Recently, various nanoscale materials, devices, and systems with remarkable properties have been developed, with numerous unique applications in chem.-bio sensors, nanophotonics, and nanobiotechnology. This presentation covers satellite and aerial remote sensing science and methodologies employing nanotechnology based advanced sensor systems to improve performance, resolutions, and security. Increased demand on monitoring, surveillance due to global war on terrorism, weather prediction, and environmental pollution detection and monitoring have necessitated geospatial sensing with high accuracy, speed, and authenticity. Plasmonic interactions on the nanoscale and nanophotonics have produced new phenomena and technologies surpassing the realms of possibilities with conventional photonics and electronics. These new technologies could include high spatial resolution near-field imaging, high efficiency information processing and transferring, high capacity optical data storage, flexible- and high contrast displays, and precise detection, control and manipulation of nanoscale devices and integrated systems. Elements utilizing refractive or diffractive surfaces have found applications in novel sub-wavelength nanostructures satellites. The nanophotonics structures coupled with lightweight structures and advanced nanotechnology based sensors have resulted in launching of nano-satellites by several countries. The use of nanophotonics in space through the combination of micro, nano, integrated and fibre-optic technologies is to reduce susceptibility of the system to EMI, reduction in the weight of the signal cables (< 1/20 of electrical), higher information transmission capacity (GHz), reduced weight and volume, opto-isolation of critical spacecraft subsystems, high speed optical processing of RF and microwave signals, low propagation loss, and enhanced security encryption capabilities. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) based field emission electron gun (FEG) employ low voltage for emission and are actively researched as cold cathode microwave generation devices. CNTs based composites provide light-weight and compact platform with mechanical and thermal robustness. Such satellite system can be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) to medium Earth orbit (MEO) as multi-sensor satellite imagers with panchromatic, multi-spectral, area and hyper spectral sensors on a single focal plane array (FPA), to achieve medium to high resolution (2.5m to 15m) spatial sampling, wide swaths (up to 45km) and noise equivalent reflectance (NER) values of less than 0.5%. An evaluation of security risks, vulnerability, and strategies is presented for communications technologies used in gathering, processing, storing, and disseminating global environmental micro and nano sensors and satellite data.