The Dominican Republic faces multiple threats to biodiversity. A list of native species of amphibians and reptiles (excluding sea turtles) is presented. Some may have become extinct recently, substantial populations of others have been extirpated, some have greatly reduced numbers, and others appear to be rare or have restricted ranges. Most of the 13 taxa listed are relatively large, vulnerable to human exploitation or introduced predators, and/or have limited distributions and specific habitat requirements. To be listed, evidence must exist that: (1) populations are dwindling, (2) the range is shrinking, or (3) a species must be vulnerable to exploitation and historically rare. Two iguanas (Cyclura cornuta, C. ricordii), two turtles (Trachemys decorata, T. stejnegeri vicina), and one crocodilian (Crocodylus acutus) have been exploited extensively and have long been recognized as threatened or endangered. The ranges of Cyclura ricordii and T. decorata are very localized and the previously widespread ranges of the others have shrunk or become fragmented. A toad (Bufo fluviaticus), a large galliwasp (Celestus anelpistus), and a snake (Alsophis melanichnus) have not been collected recently. Only a few specimens of another galliwasp (C. carraui) and a dwarf gecko (Sphaerodactylus cochranae) have been taken recently. In addition, extensive portions of the habitats of these species have been severely altered. Three other snakes (Alsophis anomalus, laltris agyrtes, I. dorsalis) are rare and may never have been common. Their size and habits render them vulnerable to predation by the introduced mongoose and to decimation by humans who fear and dislike them.