Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-ln9sz Total loading time: 0.36 Render date: 2021-09-28T02:36:49.453Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Interaction between physical activity and nutrition early in life and their impact on later development

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 December 2007

Jana Pařízková
Laboratory of Health Promotion, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

It has been rare to find studies of the influence of nutrition on growth that have incorporated careful measurements of physical activity. This paper reviews interactions between physical activity and nutrition in early life and finds that such interactions have a significant influence on growth and later metabolism.

Young animals are generally characterized by a high level of spontaneous motor activity that contributes to a high rate of energy turnover in early life. Such activity varies greatly between species and individuals and can be increased by reduced (but not extreme) dietary intake especially of protein, with consequent effects on growth rate (slower), body composition (leaner), eventual body size (smaller), lifespan (longer), cardiac resistance to toxic substances (increased) and changes in body lipids. Most studies have been conducted with laboratory rats but the much smaller literature concerning human beings is also reviewed here.

In rats, exercise during pregnancy results in offspring that are smaller and leaner and there are later improvements in cardiac microstructure, cardiac resistance to toxic substances and lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations.

In industrialized countries in recent years, children's fitness, especially of the cardiorespiratory system has not developed at the same pace as body size, or has deteriorated, whereas average body mass index (BMI) and the overall prevalence of obesity have increased. This is partly accounted for by reduced levels of physical activity but there is some evidence that higher intakes of dietary proteins in early life are also implicated. Much recent research has focused on the influence of nutrition in the prenatal and early postnatal period on later health. This review has also underlined the importance of exercise and its interaction with diet beginning with the pregnant mother and continuing through childhood. Development and wider use of simple but reliable methods for the evaluation of physical activity and fitness in young children is now an important priority.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1998


Alberti-Fidanza, A., Pařízková, J. & Fruttini, D. (1995). Relationship between mothers' and newborns' nutritional and blood lipid variables. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 289298.Google ScholarPubMed
Anon, . (1994). Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period (ACOG Technical Bulletin no. 189). International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics 45, 6570.Google Scholar
Arshavskyi, I.A. (1967). [Developmental physiology.] Moscow: Medicina.Google Scholar
Avery, M.D., Leon, A.S. & Kopher, R.A. (1997). Effects of a partially home-based exercise program for women with gestational diabetes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 89, 1015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Axelsson, I.E., Jakobsson, I. & Räihä, N.C.R. (1988). Formula with reduced protein content: effects on growth and protein metabolism during weaning. Pediatric Research 24, 297301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barker, D.J.P. (1990). The fetal and infant origins of adult diseases. British Medical Journal 301, 1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker, D.J.P. (1994). Mothers, Babies, and Disease in Later Life. London: BMJ Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Bell, R. & O'Neill, M. (1994). Exercise and pregnancy: a review. Birth 21, 8595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botkin, C. & Driscoll, C.E. (1991). Maternal aerobic exercise: newborn effects. Family Practice Research Journal 11, 387393.Google ScholarPubMed
Clapp, J.F. (1991). Exercise and fetal health. Journal of Developmental Physiology 15, 914.Google ScholarPubMed
Clapp, J.F. (1996). Morphometric and neurodevelopmental outcome at age five years of the offspring of women who continued to exercise regularly. Journal of Pediatrics 129, 856863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clapp, J.F. & Capeless, E.L. (1990). Neonatal morphometrics after maternal endurance exercise during pregnancy. Americal Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 163, 18051811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cobrin, M. & Koski, K.G. (1995). Maternal dietary carbohydrate restriction and mild-to-moderate exercise during pregnancy modify aspects of fetal development in rats. Journal of Nutrition 125, 16171627.Google ScholarPubMed
Courant, G.T. & Barr, S.I. (1990). Exercise during rat pregnancy and lactation: maternal effects and offspring growth. Physiology & Behavior 47, 427433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dale, E., Mullinax, K.M. & Bryan, D.H. (1982). Exercise during pregnancy: effects on the fetus. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 7, 98103.Google ScholarPubMed
