Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-n9pbb Total loading time: 0.254 Render date: 2021-09-20T08:37:33.677Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Chemotherapy and the immune response in parasitic infections

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 April 2009

G. A. T. Targett
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Protozoology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT

Extract

There are comparatively few studies concerned specifically with chemotherapy of parasitic infections and its relationship with the immune status of the host being treated. In one sense this is hardly surprising. The disciplines of chemotherapy and immunology have developed independently, and the search for effective drugs has for the most part been an empirical process; when a compound showing some activity has emerged the tendency has been to look for analogues with even greater parasiticidal properties rather than to consider whether effectiveness of the parent compound could be improved if the immune status of the host were different. In many cases, test systems for drug development have actually been selected to reduce as far as possible the complications f an immune response. Thus acute, fatal infections are commonly used for the screens, and questions such as the level of specific resistance at the time of treatment, immunodepression by the parasite, and increased resistance to challenge following chemotherapy are generally irrelevant.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1985

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adam, A., & Lederer, E., (1984). Muramyl dipeptides: immunomodulators, sleep factors and vitamins. Medicinal Research Reviews 4, 111–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alfridi, M. K., & Rahim, A., (1962). Concluding observations on the interruption of malaria transmission with pyrimethamine (Daraprim). Revista Parasitologia 23, 249–66.Google Scholar
Allison, A. C., (1984). Cellular immunity to malaria and babesia parasites: a personal viewpoint. In Immunobiology of Parasites and Parasitic Infections (ed. Marchalonis, J. J.). Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology 12, 463–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anon. (1984). Update: treatment of oryptosporidiosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33, 117–19.Google Scholar
Avila, J. L., Biondo, F., Monzon, H., & Convit, J., (1982). Cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice: resistance to glucan immunotherapy, either alone or combined with chemotherapy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 31, 53–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blair, A. H., & Gosh, T. I., (1983). Linkage of cytotoxic agents to immunoglobulins. Journal of Immunological Methods 59, 129–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryceson, A. D. M., (1970). Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. III. Immunological studies. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64, 380–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, P. G., (1978). Levamisole therapy of chronic Leishmania tropica. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 221–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Campbell, W. C., (1963). Attempts to demonstrate immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in mice previously subjected to chemically abbreviated infections. Journal of Parasitology 49, 824–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, W. C., & Timinski, S. F., (1965). Immunization of rats against Ascaris suum by means of non-pulmonary larval infections. Journal of Parasitology 51, 712–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christie, M. G., Brambell, M. R., & Charleston, W. A. G., (1964). Resistance to a challenge infection with Haemonchus contortus conferred by previous experience of immature stages only. Journal of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics 74, 427.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chusattayanond, W., & Denham, D. A., (1984). Induction of host resistance to Brugia pahangi in jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) protected by chemoprophylaxis. Journal of Helminthology 58, 245–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, H. A., (1979). Induction of delayed-type sensitivity to leishmania parasite in a case of leishmaniasis cutanea diffusa with BCG and cord-factor (Trehalose–6–6 dimycolate) Acta Dermatovener 59, 547–9.Google Scholar
Cook, J. A., & Holbrook, T. W., (1983). Immunogenicity of soluble and particulate antigens from Leishmania donovani: effect of glucan as an adjuvant. Infection and Immunity 40, 1038–43.Google ScholarPubMed
Cook, J. A., Holbrook, T. W., & Parker, B. W., (1980). Visceral leishmaniasis in mice: protective effect of glucan. Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society 27, 567–73.Google ScholarPubMed
Denham, D. A., (1966). Immunity to Trichinella spiralis. I. The immunity produced by mice to the first four days of the intestinal phase of the infection. Parasitology 56, 323–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doenhoff, M. J., & Bain, J., (1978). The immune dependence of schistosomicidal chemotherapy: relative lack of efficacy of an antimonial in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice deprived of their T cells and demonstration of drug–antiserum synergy. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 3, 232–8.Google Scholar
Doenhoff, M., Harrison, R., Sabah, A., Murare, H., Dunne, D., & Hassounah, O., (1982). Schistosomiasis in the immunosuppressed host: studies on the host–parasite relationship of Schistosoma mansoni and S. bovis in T–cell deprived and hydrocortisone–treated mice. In Animal Models in Parasitology (ed. Owen, D.), pp. 155–69. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrante, A., Rowan-Kelly, B., & Thong, Y. H., (1979). Suppression of immunological responses in mice by treatment with amphotericin B. Clinical Experimental Immunology 38, 70–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Gee, A. L. W. de, Mccann, P. P., & Mansfield, J. M., (1983). Role of antibody in the elimination of trypanosomes after DL-α-difluoromethylornithine chemotherapy. Journal of Parasitology 69, 818–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gold, E. F., Ophir, R., & Ben-Efraim, S., (1979). Inhibition of mixed lymphocyte reaction by quinine and lack of effect on plaque-forming cells and lymphoid derived tumor cells. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 58, 447–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregoriadis, G., (1981). Targeting of drugs: implications in medicine. Lancet 2, 241–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grove, D. I., Mahmoud, A. A. F., & Warren, K. S., (1977). Suppression of cell-mediated immunity by metronidazole. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 54, 422–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guerra-Caceres, J. G., Bryceson, A. D. M., Quakyi, I., & Spry, C. J. F., (1980). Studies on the mechanisms of the adverse reactions produced by diethylcarbamazine in patients with onchocerciasis-Mazzotti reaction. Parasite Immunology 2, 121–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidaris, C. G., & Bonventre, P. F., (1983). Efficacy of combined immunostimulation and chemotherapy in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 32, 286–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanson, W. L., (1981). Chemotherapy and the immune response in protozoal infections. Journal of Protozoology 28, 2730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holbrook, T. W., Cook, J. A., & Parker, B. W., (1981). Immunization against Leishmania donovani: glucan as an adjuvant with killed promastigotes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 30, 762–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurvitz, D., & Hirschorn, K., (1965). Suppression of in vitro lymphocyte responses by chloroquine. New England Journal of Medicine 273, 23–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, B. R., Anderson, J., & Fuglsang, H., (1978). Evaluation of microfilaricidal effects in the cornea from tropically applied drugs in ocular onchocerciasis trials with levamisole and mebendazole. British Journal of Ophthalmology 62, 440–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kale, O. O., (1974). A controlled field trial of the treatment of dracontiasis with metronidazole and niridazole. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 68, 91–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kierszenbaum, F., & Ferrasesi, R. W., (1979). Enhancement of host resistance against Trypanosome cruzi infection by the immunoregulatory agent muramyl dipeptide. Infection and Immunity 25, 273–8.Google Scholar
Krahenkuhl, J. L., Sharma, S. D., Ferrasesi, R. W., & Remington, J. W., (1981). Effects of muramyl dipeptide treatment on resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii in mice. Infection and Immunity 31, 716–22.Google Scholar
Lee, K. C., Wong, M., & Spitzer, D., (1982). Chloroquine as a probe for antigen processing accessory cells. Transplantation 34, 150–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lelchuk, R., Cardoni, R. L., & Fuks, A. S., (1977). Cell-mediated immunity in Chagas' disease: alterations induced by treatment with a trypanocidal drug (nifurtimox). Clinical and Experimental Immunology 30, 434–8.Google Scholar
Lelchuk, R., Cardoni, R. L., & Lewis, S., (1977). Nifurtimox-induced alterations in the cell-mediated immune response to PPD in guinea pigs. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 30, 469–73.Google ScholarPubMed
Lwin, M., Targett, G. A. T., & Doenhoff, M. J., (1979). Chemotherapy of malaria (P. chabaudi) infections in immunosuppressed mice. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73. 103.Google Scholar
Mackenzie, C. D., (1980). Eosinophil leucocytes in filarial infections. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74, 51–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackenzie, C. D., (1984). Immune responses in onchocerciasis and dracunculiasis. In The Immunology and Immunoprophylaxis of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 1 (ed. Soulsby, E. J. L.). New York: CRC Press Inc. (In the press.)Google Scholar
McMahon, J. E., (1979). Preliminary screening of antifilarial activity of levamisole and amodiaquine on Wuchereria bancrofti. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 73, 465–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, G. H., (1984). Immunity. In Antimalaria Drugs I. Biological Background, Experimental Methods and Drug Resistance (ed. Peters, W. and Richards, W. H. G.), pp.101–125. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York and Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Nauck, E. G., (1934). Chemotherapeutische Versuche bei Affenmalaria (P. knowlesi). Archiv für Schiffs und Tropenhygiene 38, 313.Google Scholar
Neal, R. A., & Miles, R. A., (1977). Effect of sodium stibogluconate on infections of Leishmania enriettii. with observations on the interaction of drug and immune response. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 71, 21–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pringle, G., & Lane, F. C. T., (1966). An apparent decline in the efficiency of small doses of chloroquine in suppressing malaria parasitaemias in semi-immune African school children. East African Medical Journal 43, 575–8.Google Scholar
Riva-Alcala, A. R., Taylor, H. R., Ruvalcaba-Macias, A. M., Mackenzie, C. D., Greene, B. M., Domiguez-Vazquez, A., Lugo-Pfeiffer, C., & Beltran, F., (1981). Chemotherapy Of Onchocerciasis: a controlled comparison of mebendazole, levamisole and diethylcarbamazine. Lancet 2, 485–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salmeron, G., & Lipsky, P. E., (1983). Immunosuppressive potential of anti-malarials. The American Journal of Medicine Symposium, A Reassessment of Plaquentil in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.July 18. pp. 1924.Google Scholar
Smrkovski, L. L., & Larson, C. L., (1977). Effect of treatment with BCG on the course of visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/C mice. Infection and Immunity 16, 249–57.Google ScholarPubMed
Staniunas, R. J., & Hammerberg, B., (1982). Diethylearbamazine-enhanced activation of complement by intact mierofilariae of Dirofilaria immitis and their in vitro products. Journal of Parasitology 68, 809–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taliaferro, W. H., (1948). The role of the spleen and the lymphoid-macrophage system in the quinine treatment of gallinaceum malaria. I. Acquired immunity and phagocytosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 83, 164–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taliaferro, W. H., & Kelsey, F. E., (1948). The role of the spleen and the lymphoid-macrophage system in the quinine treatment of gallinaceum malaria. II. Quinine blood levels. Journal of Infectious Diseases 83, 181–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taliaferro, W. H., & Taliaferro, L. G., (1949). The role of the spleen and lymphoid-macrophage system in the quinine treatment of gallinaceum malaria. III. The action of quinine and of immunity on the parasite. Journal of Infectious Diseases 84, 187220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Targett, G. A. T., (1984). Interactions between chemotherapy and immunity. In Antimalarial Drugs. I. Biological Background, Experimental Methods and Drug Resistance (ed. Peters, W. and Richards, W. H. G.), pp. 331348. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York and Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Taylor, D. N., Wasi, C., & Bernard, K., (1984). Chloroquine prophylaxis associated with a poor antibody response to human diploid cell rabies vaccine. Lancet 1, 1405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Terry, R. J., & Hudson, K., (1982). Immunosuppression in parasitic infections. In Immune Reactions to Parasites (ed. Frank, W.), p. 125. Stuttgart: Fischer. Stuttgart: Fischer.Google Scholar
Thommen-Scott, K., (1981). Antimalarial activity of Cyclosporin A. Agents and Actions 2, 770–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thong, Y. H., & Ferrante, A., (1978). Inhibition of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative responses by quinine. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 23, 354–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thong, Y. H., & Ferrante, A., (1980). Immunopotentiation by pyrimethamine in the mouse. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 39, 190–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Thong, Y. H., Ferrante, A., Rowan-Kelly, B., & O'Keefe, D. E., (1979). Effect of mefloquine on the immune response in mice. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73, 388–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thong, Y. H., Ferrante, A., & Secker, L. K., (1981). Normal immunological responses in mice treated with chloroquine, quinine and primaquine. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75, 108–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhave, J. P., (1975). Immunization with sporozoites: an experimental study of Plasmodium berghei malaria. Ph.D. thesis, Catholic University of Nijmegen.Google Scholar
Wedderburn, N., & Dracott, B. N., (1977). The immune response to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide in mice with malaria. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 28, 103–37.Google ScholarPubMed
Williamson, W. A., & Greenwood, B. A., (1978). Impairment of the immune response to vac ination after acute malaria. Lancet 1, 1328–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization (1973). Chemotherapy of malaria and resistance to antimalarials. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 529.Google Scholar
Yorke, W., (1925). Further observations on malaria made during treatment of general paralysis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 19, 108–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Chemotherapy and the immune response in parasitic infections
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Chemotherapy and the immune response in parasitic infections
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Chemotherapy and the immune response in parasitic infections
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *