Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-8cclj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-04-01T06:18:52.734Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Multicultural Clientelism and Alevi Resurgence in the Turkish Diaspora: Berlin Alevis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 July 2015

Ayhan Kaya*
Department of International Relations, Marmara University


This paper will concentrate primarily on the current Alevi resurgence in Berlin. While exposing the principal driving forces behind the resurgence of Alevism, three crucial aspects will be underlined. Firstly, it will be argued that Alevi resurgence in Berlin partly derives from the institutional structure of Berlin, which has “minoritised” and ethnicised Alevis in time through Ausländergesetz (Foreigners’ Law) and an ideology of multiculturalism. Secondly, it will be claimed that this ethnic revival leading to the construction of a community discourse among Alevis also springs from Alevis’ attempt to speak from the margin in a way that could reverberate more in the public sphere. Finally, the radicalising momentum, which Alevi revivalism in the diaspora context has recently gained, will be touched upon in relation to Sivas and Gazi Mahallesi incidences in Turkey.

Copyright © New Perspectives on Turkey 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abadan-Unat, N. 1988. “The Socio-Economic Aspects of Return Migration in Turkey,Migration, 3, pp. 2959.Google Scholar
Ålund, A. 1996. “Multiethnic Sweden: Youth in a Stockholm Suburb,Migration Papers, No.7. Esbjerg: South Jutland University Press.Google Scholar
Ålund, A. and Schierup, C. U.. 1991. Paradoxes of Multiculturalism: Essays on Swedish Society. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
Barth, F. (ed.). 1969. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Construction of Cultural Difference. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
Bottomley, G. 1987. “Cultures, Multiculturalism and the Politics of Representation,Journal of Intercultural Studies, 2, pp. 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P. 1993. Sociology in Question. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Brandt, B. 1996. “The Politics of Exclusion: The German Concept of Citizenship,Migration, p. 37.Google Scholar
Brubaker, R. 1992. Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, M. V. 1996a. “Aslını inkar eden haramzadedir,Birikim, 88, August, pp. 3851.Google Scholar
Bruinessen, M. V. 1996b. “Kurds, Turks and the Alevi Revival in Turkey,Middle East Report, Summer, pp. 710.Google Scholar
Çağlar, A. 1994. German Turks in Berlin: Migration and Their Quest for Social Mobility. PhD. Thesis. Montréal. Department of Anthropology. McGill University.Google Scholar
Castles, S. 1985. “The Guests Who Stayed - The Debate on ‘Foreigners Policy’ in the German Federal Republic,International Migration Review, XIX (3), pp. 517534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eco, U. 1986. Travels in Hyperreality. London: Picador.Google Scholar
Foucault, M. 1979. “Governmentality,Ideology and Consciousness, 6, pp. 521.Google Scholar
Gilroy, P. 1987. There Ain’t no Black in the Union Jack. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
Greve, M. and Çınar, T.. 1997. Das Türkische Berlin. Berlin: Die Ausländerbeauftragte des Senats.Google Scholar
Hall, S. 1994. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora,” in Williams, P. and Chrisman, L. (eds.), Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Heitmeyer, al. 1997. Verlockender Fundamentalismus. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.Google Scholar
Ireland, P.R. 1994. The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaya, A. 1997. Constructing Diasporas: Turkish Hip-Hop Youth in Berlin. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Coventry: University of Warwick, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations.Google Scholar
Klusmeyer, D. B. 1993. “Aliens, Immigrants, and Citizens: The Politics of Inclusion in the Federal Republic of Germany,Daedalus, 122 (3) Summer, pp. 81114.Google Scholar
Mandel, R. 1990. “Shifting Centres and Emergent Identities: Turkey and Germany in the Lives of Turkish Gastarbeiter,” in Eickelman, D.F. and Piscatori, J. (eds.), Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination. London: Routledge, pp. 153-171.Google Scholar
Mandel, R. 1996. “A Place of Their Own: Contesting Spaces and Defining Places in Berlin’s Migrant Community,” in Metcalf, B.D. (ed.), Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Marcuse, P. 1996. “Of Walls and Immigrant Enclaves,” in Carmon, N. (ed.), Immigration and Integration in Post-Industrial Societies. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Marshall, B. 1992. “Migration into Germany: Asylum Seekers and Ethnic Germans,German Politics, 1 (1) April, pp. 124134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, T.H. 1950. Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Melucci, A. 1989. Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society. London: Hutchinson Radius.Google Scholar
Meseth, C. 1996. Daily Taz (Friday, 20 September).Google Scholar
Parekh, B. and Bhabha, H.. 1989. ‘Identities on Parade,Marxism Today, June, pp. 2429.Google Scholar
Radtke, F. O. 1994. “The Formation of Ethnic Minorities and the Transformation of Social into Ethnic Conflicts in a So-called Multicultural Society: The case of Germany,” in Rex, J. and Drury, B. (eds.), Ethnic Mobilisation in a Multi-Cultural Europe. Hampshire: Avebury.Google Scholar
Rex, J. 1986. “The Concept of a Multicultural Society,Coventry: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick, Occasional Papers in Ethnic Relations, No.3.Google Scholar
Rosaldo, R. 1989. Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Russon, J. 1995. “Heidegger, Hegel, and Ethnicity: The Ritual Basis of Self-Identity,The Southern Journal of Philosophy, XXXIII, pp. 509532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schierup, CU. 1994. “Multi-culturalism and Ethnic Mobilisation: Some Theoretical Considerations,” in Rex, J. and Drury, B. (eds.), Ethnic Mobilisation in a Multi-Cultural Europe. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
Schwartz, T. 1992. “The Turkish Community Berlin: Youth Cultures in the System of the German Welfare System,” in Pamfren, al. (eds.), Ethnicity in Youth Culture. University of Stockholm Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. 1994. “The Politics of Recognition,” in Gutmann, A. (ed.), Multiculturalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Touraine, A. 1977. The Self-Production of Society. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Vertovec, S. 1996. “Berlin Multikulti: Germany, ‘Foreigners’ and ‘World-openness,New Community, 22 (3), pp. 381389.Google Scholar
Zaimoğlu, F. 1995. Kanak Sprak: 24 Misstöne vom Rande Gesellschaft. Hamburg: Rotbuch Verlag.Google Scholar