Davies, P.S.W., Coward, W.A., Gregory, J., White, A. & Mills, A. (1994). Total energy expenditure and energy intake in the pre-school child: a comparison. British Journal of Nutrition 72, 1320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, P.S.W., Gregory, J. & White, A. (1995 a). Energy expenditure in children 1.5 to 4.5 years: a comparison with current recommendation for energy intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 360364.Google Scholar
Davies, P.S.W., Gregory, J. & White, A. (1995 b). Physical activity and body fatness in preschool children. International Journal of Obesity 19, 610.Google Scholar
Davies, S.W. & Christoffel, K.K. (1994). Obesity in preschool-age children. Treatment early and often may be best. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 148, 12571261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deheeger, M., Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Péquignot, F., Labadie, M.D., Rossignol, C. & Vinit, F. (1991). [Food intake changes of French children two years old between 1973 and 1986]. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 35, 132140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denadai, B.S., Piçarro, I. da, C., Madjian, S., Bergamaschi, C.T., Santos, V.C., da Silva, A.C. & Russo, A.K. (1994). High intensity exercise during pregnancy of rats. Effects on mother and offspring. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, A. Comparative Physiology 109, 727740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durnin, J.V.G.A. (1984). Energy balance in childhood and adolescence. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 43, 271279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durnin, J.V.G.A., Lonergan, M.E., Good, J. & Ewan, A. (1974). A cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric study with an interval of 7 years on 611 young adolescent schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 169179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faltová, E., Mráz, M., Pařízková, J. & Šedivý, J. (1985). Physical activity of different intensities and the development of myocardial resistence to injury. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 34, 289296.Google Scholar
Faltová, E. & Pařízková, J. (1970). Effect of age, body weight and body fat on experimental cardiac necrosis. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 19, 275280.Google Scholar
Faltová, E., Pařízková, J., Mráz, M., Šedivý, J. & Špátová, M. (1983). Influence of motor activity on the development of isoprenaline induced heart lesions. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 32, 203209.Google ScholarPubMed
Fanconi, G. (1969). Has malnutrition only bad consequences? What is the definition of health? In Protein and Energy Malnutrition, pp. 5762 [von Muralt,, A. editor]. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fomón, S.J. (1974). Effect of mode of feeding and dietary composition on growth and body composition during early infancy. Infant Nutrition, 2nd edn, pp. 7779. Philadephia, PA: Saunders.Google Scholar
Gortmaker, S.L., Dietz, W.H. & Cheung, L.W.Y. (1990). Inactivity, diet, and the fattening of America. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 90. 12471252.Google ScholarPubMed
Griffiths, M. & Payne, P.R. (1976). Energy expenditure in small children of obese and non-obese parents. Nature 260, 698700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guminskyi, A.A., Elizarova, O.S., Zhurkova, N.N., Zolotayko, G.A., & Novozhilova, A.D. (1972). [On functional acceleration of present day youth.] Pediatryia no. 3, 1018.Google Scholar
Hajnis, K. (1993). [New development norms for Czech and Slovak children and adolescents.] Anthropologischer Anzeiger 51, 207224.Google Scholar
Hall, D.C. & Kaufmann, D.A. (1987). Effects of aerobic exercise and strength conditioning on pregnancy outcomes. Americal Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 157, 11991203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Himmelmann, A., Svensson, A., Sigstrom, L. & Hansson, L. (1994). Predictors of blood pressure and left ventricular mass in the young: the Hypertension in Pregnancy Offspring Study. American Journal of Hypertension 7, 381389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Honda, M., Lowy, C. & Thomas, C.R. (1990). The effect of maternal diabetes on placental transfer of essential and non-essential fatty acids in the rat. Diabetes Research 15, 4751.Google Scholar
Jackson, A. (1992). How can early diet influence later disease? In Tomorrow's Nutrition, pp. 2330 [Ashwell, M., editor]. BNF Nutrition Bulletin 17 (Suppl.),Google Scholar
Kraut, H. (1972). Food intake as a factor of production. In Alimentation et Travail, Premier Symposium International, pp. 216225 [Debry, G. & Bleyer, R. editors]. Paris: Masson et Cie.Google Scholar
Ledovskaya, N.M. (1972). [Experiences in the assessment of physical activity in twins.] In [Physical Activity in Man and Hypokinesia], pp. 3036 [Slonim, A.D. & Smirnov, K.M., editors]. Novosibirsk: Academy of Sciences of USSR, Siberian Dept., Institute of Physiology.Google Scholar
Lookey, E.A., Tran, Z.V., Wells, C.L., Myers, B.C. & Tran, A.C. (1991). Effects of physical exercise on pregnancy outcomes: a meta-analytic review. Medicine & Science of Sports & Exercise 23, 12341239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCance, R.A., & Widdowson, E.M. (1974). The determinants of growth and form. Review lecture. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. Biological Sciences 185, 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCay, C.M., Maynard, L.A., Sperling, G. & Barnes, L.L. (1939). Retarded growth span, ultimate body size and age changes in the albino rat after feeding diets restricted in calories. Journal of Nutrition 18, 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCay, C.M., Sperling, G. & Barnes, L.L. (1941). Growth, ageing, chronic diseases, and life span in rats. Archives of Biochemistry 2, 469479.Google Scholar
Macho, L., Štrbák, V. & Hromadová, A.M. (1973). Effect of early undernutrition and overnutrition on thyroid gland function in rats. Endocrinologia 62, 9499.Google ScholarPubMed
Masoro, E.J. (1992). Retardation of aging process by nutritional means. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 673, 2935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masoro, E.J. (1993). Dietary restriction and aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 41, 994999.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masoro, E.J. (1995) Antiaging action of caloric restriction: endocrine and metabolic aspects. Obesity Research 2 (Suppl.3), 241s247s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masoro, E.J. (1996). McCay's hypothesis: undernutrition and longevity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54, 657664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matiegka, J. (1929). [Somatology of school children.] Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and Arts (CAVU).Google Scholar
Miklashevskaya, N. (1994). Growth process of children and adolescents of the longevity populations. In Growth and Development of Man IV, pp. 175179 [Hajnis, K., editor]. Prague: Department of Anthropology, Charles University, and Czechoslovak Association of Anthropology.Google Scholar
Moore, L.L., Nguyen, U.-S. D.T., Rothman, K.J., Cupples, L.A. & Ellison, R.C. (1995). Preschool physical activity level and changes in body fatness in young children. The Framingham children's study. American Journal of Epidemiology 142, 982988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Myers, L., Coughlin, S.S., Webber, L.S., Srinivasan, S.R. & Berenson, G.S. (1995). Prediction of adult cardiovascular multifactorial factor risk status from childhood risk factor levels. The Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 142, 918924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newman, W.P., Freedman, D.S., Voors, A.W., Gard, P.D., Srinivasan, S.R., Cresanta, J.L., Williamson, G.D., Webber, L.S. & Berenson, G.S. (1986). Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure in early atherosclerosis: the Bogalusa Heart Study. New England Journal of Medicine 314, 138144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicklas, T.A., Webber, L.S., Srinivasan, S.R. & Berenson, G.S. (1993). Secular trends in dietary intakes and cardiovascular risk factors of 10-y-old children: The Bogalusa Heart Study (1973–1988). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 930937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1963 a). Age trends in fatness in normal and obese children. Journal of Applied Physiology 16, 17341735.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1963 b). The impact of age, diet and exercise on man's body composition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 110, 661674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1975). Impact of daily work load during pregnancy on the microstructure of the rat heart in male offspring. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 34, 323328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1977). Body Fat and Physical Fitness. Body Composition and Lipid Metabolism in Different Regimes of Physical Activity. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff B.V. / Medical Division.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1978 a). The impact of daily work load during pregnancy and/or postnatal life on heart microstructure of rat male offspring. Basic Research in Cardiology 73, 433441.Google ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1978 b). Body composition and lipid metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. In Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health (International Series of Sports Sciences vol. ), pp. 6175. [Pařízková, J. and Rogozkin, V.A. editors]. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1978c). The impact of ecological factors and physical activity on the somatic and motor develoment of preschool children. In Physical Fitness Assessment. Principles, Practice and Application, pp. 238247 [Shephard, R.J. and Lavallée, H. editors]. Springfield, IL: Charles C.Thomas.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1979). Cardiac microstructure in female and male offspring of exercised rat mothers. Acta Anatomica 104, 382387.Google ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1987). Growth, functional capacity and physical fitness in normal and malnourished children. World Review of Nutrition & Dietetics 51, 144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1989 a). Age-dependent changes in dietary intake related to work output, physical fitness, and body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 962967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1989 b). Nutritional individuality and physical performance in different periods of life. In International Perspectives in Exercise Physiology, pp. 104114 [Nazar, K., Terjung, R.L., Kaciuba-Uscilko, H. and Budohoski, L., editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1991). Human growth, physical fitness and nutrition under various environmental conditions. In Human Growth, Physical Fitness and Nutrition (Medicine and Sports Science vol. 31), pp. 118 [Shephard, R.J. & Pařízková, J., editors]. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1993). Food choices in Czechoslovakia. Appetite 21, 299302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. (1994 a). Nutrition and physical performance during growth. In Nutrition in a Sustainable Environment (Proceedings of the XV International Congress of Nutrition), pp. 463465. [Wahlquist, M.L., Truswell, A.S., Smith, R. and Nestel, P., editors]. London: Smith-Gordon/Nishimura.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1994 b). Relationship of nutritional status and functional development in preschool age children. In Nutrition in Pregnancy and Growth (Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta no. 53), pp. 109115 [Porrini, M. and Walter, P., editors]. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1995). Changes in approach to the measurement of body composition. In Body Composition Techniques in Health and Disease, pp. 222239. [Davies, P.S.W. and Cole, T.J., editors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1996 a). Nutrition, Physical Activity and Health in Early Life. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. (1996 b). How much energy consumed and spent for optimal growth and development? Nutrition 12, 820821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. & Adamec, A. (1980). Longitudinal study of anthropometric, skinfold, work and motor characteristics of boys and girls, three to six years of age. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 52, 387396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J., Adamec, A., Berdychová, J., Čermák, J., Horná, J. & Teplý, Z. (1983). Growth, Fitness and Nutrition in Preschool Children. Prague: Charles University.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J., Čermák, J. & Horná, J. (1977). Sex differences in somatic and functional characteristics of preschool children. Human Biology 49, 437451.Google ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. & Douglas, P.D., editors (1995). Human Growth, Dietary Intake and Other Environmental Influences (Proceedings of a Symposium; 13th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Mexico City, 1993). Paris: Danone.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. & Faltová, E. (1970). Physical activity, body fat and experimental cardiac necrosis. British Journal of Nutrition 24, 310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J., Faltová, E., Mráz, M. & Špátová, M. (1982). Growth, food intake, motor activity and experimental cardiac necrosis in early malnourished male rats. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 26, 121128.Google ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J., Fraňková, S., Špátová, M. & Petrásek, R. (1980). Spontaneous motor activity, energy cost of growth and lipid metabolism in the liver in male rats with early protein energy malnutrition. Baroda Journal of Nutrition 7, 4954.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. & Hainer, V. (1990). Exercise in growing and adult obese individuals. In Current Therapy in Sports Medicine, pp. 2226 [Torg, J.S., Welsh, R.P. and Shephard, R.J., editors]. Toronto: H.B.C. Decker Inc.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J., Hainer, V., Štich, V., Kunešová, M. & Ksantini, M. (1995). Physiological capabilities of obese individuals and implications for exercise. In Exercise and Obesity, pp. 131140 [Wahlquist, M. & Hills, A.P., editors]. London: Smith Gordon.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. & Kábele, J. (1985). [Somatic and psychological development, performance and fitness, body posture and food intake in the relationship to physical activity regime of preschool children.] Acta Universitatis Carolinae Gymnica 21, 5569.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. & Kábele, J. (1988). Longitudinal study of somatic, motor and psychological development in preschool boys and girls. Collegium Anthropologicum 12, 6773.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J., Macková, E., Kábele, J., Macková, J. & Škopková, M. (1986 a). Body composition, food intake, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood lipids and psychological development in highly active and inactive preschool children. Human Biology 58, 261273.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J., Macková, E., Macková, J. & Skopková, M. (1986 b). Blood lipids as related to food intake, body composition, and cardiorespiratory efficiency in preschool children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition 5, 295298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. & Petrásek, R. (1978). The impact of daily work load during pregnancy on lipid metabolism in the liver of the offspring. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 39, 8187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. & Petrásek, R. (1979). Impact of early nutrition on later development of spontaneous physical activity and lipid metabolism. Nutrition & Metabolism 23, 266274.Google ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J., Petrásek, R. & Fraňková, S. (1979). The impact of reduced energy and protein intake at the beginning of life on growth, spontaneous motor activity and lipid metabolism in male rats. International Journal of Nutrition & Dietetics 16, 412416.Google Scholar
Pařízková, J. & Rolland-Cachera, M.-F. (1997). High protein early in life as a predisposition for later obesity and further health risks. Nutrition 13, 818819.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pařízková, J. & Starňková, L. (1964). Influence of physical activity on a treadmill on the metabolism of adipose tissue in rats. British Journal of Nutrition 18, 325332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pařízková, J., Wachtlová, M. & Soukupová, M. (1972). The impact of different motor activity on body composition, density of capillaries and fibres in the heart and soleus muscles, and cell's migration in vitro in male rats. Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physiologie einschiesslich Arbeitsphysiologie 30, 207216.Google Scholar
Perales, J.G., Patricio, F.R.S., Amancio, O.M.S., Piçarro, I.C., Rodrigues, L.O.C. & Russo, A.K. (1992). Effects of exercise and food restriction in pregnant and newborn rats. Pre-pregnancy maximum oxygen consumption. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, A. Comparative Physiology 102, 585590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piçrro, I.C., Barros Neto, T.L., Carrero DeTeves, D., Silva, A.C., Denadai, D.S., Tarasantchi, J. & Russo, A.K. (1991). Effect of exercise during pregnancy, graded as a percentage of aerobic capacity. Maternal and fetal responses of the rat. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, A. Comparative Physiology 100, 795799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piçarro, I.C., Turecki, G.X., Barros-Neto, T.L., Russo, A.K., Silva, A.C. & Tarasantchi, J. (1989). Effect of exercise training during pregnancy: maternal and fetal responses of the rat. Brazilian Journal of Medical & Biological Research 22, 15351538.Google ScholarPubMed
Prentice, A.M., Lucas, A., Vasquez-Velasquez, L., Davies, P.S.W. & Whitehead, R.G. (1988). Are current dietary guidelines for young children a prescription for overfeeding? Lancet ii, 10661069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prista, A., Maia, J.A.R. & Marques, A.T. (1996). Nutritional status and physical fitness of children and youth of Maputo: relevance of nutritional indicators. In Abstracts and Program, International Council for Physical Activity and Fitness Research, Symposium '96, p. 58.Google Scholar
Rippe, J.M., Blair, S.N., Freedson, P., Micheli, L.J., Morrow, J.R., Pate, R., Plowman, J.M. & Rowland, T. (1991). Childhood health and fitness in the United States: current status and future challenges. In Round Table Discussion at the American College of Spons Medicine, part I, pp. 97104, and part II, pp. 171–181. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Robinson, J., Chidzanja, S., Kind, K., Lok, F., Owens, P. & Owens, J. (1995). Placental control of fetal growth. Reproduction, Fertility & Development 7, 333344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodgers, C.D., Mottola, M.F., Corbett, K. & Taylor, A.W. (1991). Skeletal muscle metabolism in the offspring of trained rats. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness 31, 389395.Google ScholarPubMed
Rolland-Cachera, M.-F. (1995). Prediction of adult body composition from infant and childhood measurements. In Body Composition Techniques in Health and Disease, pp. 100145 [Davies, P.S.W. and Cole, T.J., editors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Bellisle, F., Deheeger, M., Guilloud-Bataille, M., Péquignot, F. & Sempé, M. (1988). Adiposity development and prediction during growth in humans: a two decade follow-up study. In Obesity in Europe 88, pp. 7378 [Björntorp, P. and Rössner, S. editors]. London: John Libbey.Google Scholar
Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Deheeger, M., Bellisle, F., Sempé, M., Guilloud-Bataille, M. & Patois, E. (1984). Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 129135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Deheeger, M. & Bellisle, F. (1995). Early nutrition and later outcomes. International Journal of Obesity 19 (Suppl.2), 11.Google Scholar
Rose, H.E. & Mayer, J. (1968). Activity, calorie intake, fat storage, and the energy balance of infants. Pediatrics 41, 1829.Google ScholarPubMed
Ross, M.H. (1961). Length of life and nutrition in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 75, 197210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, M.H. (1964). Nutrition, disease and length of life. In Diet and Bodily Constitution (CIBA Foundation, Study Group no. 17), pp. 90107 [Wolstenholme, G.E.W. and O'Connor, M., editors]. London: J. and A. Churchill.Google Scholar
Ross, M.H. (1972). Length of life and caloric intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, 834838.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, M.H., Lustbader, E. & Bras, G. (1976). Dietary practices and growth responses as predictors of longevity. Nature 262, 548553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruwe, P.J., Wolverton, C.K., White, M.E. & Ramsay, T.G. (1991). Effect of maternal fasting on fetal and placental lipid metabolism in swine. Journal of Animal Science 69, 19351944.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schlicker, S.A., Borra, S.T. & Regan, C. (1994). The weight and fitness status of United States children. Nutrition Reviews 52, 1117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schramm, W.F., Stockbauer, J.W. & Hoffman, H.J. (1996). Exercise, employment, other daily activities, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 143, 211218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shephard, R.J. (1991). Somatic growth and physical performance in Canada. In Human Growth, Physical Fitness and Nutrition (Medicine and Sports Science, vol. 31), pp. 133155. [Shephard, R.J. and Pařízková, J., editors]. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
