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A clonal Plasmodium falciparum population in an isolated outbreak of malaria in the Republic of Cabo Verde

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 April 1999

A. P. AREZ
Affiliation:
Centro da Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 96, 1300 Lisbon, Portugal
G. SNOUNOU
Affiliation:
Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK
J. PINTO
Affiliation:
Centro da Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 96, 1300 Lisbon, Portugal
C. A. SOUSA
Affiliation:
Unidade de Entomologia Médica, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 96, 1300 Lisbon, Portugal
D. MODIANO
Affiliation:
Istituto di Parassitologia, Università ‘La Sapienza’ di Roma, P. le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
H. RIBEIRO
Affiliation:
Unidade de Entomologia Médica, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 96, 1300 Lisbon, Portugal
A. S. FRANCO
Affiliation:
Centro da Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 96, 1300 Lisbon, Portugal
J. ALVES
Affiliation:
Programa Nacional de Luta contra o Paludismo, Ministério da Saúde, Direcção Geral de Saúde, Praia, Cabo Verde, C.P. 47
V. E. do ROSARIO
Affiliation:
Centro da Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 96, 1300 Lisbon, Portugal

Abstract

We present the first parasitological, molecular and longitudinal analysis of an isolated outbreak of malaria. This outbreak occurred on Santiago Island (Republic of Cabo Verde), a region where malaria is hypoendemic and controlled, and thus the population is considered non-immune. Blood samples were collected from the inhabitants over 1 month and during cross-sectional surveys in the following year. The presence and nature of the parasites was determined by PCR. Plasmodium falciparum was the only species detected. Genetic analysis revealed that the circulating parasites were genetically homogeneous, and probably clonal. Gametocytes were found throughout this period. Our data suggest that this represented a focal outbreak, resulting in the infection of at least 40% of the villagers with a clonal parasite line. Thus, P. falciparum infections can persist for at least 1 year in a substantial proportion (10%) of the hosts. Implications for malaria control and the interpretation of epidemiological data are discussed.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 1999 Cambridge University Press

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