Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 April 2021
The increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a growing challenge in terms of its prevention and treatment. The ‘multiple hits’ hypothesis of multiple insults, such as dietary fat intake, de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, gut dysbiosis and hepatic inflammation, can provide a more accurate explanation of the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Betaine plays important roles in regulating the genes associated with NAFLD through anti-inflammatory effects, increased free fatty oxidation, anti-lipogenic effects and improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial function; however, the mechanism of betaine remains elusive.
These authors contributed equally to this work.