Sklad, M. (1972). Similarity of movements in twins. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport 3, 119132.Google Scholar
Smart, J.L. (1974) Activity and exploratory behavior of adult offspring of undernourished mother rats. Developmental Psychobiology 7, 315321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spinnewijn, W.E.M., Lotgering, F.K., Struijk, P.C. & Wallenburg, H.C.S. (1996). Fetal heart rate and uterine contractility during maternal exercise at term. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 173, 43–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephenson, T.J., Stammers, J.P. & Hull, D. (1991). Effects of altering umbilical flow and umbilical free fatty acid concentration on transfer of free fatty acids across the rabbit placenta. Journal of Developmental Physiology 15, 221227.Google ScholarPubMed
Sternfeld, B., Quesenberry, C.P., Eskenazi, B. & Newman, L.A. (1995). Exercise during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 27, 634640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suzuki, S., Oshima, S., Tsuji, E., Tsuji, K. & Ohto, F. (1978). Interrelationships between nutrition, physical activity, and physical fitness. In Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health (International Series of Sports Sciences, vol. 7), pp. 194214 [Pařízková, J. and Rogozkin, V.A., editors]. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
Szabo, A.J., Oppermann, W., Hannover, B., Guggliucci, C. & Szabo, O. (1975). Fetal adipose tissue development. Relationship to maternal free fatty acid levels. In Early Diabetes in Early Life, pp. 1721 [Carnerini-Davalos, R.A. and Cole, H.S., editors]. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Treadway, J.L. & Lederman, S.A. (1986). The effects of exercise on milk yield, milk composition, and offspring growth in rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, 481–188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uzendoski, A.M., Latin, R.W., Berg, K.E. & Moshier, S. (1990). Physiological responses to aerobic exercise during pregnancy and post-partum. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness 30, 7782.Google ScholarPubMed
Walker, A.R.P. (1995). Nutrition-related diseases in Southern Africa: with special reference to urban African populations in transition. Nutrition Research 15, 10531094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waterlow, J.C. (1992). Protein and Energy Malnutrition. London: Edward Amold.Google Scholar
Widdowson, E.M. (1962 a). Nutritional individuality. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 21, 121128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widdowson, E.M. (1983). How much food does man require? An evaluation of human energy needs. In Nutritional Adequacy, Nutrient Availability and Needs (Nest1é Nutrition Research Symposium, 1982; Experientia Suppl. no. 44) pp. 1125 [Mauron, J., editor]. Basel: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
Widdowson, E.M. (1991). Contemporary human diets and their relation to health and growth: overview and conclusions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. Biological Sciences 334, 289295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widdowson, E.M. & Kennedy, G.C. (1962 b). Rate of growth, mature weight and life-span. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B. Biological Sciences 156, 96108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widdowson, E.M. & McCance, R.A. (1960). Some effects accelerating growth. I. General somatic development. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. Biological Sciences 152, 188206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widdowson, E.M. & McCance, R.A. (1963). The effect of finite periods of undernutrition at different ages on the composition and subsequent development of the rat. Proceedings of the Royal Sociery of. London, B. Biological Sciences 158, 329342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WHO (1985). Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, FAO, Rome, 1981 (Technical Report Series no. 724). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Zhang, J. & Savitz, D.A. (1996). Exercise during pregnancy in US women. Annals of Epidemiology 6, 5359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
You have Access
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Interaction between physical activity and nutrition early in life and their impact on later development
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Interaction between physical activity and nutrition early in life and their impact on later development
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Interaction between physical activity and nutrition early in life and their impact on later development
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *