The taxonomy of the non-yellow species of the genus Rhizocarpon (Rhizocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) occurring in the Nordic countries, with hyaline and muriform ascospores, has been revised. Rhizocarpon amphibium, R. anaperum, R. distinctum, R. furfurosum, R. lavatum, R. petraeum, R. postumum, R. reductum, R. roridulum, R. rubescens, R. subgeminatum, R. sublavatum (reported from the study area for the first time), R. subpostumum, R. suomiense, R. timdalii, and R. umbilicatum are recognized. Their morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, ecology, and distribution in the Nordic countries are investigated and discussed. Distribution maps and a key to the species are provided. The most important characters for separating the treated species are pruinose/epruinose thallus, number of ascospores in asci, ascospore size and number of cells per ascospore in optical view, insoluble lichen pigments of the epihymenium and the proper excipulum, and lichen substances. Seven names are lectotypified and two are neotypified.