JM, Mukaka, MFJ, Seydel, KB, Laufer, MK, Taylor, TE and Nkhoma, SC (2015) Subtle changes in Plasmodium falciparum infection complexity following enhanced intervention in Malawi. Acta Tropica 142, 108114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smyth, JD (1946) Studies on tapeworm physiology – I. The cultivation of Schistocephalus solidus in vitro. Journal of Experimental Biology 23, 4770.Google ScholarPubMed
Smyth, J (1962) Introduction to Animal Parasitology. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
Sprehn, CG, Blum, MJ, Quinn, TP and Heins, DC (2015) Landscape genetics of Schistocephalus solidus parasites in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska. PLoS ONE 10, e0122307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinauer, ML, Christie, MR, Blouin, MS, Agola, LE, Mwangi, IN, Maina, GM, Mutuku, MW, Kinuthia, JM, Mkoji, GM and Loker, ES (2013) Non-invasive sampling of Schistosomes from humans requires correcting for family structure. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7, e2456.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strobel, HM, Alda, F, Sprehn, CG, Blum, MJ and Heins, DC (2016) Geographic and host-mediated population genetic structure in a cestode parasite of the three-spined stickleback. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 119, 381396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Baalen, M and Beekman, M (2006) The costs and benefits of genetic heterogeneity in resistance against parasites and social insects. The American Naturalist 167, 568577.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Oosterhout, C, Hutchinson, WF, Wills, DPM and Shipley, P (2004) MICRO-CHECKER: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Molecular Ecology Notes 4, 535538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Hippel, FA (2008) Conservation of three-spined and ninespine stickleback radiations in the cook inlet basin, Alaska. Behaviour 145, 693724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waits, ER, Bagley, MJ, Blum, MJ, McCormick, FH and Lazorchak, JM (2008) Source–sink dynamics sustain central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) in a heavily urbanized catchment. Freshwater Biology 53, 20612075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, J and Whitlock, MC (2003) Estimating effective population size and migration rates from genetic samples over space and time. Genetics 163, 429446.Google ScholarPubMed
Waples, RS and Do, C (2008) LDNE: a program for estimating effective population size from data on linkage disequilibrium. Molecular Ecology Resources 8, 753756.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waples, RS and Do, C (2010) Linkage disequilibrium estimates of contemporary N e using highly variable genetic markers: a largely untapped resource for applied conservation and evolution. Evolutionary Applications 3, 244262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waples, RS and Yokota, M (2007) Temporal estimates of effective population size in species with overlapping generations. Genetics 175, 219233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waples, RS, Antao, T and Luikart, G (2014) Effects of overlapping generations on linkage disequilibrium estimates of effective population size. Genetics 197, 769780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, JN, Steinel, NC, Shim, KC and Bolnick, DI (2017) Recent evolution of extreme cestode growth suppression by a vertebrate host. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, 65756580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woolhouse, MEJ, Webster, JP, Domingo, E, Charlesworth, B and Levin, BR (2002) Biological and biomedical implications of co-evolution of pathogens and their hosts. Nature Genetics 32, 569577.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wright, S (1931) Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics 16, 97159.Google ScholarPubMed
Wright, S (1938) Size of population and breeding structure in relation to evolution. Science 87, 430431.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Strobel et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S3

Download Strobel et al. supplementary material(File)
File 47 KB

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Estimating effective population size for a cestode parasite infecting three-spined sticklebacks
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Estimating effective population size for a cestode parasite infecting three-spined sticklebacks
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Estimating effective population size for a cestode parasite infecting three-spined sticklebacks
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *