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The Sacrifice God Desired: Psalm 40.6–8 in Hebrews 10

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 March 2021

Benjamin J. Ribbens
Affiliation:
Trinity Christian College, 6601 West College Drive, Palos Heights, Illinois 60463, USA. Email: benjamin.ribbens@trnty.edu
Corresponding

Abstract

Scholars often argue that Hebrews uses Psalm 40 in Heb 10.5–10 to emphasise obedience, either stressing Christ's lived obedience on earth or suggesting that obedience replaces sacrifice. However, Hebrews does not use Psalm 40 to highlight obedience but to identify another sacrificial offering. Christ's offering is the cultic offering that pleases God and achieves God's salvific will. While God did not take pleasure in Levitical sacrifices, he did command them and promise that they would achieve certain effects. The first covenant sacrifices achieved atonement and forgiveness because they were shadows that anticipated and participated in Christ's offering.

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Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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References

1 I will refer to this psalm as Psalm 40, even though Greek translations number it as Psalm 39 and Hebrews was working with a Greek translation.

2 The subject of λέγει is absent in the introductory formula, but it is implied from 9.28 and affirmed in 10.10.

3 Elsewhere in Hebrews, when Christ ‘enters’ (εἰσέρχομαι), he enters the heavenly sanctuary (6.19–20; 9.12, 24–5). In fact, this is the case in the section just prior to chapter 10 in Heb 9.23–8. However, Hebrews uses κόσμος exclusively to refer to the earthly or created realm (4.3; 9.26; 11.7, 38; cf. κοσμικόν in 9.1; H. W. Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews (Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989) 273; P. Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews (NIGTC; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993) 499; E. Grässer, An die Hebräer (3 vols.; EKKNT 17; Zürich: Benziger, 1993) ii.215; G. H. Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (ed. G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson; Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007) 919–95, at 977; D. M. Moffitt, Atonement and the Logic of Resurrection in the Epistle to the Hebrews (NovTSup 141; Leiden: Brill, 2013) 230), so Heb 10.5 clearly identifies Christ coming into the created realm – i.e. becoming incarnate.

4 For those who identify the speech with the pre-existent or pre-incarnate Christ, see Bruce, F. F., The Epistle to the Hebrews (rev. edn; NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990) 242Google Scholar; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 500. For those who view the speech as occurring on the occasion of the incarnation or once Christ has entered the world, see Lane, W. L., Hebrews (WBC 47A–B; Dallas, TX: Word, 1991) ii.262Google Scholar; Koester, C. R., Hebrews (AB 36; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 2001) 432Google Scholar; Fuhrmann, S., Vergeben und Vergessen: Christologie und Neuer Bund im Hebräerbrief (WMANT 113; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2007) 224Google Scholar; Rascher, A., Schriftauslegung und Christologie im Hebräerbrief (BZNW 153; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2007) 186CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Karen Jobes suggests that the participle εἰσερχόμενος is not temporal but means (‘by coming into the world’), so that Christ's statement of Ps 40.6–8 is achieved by means of his incarnation (‘Putting Words in his Mouth: The Son Speaks in Hebrews’, So Great a Salvation: A Dialogue on the Atonement in Hebrews (ed. J. C. Laansma, G. H. Guthrie and C. L. Westfall; LNTS 516; London: T&T Clark, 2019) 40–50, at 46–7).

5 Koester, Hebrews, 104–5.

6 Attridge, Hebrews, 273; H.-F. Weiss, Der Brief an die Hebräer (KEK 13; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 199115) 508; Lane, Hebrews, ii.263; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 499–500; Grässer, Hebräer, ii.214–15; Koester, Hebrews, 432; T. Lewicki, ‘Weist nicht ab den Sprechenden!’ Wort Gottes und Paraklese im Hebräerbrief (PTS 41; Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2004) 45; Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 977; Fuhrmann, Vergeben, 224; Rascher, Schriftauslegung, 186; van der Bergh, R. H., ‘A Textual Comparison of Hebrews 10:5b–7 and LXX Psalm 39:7–9’, Neot 42 (2008) 370Google Scholar; Karrer, M., ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10 in Hebrews 10:5–7’, Psalms and Hebrews: Studies in Reception (ed. Human, D. J. and Steyn, G. J.; LHB/OTS 527; London: T&T Clark, 2010) 126–46Google Scholar, at 129–30; Steyn, G. J., A Quest for the Assumed LXX Vorlage of the Explicit Quotations in Hebrews (FRLANT 235; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011) 294–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Cockerill, G. L., The Epistle to the Hebrews (NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2012) 434Google Scholar; Moffitt, Atonement, 230–1; Moore, N. J., Repetition in Hebrews: Plurality and Singularity in the Letter to the Hebrews, its Ancient Context, and the Early Church (WUNT ii/388; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015) 174CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Jamieson, R. B., Jesus’ Death and Heavenly Offering in Hebrews (SNTSMS; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019) 7881Google Scholar.

7 Van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 354, 378.

8 Cadwallader, A. H., ‘The Correction of the Text of Hebrews towards the LXX’, NovT 34 (1992) 257–92Google Scholar, at 259; Attridge, Hebrews, 274; R. Gheorghita, The Role of the Septuagint in Hebrews: An Investigation of its Influence with Special Consideration to the Use of Hab 2:3–4 in Heb 10:37–38 (WUNT ii/160; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003) 1–2, 48–9; U. Rüsen-Weinhold, Der Septuagintapsalter im Neuen Testament: Eine textgeschichtliche Untersuchung (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2004) 200–5; G. Gäbel, Die Kulttheologie des Hebräerbriefes: Eine exegetisch-religionsgeschichtliche Studie (WUNT ii/212; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006) 188–91; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 354, 369; S. E. Docherty, The Use of the Old Testament in Hebrews: A Case Study in Early Jewish Bible Interpretation (WUNT ii/260; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009) 132–42; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 138; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 297.

9 F. Schröger, Der Verfasser des Hebräerbriefes als Schriftausleger (BibU 4; Regensburg: Pustet, 1968) 174; Gheorghita, Septuagint, 48; Rüsen-Weinhold, Septuagintapsalter, 202–3; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 285–92; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 140–4; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 285–6, 289–92; G. A. Walser, Old Testament Quotations in Hebrews: Studies in their Textual and Contextual Background (WUNT ii/356; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013) 91–9; contra K. H. Jobes, ‘Rhetorical Achievement in the Hebrews 10 “Misquote” of Psalm 40’, Bib 72 (1991) 387–96; P. Grelot, ‘Le texte du Psaume 39,7 dans la Septante’, RevBib 108 (2001) 210–13.

10 See van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 358 for manuscript evidence.

11 Van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 358; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 139; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 289; Cadwallader, ‘Correction of the Text’, 291; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 189; cf. Jobes, ‘Rhetorical Achievement’, 387–96.

12 See van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 359–60 for manuscript evidence.

13 Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 190; Docherty, Old Testament in Hebrews, 140–2, 177–80, 194–6, 203–4; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 368; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 297; Moore, Repetition, 174 n. 106.

14 Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 140; Rüsen-Weinhold, Septuagintapsalter, 203–4; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 189–90; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 501; cf. van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 359–60; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 290–1.

15 Van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 359.

16 Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 190–1; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 291; Cockerill, Hebrews, 437.

17 Attridge, Hebrews, 274; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 501; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 373; Cockerill, Hebrews, 437.

18 Weiss, Hebräer, 507; Lane, Hebrews, ii.263; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 501; Lewicki, Wort Gottes, 46; Koester, Hebrews, 433; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 376–7; Cockerill, Hebrews, 437; Moore, Repetition, 174; Jobes, ‘The Son Speaks’, 46.

19 For discussions of the relationship between Hebrews and Papryus Bodmer 24, see Cadwallader, ‘Correction of the Text’, 291; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 140, 142; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 286–7, 292.

20 Weiss, Hebräer, 507; Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 977–8; Moore, Repetition, 175.

21 Similarly Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 134; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 283; Moffitt, Atonement, 234; T. J. Bertolet, ‘The Obedience of Sonship: Adamic Obedience as the Grounds for Heavenly Ascension in the Book of Hebrews’ (PhD diss., Pretoria, 2017) 390.

22 Schröger, Verfasser, 176; Weiss, Hebräer, 507–8; Lane, Hebrews, ii.262, 265, 270; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 198, 505; Grässer, Hebräer, ii.221–2; Koester, Hebrews, 436, 439; S. D. Mackie, Eschatology and Exhortation in the Epistle to the Hebrews (WUNT ii/223; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007) 120; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 145; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 292–3; Moore, Repetition, 175.

23 Attridge, Hebrews, 275–6; Rascher, Schriftauslegung, 185–7; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 191; S. J. Kistemaker, The Psalm Citations in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Amersterdam: van Soest, 1961) 43; cf. Schröger, Verfasser, 172; Bertolet, ‘Obedience of Sonship’, 392–3.

24 Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 296.

25 Rascher, Schriftauslegung, 185–7; cf. Grässer, Hebräer, 2.222; G. Schunack, Der Hebräerbrief (ZBK 14; Zürich: Theologischer, 2002) 139–41; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 196.

26 Pss 40.6–8; 50.8–14; Isa 1.10–17; 66.2–3; Jer 6.20; 7.21–31; 11.15; 14.12; Ezek 20.25–31; Hos 8.11–13; 12.11; Amos 4.4–5; 5.21–5; Mal 6.6–8; cf. Pss 26.6–7; 51.17–18; 69.30–1; 107.22; 141.2.

27 Some scholars properly assess the true nature of the prophetic criticism, but they contend that, even though the psalmist does not reject sacrifice, the distinction between external cultic acts and interior obedience ‘sets the stage for such repudiation’ (Attridge, Hebrews, 274–6, quotation at 275; cf. M. Rissi, Die Theologie des Hebräerbriefs: Ihre Verankerung in der Situation des Verfassers und seiner Leser (WUNT i/41; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1987) 75; S. Svendsen, Allegory Transformed: The Appropriation of Philonic Hermeneutics in the Letter to the Hebrews (WUNT ii/269; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009) 187).

28 Weiss, Hebräer, 510–11; Grässer, Hebräer, ii.217, 224–5; Lane, Hebrews, 2.262, 265; Moore, Repetition, 175.

29 Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 191–5.

30 The verb προσφέρω is used in 11.4 for Abel's offering and in 11.17 for the offering of Isaac by Abraham, neither of which is a Levitical sacrifice.

31 Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 76–8.

32 Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 76–8.

33 Gäbel argues that Heb 10.10–14 describes both Christ's earthly non-cultic offering (vv. 10, 14) and his heavenly cultic offering (v. 12) (Kulttheologie, 201). However, Jamieson notes that the emphasis on singularity in these verses ‘signals that the author is spinning a single sacrificial thread’ and counters Gäbel's bifurcation of the passage into two offerings – one cultic and one non-cultic (Jesus’ Death, 76).

34 E.g. Attridge, Hebrews, 273; M. E. Isaacs, Sacred Space: An Approach to the Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews (JSNTSup 73; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1992) 202.

35 Moffitt, Atonement, 253–6, also 42–3, 219–20, 269–81, 292–3; B. J. Ribbens, Levitical Sacrifice and Heavenly Cult in Hebrews (BZNW 222; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2016) 129–36; Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 23–94; cf. G. H. Guthrie, ‘Time and Atonement in Hebrews’, So Great a Salvation: A Dialogue on the Atonement in Hebrews (ed. J. C. Laansma, G. H. Guthrie and C. L. Westfall; LNTS 516; London: T&T Clark, 2019) 209–27. For others, see R. B. Jamieson, ‘When and Where Did Jesus Offer Himself? A Taxonomy of Recent Scholarship on Hebrews’, CurBR 15 (2017) 338–68.

36 Moffitt, Atonement, 230–56, esp. 238–41.

37 Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 71–83, esp. 82–3.

38 Weiss, Hebräer, 510; cf. Ellingworth, Hebrews, 505.

39 E.g. Koester, Hebrews, 439; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 137, 145; Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 81.

40 Van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 375–9, quotation at 377. This does not mean that van der Bergh rejects the soteriological aspect, as he notes that ‘the author of Hebrews shows Christ's obedience to God through the sacrifice of his body’ (377) and ‘the self-sacrifice of the incarnate Son of God was the ultimate act of obedience to God's will’ (378).

41 Moffitt, Atonement, 245.

42 Moffitt, Atonement, 246; cf. Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 82–3, 97.

43 Bertolet, ‘Obedience of Sonship’, 390.

44 Bertolet, ‘Obedience of Sonship’, 402.

45 Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 82–3.

46 Cf. Moore, Repetition, 175–6; Lane, Hebrews, ii.265–6.

47 Moffitt, Atonement, 234–47, 253–6; Bertolet, ‘Obedience of Sonship’, 388–402.

48 Cockerill, Hebrews, 441–6; Moffitt, Atonement, 232–4; Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 81.

49 Koester, Hebrews, 439; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 372; cf. Lane, Hebrews, ii.263–5.

50 Attridge, Hebrews, 276; Lane, Hebrews, ii.265; Koester, Hebrews, 434; Moffitt, Atonement, 246; contra Ellingworth, Hebrews, 505.

51 In the paraenetic context of 10.36, τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ identifies human obedience (cf. 13.21).

52 Lane, Hebrews, ii.265; cf. Schunack, Hebräerbrief, 139; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 372.

53 Moffitt, Atonement, 145–214; Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 23–35.

54 Jamieson argues that obedience is key to the quality, value and purpose of Christ's heavenly offering (Jesus’ Death, 80–1). See also Lane, Hebrews, ii.266; Grässer, Hebräer, 2.221; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 185; Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 978; Mackie, Eschatology, 120–2, 169; Cockerill, Hebrews, 433, 441; Moore, Repetition, 175–6.

55 Attridge, Hebrews, 276; Weiss, Hebräer, 510; Lane, Hebrews, ii.262–6; Rascher, Schriftauslegung, 149, 186–7; Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 978; van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 372; Cockerill, Hebrews, 442; Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 80–2.

56 While ἐφάπαξ in 10.10 could modify either προσφορά or ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμέν, the two grammatical possibilities are intimately related, and ἐφάπαξ may relate to both (Weiss, Hebräer, 511; Grässer, Hebräer, ιι.225). The singularly decisive offering of Christ achieves a singularly decisive salvific reality (Cockerill, Hebrews, 445).

57 For δεκτός: Lev 1.3, 4; 17.4; 19.5; 22.19, 20, 21, 29; 23.11; also Isa 56.7; 60.7; Sir 35.6; cf. Exod 28.34; δέχομαι: Lev 7.18; 19.7; 22.23, 25, 27; also Judg 13.23; cf. Ps 49.9; Sir 35.16; προσδέχομαι: Lev 22.23; also Mal 1.13; Sir 7.9; 35.11; Wis 3.6; cf. Gen 32.20; Ezek 20.40–1; 43.27; Zeph 3.10. See also Jub 4.25; 7.36; 21.7.

58 Isa 1.10–17; Jer 6.20; 7.21–34; 11.15; 14.12; Hos 8.11–14; 12.11; Amos 4.4; 5.21–7; Mal 1.7–14; 2.13–17; Sir 7.9; 34.21–31; 35.6; Jub 5.15–16; 30.13–16; 2 En. 46, 61; 4 Ezra 1.25–32. For texts using προσδέχομαι, see Hos 8.13; Amos 5.22; Mic 6.7; Mal 1.8, 10; cf. Sir 35.16. For texts using δεκτός, see Jer 6.20; Mal 2.13; Sir 35.9. For texts using εὐδοκέω, see Jer 14.12; Sir 34.19; Pss. Sol. 2.4; cf. LXX Ps 118.108; Mal 2.17. For εὐδοκία, see Sir 34.18; 35.3, 16.

59 Likening piety to sacrifice (e.g. 1 Sam 15.22; Pss 69.31; 119.108; 141.2; Prov 15.8; 16.5; Hos 6.6; Mic 6.6–8; Pss. Sol. 15.3; Sir 35.1–5; Wis 3.5–6) does not undermine the significance of sacrifice; rather, it draws on the significance of sacrifice to assert that ethics is important just like, not rather than, sacrifice. Sacrifices, along with piety, are demanded (similarly Sir 7.31; 14.11; 38.11), and a correspondence between the two is required (cf. Let Aris 170).

60 J. H. Duff, ‘The Blood of Goats and Calves . . . and Bulls? An Allusion to Isaiah 1:11 LXX in Hebrews 10:4’, JBL 137 (2018) 765–83, at 782–3.

61 While van der Bergh (‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 373–4) notes that there is nothing in Hebrews to suggest an allusion to Christ's baptism or transfiguration, the connection may be the Suffering Servant tradition (see n. 62).

62 For an allusion to Isa 53.12 in Heb 9.28, see J. R. Schaefer, ‘The Relationship between Priestly and Servant Messianism in the Epistle to the Hebrews’, CBQ 30 (1968) 359–85, at 377; W. R. G. Loader, Sohn und Hoherpriester: Eine traditionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung zur Christologie des Hebräerbriefes (WMANT 53; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1981) 198; Attridge, Hebrews, 266; Lane, Hebrews, ii.250; Bruce, Hebrews, 222–3; Weiss, Hebräer, 494; Grässer, Hebräer, ii.198; D. A. deSilva, Perseverance in Gratitude: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on the Epistle ‘to the Hebrews’ (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000) 315; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 296, 305; G. Telscher, Opfer aus Barmherzigkeit: Hebr 9,11–28 im Kontext biblischer Sühnetheologie (FB 112; Würzburg: Echter, 2007) 274; Cockerill, Hebrews, 426–7; Jamieson, Jesus’ Death, 169–76.

