Micro-indentation test at scales on the order of sub-micron has shown that the measured hardness increases strongly with decreasing indent depth or indent size, which is frequently referred to as the size effect. Simultaneously, at micron or sub-micron scale, the material microstructure size also has an important influence on the measured hardness. This kind of effect, such as the crystal grain size effect, thin film thickness effect, etc., is called the geometrical effect. In the present research, in order to investigate the size effect and the geometrical effect, the micro-indentation experiments are carried out respectively for single crystal copper and aluminum, for polycrystal aluminum, as well as for a thin film/substrate system, Ti/Si3N4. The size effect and geometrical effect are displayed experimentally. Moreover, using strain gradient plasticity theory, the size effect and the geometrical effect are simulated. Through comparing experimental results with simulation results, the length-scale parameter appearing in the strain gradient theory for different cases is predicted. Furthermore, the size effect and the geometrical effect are interpreted using the geometrically necessary dislocation concept and the discrete dislocation theory.