63 Gen 8.21; Exod 29.18, 25, 41; Lev 1.9, 13, 17; 2.2, 9, 12; 3.5, 11, 16; 4.31; 6.15, 21; 8.20, 27; 17.4, 6; 23.13, 18; Num 15.3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 14, 24; 18.17; 28.2, 6, 8, 13, 24, 27; 29.2, 6, 8, 11, 13, 36; Ezra 6.10; Ezek 16.19; Dan 2.46; Sir 35.5; 38.11; 45.16; 50.15; Jdt 16.16; Jub 3.27; 6.3; 7.5; 16.23; 21.7, 9; 32.4; LAB 3.8; 32.3; cf. Ezek 6.13; 20.28, 41. Conversely, when the sacrifices are tainted by immorality, ‘they are not sweet smelling’ (Pss. Sol. 2.3).

64 Stephen Finlan concludes that ‘evidently it was the plurality of sacrifices that God and Christ were rejecting in Ps 40, not sacrifice itself’ (‘Spiritualization of Sacrifice in Paul and Hebrews’, Ritual and Metaphor: Sacrifice in the Bible (ed. C. A. Eberhart; Atlanta: SBL, 2011) 83–97, at 93; emphasis original). However, repetition of sacrifice is not the problem but a symptom, as God's not taking pleasure in a sacrifice concerns its quality, acceptability and efficacy.

65 Van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 371.

66 Cockerill, Hebrews, 438; cf. Grässer, Hebräer, ii.218.

67 L. Kim, Polemic in the Book of Hebrews: Anti-Judaism, Anti-Semitism, Supersessionism? (PrThMS 64; Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2006) 185.

68 Cf. Schunack, Hebräerbrief, 139; Karrer, ‘LXX Psalm 39:7–10’, 128. If Hebrews changed the text from ‘you did not ask’ or ‘you did not command’ to ‘you did not desire’, then it becomes even more evident that the author wants to make it clear that God did require, ask and command these sacrifices (even if he does not ultimately will or desire them).

69 Van der Bergh, ‘Hebrews 10:5b–7’, 371; similarly Rascher, Schriftauslegung, 186; Lane, Hebrews, ii.263; Ellingworth, Hebrews, 501.

70 Koester, Hebrews, 438 (emphasis original).

71 Ribbens, Levitical Sacrifice, 149–63.

72 Weiss, Hebräer, 500–1; Grässer, Hebräer, ii.207.

73 For a discussion of whether to understand σκιάν in 10.1 in a Platonic or mystical–apocalyptic manner, see Ribbens, Levitical Sacrifice, 89–99, 184–9.

74 Cf. Attridge, Hebrews, 275; Lane, Hebrews, ii.263; Koester, Hebrews, 433; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 295; Cockerill, Hebrews, 438.

75 Lane, Hebrews, ii.262; Koester, Hebrews, 439; Mackie, Eschatology, 123; Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 977; Svendsen, Allegory Transformed, 183; Bertolet, ‘Obedience of Sonship’, 388–90.

76 For the mystical–apocalyptic background (and not Platonic/Philonic background) of the heavenly sanctuary in 8.1–6, see Ribbens, Levitical Sacrifice, 102–13.

77 Cf. Svendsen, Allegory Transformed, 182, 193.

78 Wis 9.8; LAB 11.15; Liv. Pro. 3.15; 2 Bar. 4.2–7; 59.4; 1 En. 14.8–25; T. Levi 3; cf. Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice. See Ribbens, Levitical Sacrifice, 52–81.

79 Esp. Exod 30.10; Lev 4.20, 26, 31, 35; 5.6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 6.7, 30; 7.7; 10.17; 14.19–20, 31; 15.15, 30; 19.22; Num 5.8; 6.11; 8.12, 19, 21; 15.25, 28; 17.11, 12; 28.22, 30; 29.5, 11; 2 Macc 12.45; Sir 28.5; 45.16; Jub 6.2, 14; 7.3; 16.22; 34.18; 50.11; Sib. Or. 3.624–9; T. Job 42.5–8; 43.4, 17; cf. Josephus, Ant. 3.238, 241, 246, 247; 7.333; 13.230.

80 Ribbens, Levitical Sacrifice, 149–63.

81 2 Cor 1.20. Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 978; idem, ‘Time and Atonement’, 224–7.

82 Weiss, Hebräer, 508; Lane, Hebrews, ii.262, 265, 270; Grässer, Hebräer, ii.216, 218; Koester, Hebrews, 439–40; Guthrie, ‘Hebrews’, 978; Rascher, Schriftauslegung, 186–7; Gheorghita, Septuagint, 49; Gäbel, Kulttheologie, 191–2; Mackie, Eschatology, 123, 170; Steyn, LXX Vorlage, 295.

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